vim-jp / vimdoc-en / tagsrch

tagsrch - Vim Documentation

Return to main English | 日本語
tagsrch.txt   For Vim version 9.1.  Last change: 2024 Mar 16

                  VIM REFERENCE MANUAL    by Bram Moolenaar

Tags and special searches                               tags-and-searches

See section 29.1 of the user manual for an introduction.

1. Jump to a tag                tag-commands
2. Tag stack                    tag-stack
3. Tag match list               tag-matchlist
4. Tags details                 tag-details
5. Tags file format             tags-file-format
6. Include file searches        include-search
7. Using 'tagfunc'              tag-function

1. Jump to a tag                                        tag-commands

                                                        tag tags
A tag is an identifier that appears in a "tags" file.  It is a sort of label
that can be jumped to.  For example: In C programs each function name can be
used as a tag.  The "tags" file has to be generated by a program like ctags,
before the tag commands can be used.

With the ":tag" command the cursor will be positioned on the tag.  With the
CTRL-] command, the keyword on which the cursor is standing is used as the
tag.  If the cursor is not on a keyword, the first keyword to the right of the
cursor is used.

The ":tag" command works very well for C programs.  If you see a call to a
function and wonder what that function does, position the cursor inside of the
function name and hit CTRL-].  This will bring you to the function definition.
An easy way back is with the CTRL-T command.  Also read about the tag stack

                                                :ta :tag E426 E429
:[count]ta[g][!] {name}
                        Jump to the definition of {name}, using the
                        information in the tags file(s).  Put {name} in the
                        tag stack.  See tag-! for [!].
                        {name} can be a regexp pattern, see tag-regexp.
                        When there are several matching tags for {name}, jump
                        to the [count] one.  When [count] is omitted the
                        first one is jumped to. See tag-matchlist for
                        jumping to other matching tags.

g<LeftMouse>                                            g<LeftMouse>
<C-LeftMouse>                                   <C-LeftMouse> CTRL-]
CTRL-]                  Jump to the definition of the keyword under the
                        cursor.  Same as ":tag {name}", where {name} is the
                        keyword under or after cursor.
                        When there are several matching tags for {name}, jump
                        to the [count] one.  When no [count] is given the
                        first one is jumped to. See tag-matchlist for
                        jumping to other matching tags.

{Visual}CTRL-]          Same as ":tag {name}", where {name} is the text that
                        is highlighted.

CTRL-] is the default telnet escape key.  When you type CTRL-] to jump to a
tag, you will get the telnet prompt instead.  Most versions of telnet allow
changing or disabling the default escape key.  See the telnet man page.  You
can 'telnet -E {Hostname}' to disable the escape character, or 'telnet -e
{EscapeCharacter} {Hostname}' to specify another escape character.  If
possible, try to use "ssh" instead of "telnet" to avoid this problem.

When there are multiple matches for a tag, this priority is used:
1. "FSC"  A full matching static tag for the current file.
2. "F C"  A full matching global tag for the current file.
3. "F  "  A full matching global tag for another file.
4. "FS "  A full matching static tag for another file.
5. " SC"  An ignore-case matching static tag for the current file.
6. "  C"  An ignore-case matching global tag for the current file.
7. "   "  An ignore-case matching global tag for another file.
8. " S "  An ignore-case matching static tag for another file.

Note that when the current file changes, the priority list is mostly not
changed, to avoid confusion when using ":tnext".  It is changed when using
":tag {name}".

The ignore-case matches are not found for a ":tag" command when:
'tagcase' is "followic" and the 'ignorecase' option is off
'tagcase' is "followscs" and the 'ignorecase' option is off and the
  'smartcase' option is off or the pattern contains an upper case character.
'tagcase' is "match"
'tagcase' is "smart" and the pattern contains an upper case character.

The ignore-case matches are found when:
- a pattern is used (starting with a "/")
- for ":tselect"
- when 'tagcase' is "followic" and 'ignorecase' is on
- when 'tagcase' is "followscs" and 'ignorecase' is on or the 'smartcase'
  option is on and the pattern does not contain an upper case character
- when 'tagcase' is "ignore"
- when 'tagcase' is "smart" and the pattern does not contain an upper case

Note that using ignore-case tag searching disables binary searching in the
tags file, which causes a slowdown.  This can be avoided by fold-case sorting
the tag file. See the 'tagbsearch' option for an explanation.

