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eval.txt      For Vim version 8.2.  Last change: 2021 Jul 28

                  VIM REFERENCE MANUAL    by Bram Moolenaar

Expression evaluation                   expression expr E15 eval

Using expressions is introduced in chapter 41 of the user manual usr_41.txt.

Note: Expression evaluation can be disabled at compile time.  If this has been
done, the features in this document are not available.  See +eval and

This file is about the backwards compatible Vim script.  For Vim9 script,
which executes much faster, supports type checking and much more, see

1.  Variables                   variables
    1.1 Variable types
    1.2 Function references             Funcref
    1.3 Lists                           Lists
    1.4 Dictionaries                    Dictionaries
    1.5 Blobs                           Blobs
    1.6 More about variables            more-variables
2.  Expression syntax           expression-syntax
3.  Internal variable           internal-variables
4.  Builtin Functions           functions
5.  Defining functions          user-functions
6.  Curly braces names          curly-braces-names
7.  Commands                    expression-commands
8.  Exception handling          exception-handling
9.  Examples                    eval-examples
10. Vim script version          vimscript-version
11. No +eval feature            no-eval-feature
12. The sandbox                 eval-sandbox
13. Textlock                    textlock

Testing support is documented in testing.txt.
Profiling is documented at profiling.

1. Variables                                            variables

1.1 Variable types
                                                E712 E896 E897 E899
There are ten types of variables:

                                                        Number Integer
Number          A 32 or 64 bit signed number.  expr-number
                The number of bits is available in v:numbersize.
                Examples:  -123  0x10  0177  0o177 0b1011

Float           A floating point number. floating-point-format Float
                {only when compiled with the +float feature}
                Examples: 123.456  1.15e-6  -1.1e3

String          A NUL terminated string of 8-bit unsigned characters (bytes).
                expr-string Examples: "ab\txx\"--"  'x-z''a,c'

List            An ordered sequence of items, see List for details.
                Example: [1, 2, ['a', 'b']]

Dictionary      An associative, unordered array: Each entry has a key and a
                value. Dictionary
                        {'blue': "#0000ff", 'red': "#ff0000"}
                        #{blue: "#0000ff", red: "#ff0000"}

Funcref         A reference to a function Funcref.
                Example: function("strlen")
                It can be bound to a dictionary and arguments, it then works
                like a Partial.
                Example: function("Callback", [arg], myDict)

Special         v:falsev:truev:none and v:null.  Special

Job             Used for a job, see job_start()Job Jobs

Channel         Used for a channel, see ch_open()Channel Channels

Blob            Binary Large Object. Stores any sequence of bytes.  See Blob
                for details
                Example: 0zFF00ED015DAF
                0z is an empty Blob.

The Number and String types are converted automatically, depending on how they
are used.

Conversion from a Number to a String is by making the ASCII representation of
the Number.  Examples:
        Number 123      -->     String "123"
        Number 0        -->     String "0"
        Number -1       -->     String "-1"
Conversion from a String to a Number only happens in legacy Vim script, not in
Vim9 script.  It is done by converting the first digits to a number.
Hexadecimal "0xf9", Octal "017" or "0o17", and Binary "0b10"
numbers are recognized
NOTE: when using scriptversion-4 octal with a leading "0" is not recognized.
The 0o notation requires patch 8.2.0886.
If the String doesn't start with digits, the result is zero.
        String "456"    -->     Number 456
        String "6bar"   -->     Number 6
        String "foo"    -->     Number 0
        String "0xf1"   -->     Number 241
        String "0100"   -->     Number 64
        String "0o100"  -->     Number 64
        String "0b101"  -->     Number 5
        String "-8"     -->     Number -8
        String "+8"     -->     Number 0

To force conversion from String to Number, add zero to it:
        :echo "0100" + 0

To avoid a leading zero to cause octal conversion, or for using a different
base, use str2nr().

                                                TRUE FALSE Boolean
For boolean operators Numbers are used.  Zero is FALSE, non-zero is TRUE.
You can also use v:false and v:true.  In Vim9 script false and true.
When TRUE is returned from a function it is the Number one, FALSE is the
number zero.

Note that in the command:
        :if "foo"
        :" NOT executed
"foo" is converted to 0, which means FALSE.  If the string starts with a
non-zero number it means TRUE:
        :if "8foo"
        :" executed
To test for a non-empty string, use empty():
        :if !empty("foo")

                                                falsy truthy
An expression can be used as a condition, ignoring the type and only using
whether the value is "sort of true" or "sort of false".  Falsy is:
        the number zero
        empty string, blob, list or dictionary
Other values are truthy.  Examples:
        0       falsy
        1       truthy
        -1      truthy
        0.0     falsy
        0.1     truthy
        ''      falsy
        'x'     truthy
        []      falsy
        [0]     truthy
        {}      falsy
        #{x: 1} truthy
        0z      falsy
        0z00    truthy

Function arguments often behave slightly different from TRUE: If the
argument is present and it evaluates to a non-zero Number, v:true or a
non-empty String, then the value is considered to be TRUE.
Note that " " and "0" are also non-empty strings, thus considered to be TRUE.
A List, Dictionary or Float is not a Number or String, thus evaluate to FALSE.

                E745 E728 E703 E729 E730 E731 E908 E910 E913
                E974 E975 E976
ListDictionaryFuncrefJobChannel and Blob types are not
automatically converted.

                                                        E805 E806 E808
When mixing Number and Float the Number is converted to Float.  Otherwise
there is no automatic conversion of Float.  You can use str2float() for String
to Float, printf() for Float to String and float2nr() for Float to Number.

                        E891 E892 E893 E894 E907 E911 E914
When expecting a Float a Number can also be used, but nothing else.

You will not get an error if you try to change the type of a variable.

1.2 Function references
                                                Funcref E695 E718
A Funcref variable is obtained with the function() function, the funcref()
function or created with the lambda expression expr-lambda.  It can be used
in an expression in the place of a function name, before the parenthesis
around the arguments, to invoke the function it refers to.  Example:

        :let Fn = function("MyFunc")
        :echo Fn()
                                                        E704 E705 E707
A Funcref variable must start with a capital, "s:", "w:", "t:" or "b:".  You
can use "g:" but the following name must still start with a capital.  You
cannot have both a Funcref variable and a function with the same name.

A special case is defining a function and directly assigning its Funcref to a
Dictionary entry.  Example:
        :function dict.init() dict
        :   let self.val = 0

The key of the Dictionary can start with a lower case letter.  The actual
function name is not used here.  Also see numbered-function.

A Funcref can also be used with the :call command:
        :call Fn()
        :call dict.init()

The name of the referenced function can be obtained with string().
        :let func = string(Fn)

You can use call() to invoke a Funcref and use a list variable for the
        :let r = call(Fn, mylist)

A Funcref optionally binds a Dictionary and/or arguments.  This is also called
a Partial.  This is created by passing the Dictionary and/or arguments to
function() or funcref().  When calling the function the Dictionary and/or
arguments will be passed to the function.  Example:

        let Cb = function('Callback', ['foo'], myDict)
        call Cb('bar')

This will invoke the function as if using:
        call myDict.Callback('foo', 'bar')

This is very useful when passing a function around, e.g. in the arguments of

Note that binding a function to a Dictionary also happens when the function is
a member of the Dictionary:

        let myDict.myFunction = MyFunction
        call myDict.myFunction()

Here MyFunction() will get myDict passed as "self".  This happens when the
"myFunction" member is accessed.  When making assigning "myFunction" to
otherDict and calling it, it will be bound to otherDict:

        let otherDict.myFunction = myDict.myFunction
        call otherDict.myFunction()

Now "self" will be "otherDict".  But when the dictionary was bound explicitly
this won't happen:

        let myDict.myFunction = function(MyFunction, myDict)
        let otherDict.myFunction = myDict.myFunction
        call otherDict.myFunction()

Here "self" will be "myDict", because it was bound explicitly.

1.3 Lists
                                                list List Lists E686
A List is an ordered sequence of items.  An item can be of any type.  Items
can be accessed by their index number.  Items can be added and removed at any
position in the sequence.

List creation
                                                        E696 E697
A List is created with a comma separated list of items in square brackets.
        :let mylist = [1, two, 3, "four"]
        :let emptylist = []

An item can be any expression.  Using a List for an item creates a
List of Lists:
        :let nestlist = [[11, 12], [21, 22], [31, 32]]

An extra comma after the last item is ignored.