2. Tag stack                            tag-stack tagstack E425

On the tag stack is remembered which tags you jumped to, and from where.
Tags are only pushed onto the stack when the 'tagstack' option is set.

g<RightMouse>                                           g<RightMouse>
<C-RightMouse>                                  <C-RightMouse> CTRL-T
CTRL-T                  Jump to [count] older entry in the tag stack
                        (default 1).

                                                :po :pop E555 E556
:[count]po[p][!]        Jump to [count] older entry in tag stack (default 1).
                        See tag-! for [!].

:[count]ta[g][!]        Jump to [count] newer entry in tag stack (default 1).
                        See tag-! for [!].

:tags                   Show the contents of the tag stack.  The active
                        entry is marked with a '>'.

The output of ":tags" looks like this:

   # TO tag      FROM line  in file/text
   1  1 main             1  harddisk2:text/vim/test
 > 2  2 FuncA           58  i = FuncA(10);
   3  1 FuncC          357  harddisk2:text/vim/src/amiga.c

This list shows the tags that you jumped to and the cursor position before
that jump.  The older tags are at the top, the newer at the bottom.

The '>' points to the active entry.  This is the tag that will be used by the
next ":tag" command.  The CTRL-T and ":pop" command will use the position
above the active entry.

Below the "TO" is the number of the current match in the match list.  Note
that this doesn't change when using ":pop" or ":tag".

The line number and file name are remembered to be able to get back to where
you were before the tag command.  The line number will be correct, also when
deleting/inserting lines, unless this was done by another program (e.g.
another instance of Vim).

For the current file, the "file/text" column shows the text at the position.
An indent is removed and a long line is truncated to fit in the window.

You can jump to previously used tags with several commands.  Some examples:

        ":pop" or CTRL-T        to position before previous tag
        {count}CTRL-T           to position before {count} older tag
        ":tag"                  to newer tag
        ":0tag"                 to last used tag

The most obvious way to use this is while browsing through the call graph of
a program.  Consider the following call graph:

        main  --->  FuncA  --->  FuncC
              --->  FuncB

(Explanation: main calls FuncA and FuncB; FuncA calls FuncC).
You can get from main to FuncA by using CTRL-] on the call to FuncA.  Then
you can CTRL-] to get to FuncC.  If you now want to go back to main you can
use CTRL-T twice.  Then you can CTRL-] to FuncB.

If you issue a ":ta {name}" or CTRL-] command, this tag is inserted at the
current position in the stack.  If the stack was full (it can hold up to 20
entries), the oldest entry is deleted and the older entries shift one
position up (their index number is decremented by one).  If the last used
entry was not at the bottom, the entries below the last used one are
deleted.  This means that an old branch in the call graph is lost.  After the
commands explained above the tag stack will look like this:

   # TO tag     FROM line  in file/text
   1  1 main            1  harddisk2:text/vim/test
   2  1 FuncB          59  harddisk2:text/vim/src/main.c

The gettagstack() function returns the tag stack of a specified window. The
settagstack() function modifies the tag stack of a window.

Write to the tag stack just like :tag but with a user-defined
jumper#jump_to_tag function:
        " Store where we're jumping from before we jump.
        let tag = expand('<cword>')
        let pos = [bufnr()] + getcurpos()[1:]
        let item = {'bufnr': pos[0], 'from': pos, 'tagname': tag}
        if jumper#jump_to_tag(tag)
                " Jump was successful, write previous location to tag stack.
                let winid = win_getid()
                let stack = gettagstack(winid)
                let stack['items'] = [item]
                call settagstack(winid, stack, 't')

Set current index of the tag stack to 4:
        call settagstack(1005, {'curidx' : 4})

Push a new item onto the tag stack:
        let pos = [bufnr('myfile.txt'), 10, 1, 0]
        let newtag = [{'tagname' : 'mytag', 'from' : pos}]
        call settagstack(2, {'items' : newtag}, 'a')

When you try to use the tag stack while it doesn't contain anything you will
get an error message.

3. Tag match list                               tag-matchlist E427 E428

When there are several matching tags, these commands can be used to jump
between them.  Note that these commands don't change the tag stack, they keep
the same entry.