List index
                                                        list-index E684
An item in the List can be accessed by putting the index in square brackets
after the List.  Indexes are zero-based, thus the first item has index zero.
        :let item = mylist[0]           " get the first item: 1
        :let item = mylist[2]           " get the third item: 3

When the resulting item is a list this can be repeated:
        :let item = nestlist[0][1]      " get the first list, second item: 12

A negative index is counted from the end.  Index -1 refers to the last item in
the List, -2 to the last but one item, etc.
        :let last = mylist[-1]          " get the last item: "four"

To avoid an error for an invalid index use the get() function.  When an item
is not available it returns zero or the default value you specify:
        :echo get(mylist, idx)
        :echo get(mylist, idx, "NONE")

List concatenation
Two lists can be concatenated with the "+" operator:
        :let longlist = mylist + [5, 6]
        :let mylist += [7, 8]

To prepend or append an item, turn the item into a list by putting [] around
it.  To change a list in-place, refer to list-modification below.

A part of the List can be obtained by specifying the first and last index,
separated by a colon in square brackets:
        :let shortlist = mylist[2:-1]   " get List [3, "four"]

Omitting the first index is similar to zero.  Omitting the last index is
similar to -1.
        :let endlist = mylist[2:]       " from item 2 to the end: [3, "four"]
        :let shortlist = mylist[2:2]    " List with one item: [3]
        :let otherlist = mylist[:]      " make a copy of the List

Notice that the last index is inclusive.  If you prefer using an exclusive
index use the slice() method.

If the first index is beyond the last item of the List or the second item is
before the first item, the result is an empty list.  There is no error

If the second index is equal to or greater than the length of the list the
length minus one is used:
        :let mylist = [0, 1, 2, 3]
        :echo mylist[2:8]               " result: [2, 3]

NOTE: mylist[s:e] means using the variable "s:e" as index.  Watch out for
using a single letter variable before the ":".  Insert a space when needed:
mylist[s : e].

List identity
When variable "aa" is a list and you assign it to another variable "bb", both
variables refer to the same list.  Thus changing the list "aa" will also
change "bb":
        :let aa = [1, 2, 3]
        :let bb = aa
        :call add(aa, 4)
        :echo bb
        [1, 2, 3, 4]

Making a copy of a list is done with the copy() function.  Using [:] also
works, as explained above.  This creates a shallow copy of the list: Changing
a list item in the list will also change the item in the copied list:
        :let aa = [[1, 'a'], 2, 3]
        :let bb = copy(aa)
        :call add(aa, 4)
        :let aa[0][1] = 'aaa'
        :echo aa
        [[1, aaa], 2, 3, 4]
        :echo bb
        [[1, aaa], 2, 3]

To make a completely independent list use deepcopy().  This also makes a
copy of the values in the list, recursively.  Up to a hundred levels deep.

The operator "is" can be used to check if two variables refer to the same
List.  "isnot" does the opposite.  In contrast "==" compares if two lists have
the same value.
        :let alist = [1, 2, 3]
        :let blist = [1, 2, 3]
        :echo alist is blist
        :echo alist == blist

Note about comparing lists: Two lists are considered equal if they have the
same length and all items compare equal, as with using "==".  There is one
exception: When comparing a number with a string they are considered
different.  There is no automatic type conversion, as with using "==" on
variables.  Example:
        echo 4 == "4"
        echo [4] == ["4"]

Thus comparing Lists is more strict than comparing numbers and strings.  You
can compare simple values this way too by putting them in a list:

        :let a = 5
        :let b = "5"
        :echo a == b
        :echo [a] == [b]

List unpack

To unpack the items in a list to individual variables, put the variables in
square brackets, like list items:
        :let [var1, var2] = mylist

When the number of variables does not match the number of items in the list
this produces an error.  To handle any extra items from the list append ";"
and a variable name:
        :let [var1, var2; rest] = mylist

This works like:
        :let var1 = mylist[0]
        :let var2 = mylist[1]
        :let rest = mylist[2:]

Except that there is no error if there are only two items.  "rest" will be an
empty list then.

List modification
To change a specific item of a list use :let this way:
        :let list[4] = "four"
        :let listlist[0][3] = item

To change part of a list you can specify the first and last item to be
modified.  The value must at least have the number of items in the range:
        :let list[3:5] = [3, 4, 5]

Adding and removing items from a list is done with functions.  Here are a few
        :call insert(list, 'a')         " prepend item 'a'
        :call insert(list, 'a', 3)      " insert item 'a' before list[3]
        :call add(list, "new")          " append String item
        :call add(list, [1, 2])         " append a List as one new item
        :call extend(list, [1, 2])      " extend the list with two more items
        :let i = remove(list, 3)        " remove item 3
        :unlet list[3]                  " idem
        :let l = remove(list, 3, -1)    " remove items 3 to last item
        :unlet list[3 : ]               " idem
        :call filter(list, 'v:val !~ "x"')  " remove items with an 'x'

Changing the order of items in a list:
        :call sort(list)                " sort a list alphabetically
        :call reverse(list)             " reverse the order of items
        :call uniq(sort(list))          " sort and remove duplicates

For loop

The :for loop executes commands for each item in a List, String or Blob.
A variable is set to each item in sequence.  Example with a List:
        :for item in mylist
        :   call Doit(item)

This works like:
        :let index = 0
        :while index < len(mylist)
        :   let item = mylist[index]
        :   :call Doit(item)
        :   let index = index + 1

If all you want to do is modify each item in the list then the map()
function will be a simpler method than a for loop.

Just like the :let command, :for also accepts a list of variables.  This
requires the argument to be a List of Lists.
        :for [lnum, col] in [[1, 3], [2, 8], [3, 0]]
        :   call Doit(lnum, col)

This works like a :let command is done for each list item.  Again, the types
must remain the same to avoid an error.

It is also possible to put remaining items in a List variable:
        :for [i, j; rest] in listlist
        :   call Doit(i, j)
        :   if !empty(rest)
        :      echo "remainder: " . string(rest)
        :   endif

For a Blob one byte at a time is used.

For a String one character, including any composing characters, is used as a
String.  Example:
        for c in text
          echo 'This character is ' .. c

List functions
Functions that are useful with a List:
        :let r = call(funcname, list)   " call a function with an argument list
        :if empty(list)                 " check if list is empty
        :let l = len(list)              " number of items in list
        :let big = max(list)            " maximum value in list
        :let small = min(list)          " minimum value in list
        :let xs = count(list, 'x')      " count nr of times 'x' appears in list
        :let i = index(list, 'x')       " index of first 'x' in list
        :let lines = getline(1, 10)     " get ten text lines from buffer
        :call append('$', lines)        " append text lines in buffer
        :let list = split("a b c")      " create list from items in a string
        :let string = join(list, ', ')  " create string from list items
        :let s = string(list)           " String representation of list
        :call map(list, '">> " . v:val')  " prepend ">> " to each item

Don't forget that a combination of features can make things simple.  For
example, to add up all the numbers in a list:
        :exe 'let sum = ' . join(nrlist, '+')

1.4 Dictionaries
                                dict Dict Dictionaries Dictionary
A Dictionary is an associative array: Each entry has a key and a value.  The
entry can be located with the key.  The entries are stored without a specific

Dictionary creation
                                                E720 E721 E722 E723
A Dictionary is created with a comma separated list of entries in curly
braces.  Each entry has a key and a value, separated by a colon.  Each key can
only appear once.  Examples:
        :let mydict = {1: 'one', 2: 'two', 3: 'three'}
        :let emptydict = {}
                                                        E713 E716 E717
A key is always a String.  You can use a Number, it will be converted to a
String automatically.  Thus the String '4' and the number 4 will find the same
entry.  Note that the String '04' and the Number 04 are different, since the
Number will be converted to the String '4'.  The empty string can also be used
as a key.
                                                literal-Dict #{}
To avoid having to put quotes around every key the #{} form can be used.  This
does require the key to consist only of ASCII letters, digits, '-' and '_'.
        :let mydict = #{zero: 0, one_key: 1, two-key: 2, 333: 3}
Note that 333 here is the string "333".  Empty keys are not possible with #{}.

A value can be any expression.  Using a Dictionary for a value creates a
nested Dictionary:
        :let nestdict = {1: {11: 'a', 12: 'b'}, 2: {21: 'c'}}

An extra comma after the last entry is ignored.

Accessing entries

The normal way to access an entry is by putting the key in square brackets:
        :let val = mydict["one"]
        :let mydict["four"] = 4

You can add new entries to an existing Dictionary this way, unlike Lists.