                                                        :ts :tselect
:ts[elect][!] [name]    List the tags that match [name], using the
                        information in the tags file(s).
                        When [name] is not given, the last tag name from the
                        tag stack is used.
                        See tag-! for [!].
                        With a '>' in the first column is indicated which is
                        the current position in the list (if there is one).
                        [name] can be a regexp pattern, see tag-regexp.
                        See tag-priority for the priorities used in the
                        Example output:

          # pri kind tag                file
          1 F   f    mch_delay          os_amiga.c
                        mch_delay(msec, ignoreinput)
        > 2 F   f    mch_delay          os_msdos.c
                        mch_delay(msec, ignoreinput)
          3 F   f    mch_delay          os_unix.c
                        mch_delay(msec, ignoreinput)
        Type number and <Enter> (empty cancels):

                        See tag-priority for the "pri" column.  Note that
                        this depends on the current file, thus using
                        ":tselect xxx" can produce different results.
                        The "kind" column gives the kind of tag, if this was
                        included in the tags file.
                        The "info" column shows information that could be
                        found in the tags file.  It depends on the program
                        that produced the tags file.
                        When the list is long, you may get the more-prompt.
                        If you already see the tag you want to use, you can
                        type 'q' and enter the number.

                                                        :sts :stselect
:sts[elect][!] [name]   Does ":tselect[!] [name]" and splits the window for
                        the selected tag.

g]                      Like CTRL-], but use ":tselect" instead of ":tag".

{Visual}g]              Same as "g]", but use the highlighted text as the

                                                        :tj :tjump
:tj[ump][!] [name]      Like ":tselect", but jump to the tag directly when
                        there is only one match.

                                                        :stj :stjump
:stj[ump][!] [name]     Does ":tjump[!] [name]" and splits the window for the
                        selected tag.

CTRL-]                Like CTRL-], but use ":tjump" instead of ":tag".

{Visual}CTRL-]        Same as "g CTRL-]", but use the highlighted text as
                        the identifier.

                                                        :tn :tnext
:[count]tn[ext][!]      Jump to [count] next matching tag (default 1).  See
                        tag-! for [!].

                                                        :tp :tprevious
:[count]tp[revious][!]  Jump to [count] previous matching tag (default 1).
                        See tag-! for [!].

                                                        :tN :tNext
:[count]tN[ext][!]      Same as ":tprevious".

                                                        :tr :trewind
:[count]tr[ewind][!]    Jump to first matching tag.  If [count] is given, jump
                        to [count]th matching tag.  See tag-! for [!].

                                                        :tf :tfirst
:[count]tf[irst][!]     Same as ":trewind".

                                                        :tl :tlast
:tl[ast][!]             Jump to last matching tag.  See tag-! for [!].

                                                        :lt :ltag
:lt[ag][!] [name]       Jump to tag [name] and add the matching tags to a new
                        location list for the current window.  [name] can be
                        a regexp pattern, see tag-regexp.  When [name] is
                        not given, the last tag name from the tag stack is
                        used.  The search pattern to locate the tag line is
                        prefixed with "\V" to escape all the special
                        characters (very nomagic). The location list showing
                        the matching tags is independent of the tag stack.
                        See tag-! for [!].

When there is no other message, Vim shows which matching tag has been jumped
to, and the number of matching tags:
        tag 1 of 3 or more
The " or more" is used to indicate that Vim didn't try all the tags files yet.
When using ":tnext" a few times, or with ":tlast", more matches may be found.

When you didn't see this message because of some other message, or you just
want to know where you are, this command will show it again (and jump to the
same tag as last time):

When a matching tag is found for which the file doesn't exist, this match is
skipped and the next matching tag is used.  Vim reports this, to notify you of
missing files.  When the end of the list of matches has been reached, an error
message is given.

The tag match list can also be used in the preview window.  The commands are
the same as above, with a "p" prepended.
{not available when compiled without the +quickfix feature}

                                                        :pts :ptselect
:pts[elect][!] [name]   Does ":tselect[!] [name]" and shows the new tag in a
                        "Preview" window.  See :ptag for more info.

                                                        :ptj :ptjump
:ptj[ump][!] [name]     Does ":tjump[!] [name]" and shows the new tag in a
                        "Preview" window.  See :ptag for more info.

                                                        :ptn :ptnext
:[count]ptn[ext][!]     ":tnext" in the preview window.  See :ptag.

                                                        :ptp :ptprevious
:[count]ptp[revious][!] ":tprevious" in the preview window.  See :ptag.

                                                        :ptN :ptNext
:[count]ptN[ext][!]     Same as ":ptprevious".

                                                        :ptr :ptrewind
:[count]ptr[ewind][!]   ":trewind" in the preview window.  See :ptag.

                                                        :ptf :ptfirst
:[count]ptf[irst][!]    Same as ":ptrewind".

                                                        :ptl :ptlast
:ptl[ast][!]            ":tlast" in the preview window.  See :ptag.

4. Tags details                                         tag-details

A static tag is a tag that is defined for a specific file.  In a C program
this could be a static function.