For keys that consist entirely of letters, digits and underscore the following
form can be used expr-entry:
        :let val =
        :let mydict.four = 4

Since an entry can be any type, also a List and a Dictionary, the indexing and
key lookup can be repeated:
        :echo dict.key[idx].key

Dictionary to List conversion

You may want to loop over the entries in a dictionary.  For this you need to
turn the Dictionary into a List and pass it to :for.

Most often you want to loop over the keys, using the keys() function:
        :for key in keys(mydict)
        :   echo key . ': ' . mydict[key]

The List of keys is unsorted.  You may want to sort them first:
        :for key in sort(keys(mydict))

To loop over the values use the values() function: 
        :for v in values(mydict)
        :   echo "value: " . v

If you want both the key and the value use the items() function.  It returns
a List in which each item is a List with two items, the key and the value:
        :for [key, value] in items(mydict)
        :   echo key . ': ' . value

Dictionary identity
Just like Lists you need to use copy() and deepcopy() to make a copy of a
Dictionary.  Otherwise, assignment results in referring to the same
        :let onedict = {'a': 1, 'b': 2}
        :let adict = onedict
        :let adict['a'] = 11
        :echo onedict['a']

Two Dictionaries compare equal if all the key-value pairs compare equal.  For
more info see list-identity.

Dictionary modification
To change an already existing entry of a Dictionary, or to add a new entry,
use :let this way:
        :let dict[4] = "four"
        :let dict['one'] = item

Removing an entry from a Dictionary is done with remove() or :unlet.
Three ways to remove the entry with key "aaa" from dict:
        :let i = remove(dict, 'aaa')
        :unlet dict['aaa']

Merging a Dictionary with another is done with extend():
        :call extend(adict, bdict)
This extends adict with all entries from bdict.  Duplicate keys cause entries
in adict to be overwritten.  An optional third argument can change this.
Note that the order of entries in a Dictionary is irrelevant, thus don't
expect ":echo adict" to show the items from bdict after the older entries in

Weeding out entries from a Dictionary can be done with filter():
        :call filter(dict, 'v:val =~ "x"')
This removes all entries from "dict" with a value not matching 'x'.
This can also be used to remove all entries:
        call filter(dict, 0)

Dictionary function
                                Dictionary-function self E725 E862
When a function is defined with the "dict" attribute it can be used in a
special way with a dictionary.  Example:
        :function Mylen() dict
        :   return len(
        :let mydict = {'data': [0, 1, 2, 3], 'len': function("Mylen")}
        :echo mydict.len()

This is like a method in object oriented programming.  The entry in the
Dictionary is a Funcref.  The local variable "self" refers to the dictionary
the function was invoked from.

It is also possible to add a function without the "dict" attribute as a
Funcref to a Dictionary, but the "self" variable is not available then.

                                numbered-function anonymous-function
To avoid the extra name for the function it can be defined and directly
assigned to a Dictionary in this way:
        :let mydict = {'data': [0, 1, 2, 3]}
        :function mydict.len()
        :   return len(
        :echo mydict.len()

The function will then get a number and the value of dict.len is a Funcref
that references this function.  The function can only be used through a
Funcref.  It will automatically be deleted when there is no Funcref
remaining that refers to it.

It is not necessary to use the "dict" attribute for a numbered function.

If you get an error for a numbered function, you can find out what it is with
a trick.  Assuming the function is 42, the command is:
        :function {42}

Functions for Dictionaries
Functions that can be used with a Dictionary:
        :if has_key(dict, 'foo')        " TRUE if dict has entry with key "foo"
        :if empty(dict)                 " TRUE if dict is empty
        :let l = len(dict)              " number of items in dict
        :let big = max(dict)            " maximum value in dict
        :let small = min(dict)          " minimum value in dict
        :let xs = count(dict, 'x')      " count nr of times 'x' appears in dict
        :let s = string(dict)           " String representation of dict
        :call map(dict, '">> " . v:val')  " prepend ">> " to each item

1.5 Blobs
                                                blob Blob Blobs E978
A Blob is a binary object.  It can be used to read an image from a file and
send it over a channel, for example.

A Blob mostly behaves like a List of numbers, where each number has the
value of an 8-bit byte, from 0 to 255.

Blob creation

A Blob can be created with a blob-literal:
        :let b = 0zFF00ED015DAF
Dots can be inserted between bytes (pair of hex characters) for readability,
they don't change the value:
        :let b = 0zFF00.ED01.5DAF

A blob can be read from a file with readfile() passing the {type} argument
set to "B", for example:
        :let b = readfile('image.png', 'B')

A blob can be read from a channel with the ch_readblob() function.

Blob index
                                                        blob-index E979
A byte in the Blob can be accessed by putting the index in square brackets
after the Blob.  Indexes are zero-based, thus the first byte has index zero.
        :let myblob = 0z00112233
        :let byte = myblob[0]           " get the first byte: 0x00
        :let byte = myblob[2]           " get the third byte: 0x22

A negative index is counted from the end.  Index -1 refers to the last byte in
the Blob, -2 to the last but one byte, etc.
        :let last = myblob[-1]          " get the last byte: 0x33

To avoid an error for an invalid index use the get() function.  When an item
is not available it returns -1 or the default value you specify:
        :echo get(myblob, idx)
        :echo get(myblob, idx, 999)

Blob iteration

The :for loop executes commands for each byte of a Blob.  The loop variable is
set to each byte in the Blob.  Example:
        :for byte in 0z112233
        :   call Doit(byte)
This calls Doit() with 0x11, 0x22 and 0x33.

Blob concatenation

Two blobs can be concatenated with the "+" operator:
        :let longblob = myblob + 0z4455
        :let myblob += 0z6677

To change a blob in-place see blob-modification below.

Part of a blob

A part of the Blob can be obtained by specifying the first and last index,
separated by a colon in square brackets:
        :let myblob = 0z00112233
        :let shortblob = myblob[1:2]    " get 0z1122
        :let shortblob = myblob[2:-1]   " get 0z2233

Omitting the first index is similar to zero.  Omitting the last index is
similar to -1.
        :let endblob = myblob[2:]       " from item 2 to the end: 0z2233
        :let shortblob = myblob[2:2]    " Blob with one byte: 0z22
        :let otherblob = myblob[:]      " make a copy of the Blob

If the first index is beyond the last byte of the Blob or the second index is
before the first index, the result is an empty Blob.  There is no error

If the second index is equal to or greater than the length of the list the
length minus one is used:
        :echo myblob[2:8]               " result: 0z2233

Blob modification
To change a specific byte of a blob use :let this way:
        :let blob[4] = 0x44

When the index is just one beyond the end of the Blob, it is appended. Any
higher index is an error.

To change a sequence of bytes the [:] notation can be used:
        let blob[1:3] = 0z445566
The length of the replaced bytes must be exactly the same as the value
provided. E972

To change part of a blob you can specify the first and last byte to be
modified.  The value must have the same number of bytes in the range:
        :let blob[3:5] = 0z334455

You can also use the functions add()remove() and insert().

Blob identity

Blobs can be compared for equality:
        if blob == 0z001122
And for equal identity:
        if blob is otherblob
                                                        blob-identity E977
When variable "aa" is a Blob and you assign it to another variable "bb", both
variables refer to the same Blob.  Then the "is" operator returns true.

When making a copy using [:] or copy() the values are the same, but the
identity is different:
        :let blob = 0z112233
        :let blob2 = blob
        :echo blob == blob2
        :echo blob is blob2
        :let blob3 = blob[:]
        :echo blob == blob3
        :echo blob is blob3

Making a copy of a Blob is done with the copy() function.  Using [:] also
works, as explained above.

1.6 More about variables
If you need to know the type of a variable or expression, use the type()

When the '!' flag is included in the 'viminfo' option, global variables that
start with an uppercase letter, and don't contain a lowercase letter, are
stored in the viminfo file viminfo-file.