In Vi jumping to a tag sets the current search pattern.  This means that the
"n" command after jumping to a tag does not search for the same pattern that
it did before jumping to the tag.  Vim does not do this as we consider it to
be a bug.  If you really want the old Vi behavior, set the 't' flag in

Vim uses binary searching in the tags file to find the desired tag quickly
(when enabled at compile time +tag_binary).  But this only works if the
tags file was sorted on ASCII byte value.  Therefore, if no match was found,
another try is done with a linear search.  If you only want the linear search,
reset the 'tagbsearch' option.  Or better: Sort the tags file!

Note that the binary searching is disabled when not looking for a tag with a
specific name.  This happens when ignoring case and when a regular expression
is used that doesn't start with a fixed string.  Tag searching can be a lot
slower then.  The former can be avoided by case-fold sorting the tags file.
See 'tagbsearch' for details.

The ":tag" and ":tselect" commands accept a regular expression argument.  See
pattern for the special characters that can be used.
When the argument starts with '/', it is used as a pattern.  If the argument
does not start with '/', it is taken literally, as a full tag name.
    :tag main
        jumps to the tag "main" that has the highest priority.
    :tag /^get
        jumps to the tag that starts with "get" and has the highest priority.
    :tag /norm
        lists all the tags that contain "norm", including "id_norm".
When the argument both exists literally, and match when used as a regexp, a
literal match has a higher priority.  For example, ":tag /open" matches "open"
before "open_file" and "file_open".
When using a pattern case is ignored.  If you want to match case use "\C" in
the pattern.

If the tag is in the current file this will always work.  Otherwise the
performed actions depend on whether the current file was changed, whether a !
is added to the command and on the 'autowrite' and 'winfixbuf' options:

  tag in       file         winfixbuf   autowrite       
current file  changed   !   option      option        action
    yes         x       x      off        x         goto tag
    no          no      x      off        x         read other file, goto tag
    no          yes     yes    off        x         abandon current file,
                                                    read other file, goto tag
    no          yes     no     off        on        write current file,
                                                    read other file, goto tag
    no          yes     no     off        off       fail
    yes         x       yes    x          x         goto tag
    no          no      no     on         x         fail
    no          yes     no     on         x         fail
    no          yes     no     on         on        fail
    no          yes     no     on         off       fail

- If the tag is in the current file, the command will always work.
- If the tag is in another file and the current file was not changed, the
  other file will be made the current file and read into the buffer.
- If the tag is in another file, the current file was changed and a ! is
  added to the command, the changes to the current file are lost, the other
  file will be made the current file and read into the buffer.
- If the tag is in another file, the current file was changed and the
  'autowrite' option is on, the current file will be written, the other
  file will be made the current file and read into the buffer.
- If the tag is in another file, the current file was changed and the
  'autowrite' option is off, the command will fail.  If you want to save
  the changes, use the ":w" command and then use ":tag" without an argument.
  This works because the tag is put on the stack anyway.  If you want to lose
  the changes you can use the ":tag!" command.
- If the tag is in another file and the window includes 'winfixbuf', the
  command will fail. If the tag is in the same file then it may succeed.

Note that Vim forbids some commands, for security reasons.  This works like
using the 'secure' option for exrc/vimrc files in the current directory.  See
trojan-horse and sandbox.
When the {tagaddress} changes a buffer, you will get a warning message:
        "WARNING: tag command changed a buffer!!!"
In a future version changing the buffer will be impossible.  All this for
security reasons: Somebody might hide a nasty command in the tags file, which
would otherwise go unnoticed.  Example:

In Vi the ":tag" command sets the last search pattern when the tag is searched
for.  In Vim this is not done, the previous search pattern is still remembered,
unless the 't' flag is present in 'cpoptions'.

                                        emacs-tags emacs_tags E430
Emacs style tag files are only supported if Vim was compiled with the
+emacs_tags feature enabled.  Sorry, there is no explanation about Emacs tag
files here, it is only supported for backwards compatibility :-).

Lines in Emacs tags files can be very long.  Vim only deals with lines of up
to about 510 bytes.  To see whether lines are ignored set 'verbose' to 5 or
higher. Non-Emacs tags file lines can be any length.

The 'tags' option is a list of file names.  Each of these files is searched
for the tag.  This can be used to use a different tags file than the default
file "tags".  It can also be used to access a common tags file.

The next file in the list is not used when:
- A matching static tag for the current buffer has been found.
- A matching global tag has been found.
This also depends on whether case is ignored.  Case is ignored when:
'tagcase' is "followic" and 'ignorecase' is set
'tagcase' is "ignore"
'tagcase' is "smart" and the pattern only contains lower case
'tagcase' is "followscs" and 'smartcase' is set and the pattern only
  contains lower case characters.
If case is not ignored, and the tags file only has a match without matching
case, the next tags file is searched for a match with matching case.  If no
tag with matching case is found, the first match without matching case is
used.  If case is ignored, and a matching global tag with or without matching
case is found, this one is used, no further tags files are searched.

When a tag file name starts with "./", the '.' is replaced with the path of
the current file.  This makes it possible to use a tags file in the directory
where the current file is (no matter what the current directory is).  The idea
of using "./" is that you can define which tag file is searched first: In the
current directory ("tags,./tags") or in the directory of the current file

For example:
        :set tags=./tags,tags,/home/user/commontags

In this example the tag will first be searched for in the file "tags" in the
directory where the current file is.  Next the "tags" file in the current
directory.  If it is not found there, then the file "/home/user/commontags"
will be searched for the tag.

This can be switched off by including the 'd' flag in 'cpoptions', to make
it Vi compatible.  "./tags" will then be the tags file in the current
directory, instead of the tags file in the directory where the current file

Instead of the comma a space may be used.  Then a backslash is required for
the space to be included in the string option:
        :set tags=tags\ /home/user/commontags

To include a space in a file name use three backslashes.  To include a comma
in a file name use two backslashes.  For example, use:
        :set tags=tag\\\ file,/home/user/common\\,tags

for the files "tag file" and "/home/user/common,tags".  The 'tags' option will
have the value "tag\ file,/home/user/common\,tags".

If the 'tagrelative' option is on (which is the default) and using a tag file
in another directory, file names in that tag file are relative to the
directory where the tag file is.

5. Tags file format                             tags-file-format E431

                                                ctags jtags
A tags file can be created with an external command, for example "ctags".  It
will contain a tag for each function.  Some versions of "ctags" will also make
a tag for each "#defined" macro, typedefs, enums, etc.

Some programs that generate tags files:
ctags                   As found on most Unix systems.  Only supports C.  Only
                        does the basic work.
universal ctags         A maintained version of ctags based on exuberant
                        ctags. See
exuberant ctags         This is a very good one.  It works for C, C++, Java,
                        Fortran, Eiffel and others.  It can generate tags for
                        many items.  See
                        No new version since 2009.
etags                   Connected to Emacs.  Supports many languages.
JTags                   For Java, in Java.  It can be found at
                              For Python, in Python.  Found in your Python source
                        directory at Tools/scripts/
ptags                   For Perl, in Perl.  It can be found at (link seems
gnatxref                For Ada.  See  gnatxref is
                        part of the gnat package.

The lines in the tags file must have one of these two formats:

1.  {tagname}           {TAB} {tagfile} {TAB} {tagaddress}
2.  {tagname}           {TAB} {tagfile} {TAB} {tagaddress} {term} {field} ..

Previously an old format was supported, see tag-old-static.

The first format is a normal tag, which is completely compatible with Vi.  It
is the only format produced by traditional ctags implementations.  This is
often used for functions that are global, also referenced in other files.

The lines in the tags file can end in <NL> or <CR><NL>.  On the Macintosh <CR>
also works.  The <CR> and <NL> characters can never appear inside a line.

The second format is new.  It includes additional information in optional
fields at the end of each line.  It is backwards compatible with Vi.  It is
only supported by new versions of ctags (such as Universal ctags or Exuberant

{tagname}       The identifier.  Normally the name of a function, but it can
                be any identifier.  It cannot contain a <Tab>.
{TAB}           One <Tab> character.  Note: previous versions allowed any
                white space here.  This has been abandoned to allow spaces in
{tagfile}       The file that contains the definition of {tagname}.  It can
                have an absolute or relative path.  It may contain environment
                variables and wildcards (although the use of wildcards is
                doubtful).  It cannot contain a <Tab>.
{tagaddress}    The Ex command that positions the cursor on the tag.  It can
                be any Ex command, although restrictions apply (see
                tag-security).  Posix only allows line numbers and search
                commands, which are mostly used.
{term}          ;" The two characters semicolon and double quote.  This is
                interpreted by Vi as the start of a comment, which makes the
                following be ignored.  This is for backwards compatibility
                with Vi, it ignores the following fields. Example:
                        APP     file    /^static int APP;$/;"   v
                When {tagaddress} is not a line number or search pattern, then
                {term} must be |;".  Here the bar ends the command (excluding
                the bar) and ;" is used to have Vi ignore the rest of the
                line.  Example:
                        APP     file.c  call cursor(3, 4)|;"    v