When the 'sessionoptions' option contains "global", global variables that
start with an uppercase letter and contain at least one lowercase letter are
stored in the session file session-file.

variable name           can be stored where
my_var_6                not
My_Var_6                session file
MY_VAR_6                viminfo file

It's possible to form a variable name with curly braces, see

2. Expression syntax                                    expression-syntax

Expression syntax summary, from least to most significant:

expr1 expr2
        expr2 ? expr1 : expr1   if-then-else

expr2 expr3
        expr3 || expr3 ...      logical OR

expr3 expr4
        expr4 && expr4 ...      logical AND

expr4 expr5
        expr5 == expr5          equal
        expr5 != expr5          not equal
        expr5 >  expr5          greater than
        expr5 >= expr5          greater than or equal
        expr5 <  expr5          smaller than
        expr5 <= expr5          smaller than or equal
        expr5 =~ expr5          regexp matches
        expr5 !~ expr5          regexp doesn't match

        expr5 ==? expr5         equal, ignoring case
        expr5 ==# expr5         equal, match case
        etc.                    As above, append ? for ignoring case, # for
                                matching case

        expr5 is expr5          same ListDictionary or Blob instance
        expr5 isnot expr5       different ListDictionary or Blob

expr5 expr6
        expr6 +  expr6 ...      number addition, list or blob concatenation
        expr6 -  expr6 ...      number subtraction
        expr6 .  expr6 ...      string concatenation
        expr6 .. expr6 ...      string concatenation

expr6 expr7
        expr7 *  expr7 ...      number multiplication
        expr7 /  expr7 ...      number division
        expr7 %  expr7 ...      number modulo

expr7 expr8
        ! expr7                 logical NOT
        - expr7                 unary minus
        + expr7                 unary plus

expr8 expr9
        expr8[expr1]            byte of a String or item of a List
        expr8[expr1 : expr1]    substring of a String or sublist of a List              entry in a Dictionary
        expr8(expr1, ...)       function call with Funcref variable
        expr8->name(expr1, ...) method call

expr9 number                  number constant
        "string"                string constant, backslash is special
        'string'                string constant, ' is doubled
        [expr1, ...]            List
        {expr1: expr1, ...}     Dictionary
        #{key: expr1, ...}      Dictionary
        &option                 option value
        (expr1)                 nested expression
        variable                internal variable
        va{ria}ble              internal variable with curly braces
        $VAR                    environment variable
        @r                      contents of register 'r'
        function(expr1, ...)    function call
        func{ti}on(expr1, ...)  function call with curly braces
        {args -> expr1}         lambda expression

"..." indicates that the operations in this level can be concatenated.
        &nu || &list && &shell == "csh"

All expressions within one level are parsed from left to right.

expr1                           expr1 trinary falsy-operator ?? E109

The trinary operator: expr2 ? expr1 : expr1
The falsy operator:   expr2 ?? expr1

Trinary operator

The expression before the '?' is evaluated to a number.  If it evaluates to
TRUE, the result is the value of the expression between the '?' and ':',
otherwise the result is the value of the expression after the ':'.
        :echo lnum == 1 ? "top" : lnum

Since the first expression is an "expr2", it cannot contain another ?:.  The
other two expressions can, thus allow for recursive use of ?:.
        :echo lnum == 1 ? "top" : lnum == 1000 ? "last" : lnum

To keep this readable, using line-continuation is suggested:
        :echo lnum == 1
        :\      ? "top"
        :\      : lnum == 1000
        :\              ? "last"
        :\              : lnum

You should always put a space before the ':', otherwise it can be mistaken for
use in a variable such as "a:1".

Falsy operator

This is also known as the "null coalescing operator", but that's too
complicated, thus we just call it the falsy operator.

The expression before the '??' is evaluated.  If it evaluates to
truthy, this is used as the result.  Otherwise the expression after the '??'
is evaluated and used as the result.  This is most useful to have a default
value for an expression that may result in zero or empty:
        echo theList ?? 'list is empty'
        echo GetName() ?? 'unknown'

These are similar, but not equal:
        expr2 ?? expr1
        expr2 ? expr2 : expr1
In the second line "expr2" is evaluated twice.

expr2 and expr3                                         expr2 expr3

expr3 || expr3 ..       logical OR              expr-barbar
expr4 && expr4 ..       logical AND             expr-&&

The "||" and "&&" operators take one argument on each side.  The arguments
are (converted to) Numbers.  The result is:

    input                        output
n1      n2              n1 || n2        n1 && n2
FALSE TRUE          TRUE          FALSE
TRUE  FALSE         TRUE          FALSE
TRUE  TRUE          TRUE          TRUE

The operators can be concatenated, for example:

        &nu || &list && &shell == "csh"