{field} ..      A list of optional fields.  Each field has the form:


                The {fieldname} identifies the field, and can only contain
                alphabetical characters [a-zA-Z].
                The {value} is any string, but cannot contain a <Tab>.
                These characters are special:
                        "\t" stands for a <Tab>
                        "\r" stands for a <CR>
                        "\n" stands for a <NL>
                        "\\" stands for a single '\' character

                There is one field that doesn't have a ':'.  This is the kind
                of the tag.  It is handled like it was preceded with "kind:".
                See the documentation of ctags for the kinds it produces.

                The only other field currently recognized by Vim is "file:"
                (with an empty value).  It is used for a static tag.

The first lines in the tags file can contain lines that start with
These are sorted to the first lines, only rare tags that start with "!" can
sort to before them.  Vim recognizes two items.  The first one is the line
that indicates if the file was sorted.  When this line is found, Vim uses
binary searching for the tags file:

A tag file may be case-fold sorted to avoid a linear search when case is
ignored.  (Case is ignored when 'ignorecase' is set and 'tagcase' is
"followic", or when 'tagcase' is "ignore".)  See 'tagbsearch' for details.
The value '2' should be used then:

The other tag that Vim recognizes is the encoding of the tags file:
Here "utf-8" is the encoding used for the tags.  Vim will then convert the tag
being searched for from 'encoding' to the encoding of the tags file.  And when
listing tags the reverse happens.  When the conversion fails the unconverted
tag is used.

The command can be any Ex command, but often it is a search command.
        tag1    file1   /^main(argc, argv)/
        tag2    file2   108

The command is always executed with 'magic' not set.  The only special
characters in a search pattern are "^" (begin-of-line) and "$" (<EOL>).
See pattern.  Note that you must put a backslash before each backslash in
the search text.  This is for backwards compatibility with Vi.

                                                        E434 E435
If the command is a normal search command (it starts and ends with "/" or
"?"), some special handling is done:
- Searching starts on line 1 of the file.
  The direction of the search is forward for "/", backward for "?".
  Note that 'wrapscan' does not matter, the whole file is always searched.
- If the search fails, another try is done ignoring case.  If that fails too,
  a search is done for:
        "^tagname[ \t]*("
  (the tag with '^' prepended and "[ \t]*(" appended).  When using function
  names, this will find the function name when it is in column 0.  This will
  help when the arguments to the function have changed since the tags file was
  made.  If this search also fails another search is done with:
        "^[#a-zA-Z_].*\<tagname[ \t]*("
  This means: A line starting with '#' or an identifier and containing the tag
  followed by white space and a '('.  This will find macro names and function
  names with a type prepended.

Until March 2019 (patch 8.1.1092) an outdated format was supported:
    {tagfile}:{tagname} {TAB} {tagfile} {TAB} {tagaddress}

This format is for a static tag only.  It is obsolete now, replaced by
the second format.  It is only supported by Elvis 1.x, older Vim versions and
a few versions of ctags.  A static tag is often used for functions that are
local, only referenced in the file {tagfile}.  Note that for the static tag,
the two occurrences of {tagfile} must be exactly the same.  Also see
tags-option below, for how static tags are used.

The support was removed, since when you can update to the new Vim version you
should also be able to update ctags to one that supports the second format.

6. Include file searches                include-search definition-search
                                                        E387 E388 E389

These commands look for a string in the current file and in all encountered
included files (recursively).  This can be used to find the definition of a
variable, function or macro.  If you only want to search in the current
buffer, use the commands listed at pattern-searches.

These commands are not available when the +find_in_path feature was disabled
at compile time.

When a line is encountered that includes another file, that file is searched
before continuing in the current buffer.  Files included by included files are
also searched.  When an include file could not be found it is silently
ignored.  Use the :checkpath command to discover which files could not be
found, possibly your 'path' option is not set up correctly.  Note: the
included file is searched, not a buffer that may be editing that file.  Only
for the current file the lines in the buffer are used.

The string can be any keyword or a defined macro.  For the keyword any match
will be found.  For defined macros only lines that match with the 'define'
option will be found.  The default is "^#\s*define", which is for C programs.
For other languages you probably want to change this.  See 'define' for an
example for C++.  The string cannot contain an end-of-line, only matches
within a line are found.

When a match is found for a defined macro, the displaying of lines continues
with the next line when a line ends in a backslash.

The commands that start with "[" start searching from the start of the current
file.  The commands that start with "]" start at the current cursor position.

The 'include' option is used to define a line that includes another file.  The
default is "\^#\s*include", which is for C programs.  Note: Vim does not
recognize C syntax, if the 'include' option matches a line inside
"#ifdef/#endif" or inside a comment, it is searched anyway.  The 'isfname'
option is used to recognize the file name that comes after the matched

The 'path' option is used to find the directory for the include files that
do not have an absolute path.

The 'comments' option is used for the commands that display a single line or
jump to a line.  It defines patterns that may start a comment.  Those lines
are ignored for the search, unless [!] is used.  One exception: When the line
matches the pattern "^# *define" it is not considered to be a comment.

If you want to list matches, and then select one to jump to, you could use a
mapping to do that for you.  Here is an example:

  :map <F4> [I:let nr = input("Which one: ")<Bar>exe "normal " .. nr .. "[\t"<CR>

[i                      Display the first line that contains the keyword
                        under the cursor.  The search starts at the beginning
                        of the file.  Lines that look like a comment are
                        ignored (see 'comments' option).  If a count is given,
                        the count'th matching line is displayed, and comment
                        lines are not ignored.

]i                      like "[i", but start at the current cursor position.

                                                        :is :isearch
:[range]is[earch][!] [count] [/]pattern[/]
                        Like "[i"  and "]i", but search in [range] lines
                        (default: whole file).
                        See :search-args for [/] and [!].

[I                      Display all lines that contain the keyword under the
                        cursor.  Filenames and line numbers are displayed
                        for the found lines.  The search starts at the
                        beginning of the file.

]I                      like "[I", but start at the current cursor position.

                                                        :il :ilist
:[range]il[ist][!] [/]pattern[/]
                        Like "[I" and "]I", but search in [range] lines
                        (default: whole file).
                        See :search-args for [/] and [!].

CTRL-I                Jump to the first line that contains the keyword
                        under the cursor.  The search starts at the beginning
                        of the file.  Lines that look like a comment are
                        ignored (see 'comments' option).  If a count is given,
                        the count'th matching line is jumped to, and comment
                        lines are not ignored.

CTRL-I                like "[ CTRL-I", but start at the current cursor

                                                        :ij :ijump
:[range]ij[ump][!] [count] [/]pattern[/]
                        Like "[ CTRL-I"  and "] CTRL-I", but search in
                        [range] lines (default: whole file).
                        See :search-args for [/] and [!].

CTRL-W CTRL-I                                   CTRL-W_CTRL-I CTRL-W_i
CTRL-W i                Open a new window, with the cursor on the first line
                        that contains the keyword under the cursor.  The
                        search starts at the beginning of the file.  Lines
                        that look like a comment line are ignored (see
                        'comments' option).  If a count is given, the count'th
                        matching line is jumped to, and comment lines are not

                                                        :isp :isplit
:[range]isp[lit][!] [count] [/]pattern[/]
                        Like "CTRL-W i"  and "CTRL-W i", but search in
                        [range] lines (default: whole file).
                        See :search-args for [/] and [!].

[d                      Display the first macro definition that contains the
                        macro under the cursor.  The search starts from the
                        beginning of the file.  If a count is given, the
                        count'th matching line is displayed.

]d                      like "[d", but start at the current cursor position.

                                                        :ds :dsearch
:[range]ds[earch][!] [count] [/]string[/]
                        Like "[d"  and "]d", but search in [range] lines
                        (default: whole file).
                        See :search-args for [/] and [!].

[D                      Display all macro definitions that contain the macro
                        under the cursor.  Filenames and line numbers are
                        displayed for the found lines.  The search starts
                        from the beginning of the file.

]D                      like "[D", but start at the current cursor position.

                                                        :dli :dlist
:[range]dli[st][!] [/]string[/]
                        Like [D  and ]D, but search in [range] lines
                        (default: whole file).
                        See :search-args for [/] and [!].
                        Note that :dl works like :delete with the "l"
                        flag, not :dlist.

CTRL-D                Jump to the first macro definition that contains the
                        keyword under the cursor.  The search starts from
                        the beginning of the file.  If a count is given, the
                        count'th matching line is jumped to.

CTRL-D                like "[ CTRL-D", but start at the current cursor

                                                        :dj :djump
:[range]dj[ump][!] [count] [/]string[/]
                        Like "[ CTRL-D"  and "] CTRL-D", but search  in
                        [range] lines (default: whole file).
                        See :search-args for [/] and [!].

CTRL-W CTRL-D                                   CTRL-W_CTRL-D CTRL-W_d
CTRL-W d                Open a new window, with the cursor on the first
                        macro definition line that contains the keyword
                        under the cursor.  The search starts from the
                        beginning of the file.  If a count is given, the
                        count'th matching line is jumped to.

                                                        :dsp :dsplit
:[range]dsp[lit][!] [count] [/]string[/]
                        Like "CTRL-W d", but search in [range] lines
                        (default: whole file).
                        See :search-args for [/] and [!].

                                        :che :chec :check :checkpath
:che[ckpath]            List all the included files that could not be found.

:che[ckpath]!           List all the included files.

Common arguments for the commands above:
[!]     When included, find matches in lines that are recognized as comments.
        When excluded, a match is ignored when the line is recognized as a
        comment (according to 'comments'), or the match is in a C comment
        (after "//" or inside /* */).  Note that a match may be missed if a
        line is recognized as a comment, but the comment ends halfway the line.
        And if the line is a comment, but it is not recognized (according to
        'comments') a match may be found in it anyway.  Example:
                /* comment
                   foobar */
        A match for "foobar" is found, because this line is not recognized as
        a comment (even though syntax highlighting does recognize it).
        Note: Since a macro definition mostly doesn't look like a comment, the
        [!] makes no difference for ":dlist", ":dsearch" and ":djump".
[/]     A pattern can be surrounded by '/'.  Without '/' only whole words are
        matched, using the pattern "\<pattern\>".  Only after the second '/' a
        next command can be appended with '|'.  Example:
        :isearch /string/ | echo "the last one"
        For a ":djump", ":dsplit", ":dlist" and ":dsearch" command the pattern
        is used as a literal string, not as a search pattern.

7. Using 'tagfunc'                                              tag-function

It is possible to provide Vim with a function which will generate a list of
tags used for commands like :tag:tselect and Normal mode tag commands
like CTRL-].

The function used for generating the taglist is specified by setting the
'tagfunc' option.  The function will be called with three arguments:
   pattern      The tag identifier or pattern used during the tag search.
   flags        String containing flags to control the function behavior.
   info         Dict containing the following entries:
                    buf_ffname    Full filename which can be used for priority.
                    user_data     Custom data String, if stored in the tag
                                  stack previously by tagfunc.

Note that in a legacy function "a:" needs to be prepended to the argument name
when using it.

Currently up to three flags may be passed to the tag function:
  'c'           The function was invoked by a normal command being processed
                (mnemonic: the tag function may use the context around the
                cursor to perform a better job of generating the tag list.)
  'i'           In Insert mode, the user was completing a tag (with
                i_CTRL-X_CTRL-] or 'completeopt' contains t).
  'r'           The first argument to tagfunc should be interpreted as a
                pattern (see tag-regexp), such as when using:
                  :tag /pat
                It is also given when completing in insert mode.
                If this flag is not present, the argument is usually taken
                literally as the full tag name.

Note that when 'tagfunc' is set, the priority of the tags described in
tag-priority does not apply.  Instead, the priority is exactly as the
ordering of the elements in the list returned by the function.
The function should return a List of Dict entries.  Each Dict must at least
include the following entries and each value must be a string:
        name            Name of the tag.
        filename        Name of the file where the tag is defined.  It is
                        either relative to the current directory or a full path.
        cmd             Ex command used to locate the tag in the file.  This
                        can be either an Ex search pattern or a line number.
Note that the format is similar to that of taglist(), which makes it possible
to use its output to generate the result.
The following fields are optional:
        kind            Type of the tag.
        user_data       String of custom data stored in the tag stack which
                        can be used to disambiguate tags between operations.

If the function returns v:null instead of a List, a standard tag lookup will
be performed instead.

It is not allowed to change the tagstack from inside 'tagfunc'.  E986
It is not allowed to close a window or change window from inside 'tagfunc'.

The following is a hypothetical example of a function used for 'tagfunc'.  It
uses the output of taglist() to generate the result: a list of tags in the
inverse order of file names.

        function TagFunc(pattern, flags, info)
          function CompareFilenames(item1, item2)
            let f1 = a:item1['filename']
            let f2 = a:item2['filename']
            return f1 >=# f2 ?
                        \ -1 : f1 <=# f2 ? 1 : 0

          let result = taglist(a:pattern)
          call sort(result, "CompareFilenames")

          return result
        set tagfunc=TagFunc