Note that "&&" takes precedence over "||", so this has the meaning of:

        &nu || (&list && &shell == "csh")

Once the result is known, the expression "short-circuits", that is, further
arguments are not evaluated.  This is like what happens in C.  For example:

        let a = 1
        echo a || b

This is valid even if there is no variable called "b" because "a" is TRUE,
so the result must be TRUE.  Similarly below:

        echo exists("b") && b == "yes"

This is valid whether "b" has been defined or not.  The second clause will
only be evaluated if "b" has been defined.

expr4                                                   expr4

expr5 {cmp} expr5

Compare two expr5 expressions, resulting in a 0 if it evaluates to false, or 1
if it evaluates to true.

                        expr-==  expr-!=  expr->   expr->=
                        expr-<   expr-<=  expr-=~  expr-!~
                        expr-==# expr-!=# expr->#  expr->=#
                        expr-<#  expr-<=# expr-=~# expr-!~#
                        expr-==? expr-!=? expr->?  expr->=?
                        expr-<?  expr-<=? expr-=~? expr-!~?
                        expr-is expr-isnot expr-is# expr-isnot#
                        expr-is? expr-isnot?
                use 'ignorecase'    match case     ignore case
equal                   ==              ==#             ==?
not equal               !=              !=#             !=?
greater than            >               >#              >?
greater than or equal   >=              >=#             >=?
smaller than            <               <#              <?
smaller than or equal   <=              <=#             <=?
regexp matches          =~              =~#             =~?
regexp doesn't match    !~              !~#             !~?
same instance           is              is#             is?
different instance      isnot           isnot#          isnot?

"abc" ==# "Abc"   evaluates to 0
"abc" ==? "Abc"   evaluates to 1
"abc" == "Abc"    evaluates to 1 if 'ignorecase' is set, 0 otherwise

                                                        E691 E692
List can only be compared with a List and only "equal", "not equal",
"is" and "isnot" can be used.  This compares the values of the list,
recursively.  Ignoring case means case is ignored when comparing item values.

                                                        E735 E736
Dictionary can only be compared with a Dictionary and only "equal", "not
equal", "is" and "isnot" can be used.  This compares the key/values of the
Dictionary recursively.  Ignoring case means case is ignored when comparing
item values.

Funcref can only be compared with a Funcref and only "equal", "not
equal", "is" and "isnot" can be used.  Case is never ignored.  Whether
arguments or a Dictionary are bound (with a partial) matters.  The
Dictionaries must also be equal (or the same, in case of "is") and the
arguments must be equal (or the same).

To compare Funcrefs to see if they refer to the same function, ignoring bound
Dictionary and arguments, use get() to get the function name:
        if get(Part1, 'name') == get(Part2, 'name')
           " Part1 and Part2 refer to the same function

Using "is" or "isnot" with a ListDictionary or Blob checks whether
the expressions are referring to the same ListDictionary or Blob
instance.  A copy of a List is different from the original List.  When
using "is" without a ListDictionary or Blob, it is equivalent to
using "equal", using "isnot" equivalent to using "not equal".  Except that
a different type means the values are different:
        echo 4 == '4'
        echo 4 is '4'
        echo 0 is []
"is#"/"isnot#" and "is?"/"isnot?" can be used to match and ignore case.

When comparing a String with a Number, the String is converted to a Number,
and the comparison is done on Numbers.  This means that:
        echo 0 == 'x'
because 'x' converted to a Number is zero.  However:
        echo [0] == ['x']
Inside a List or Dictionary this conversion is not used.

When comparing two Strings, this is done with strcmp() or stricmp().  This
results in the mathematical difference (comparing byte values), not
necessarily the alphabetical difference in the local language.

When using the operators with a trailing '#', or the short version and
'ignorecase' is off, the comparing is done with strcmp(): case matters.

When using the operators with a trailing '?', or the short version and
'ignorecase' is set, the comparing is done with stricmp(): case is ignored.

'smartcase' is not used.

The "=~" and "!~" operators match the lefthand argument with the righthand
argument, which is used as a pattern.  See pattern for what a pattern is.
This matching is always done like 'magic' was set and 'cpoptions' is empty, no
matter what the actual value of 'magic' or 'cpoptions' is.  This makes scripts
portable.  To avoid backslashes in the regexp pattern to be doubled, use a
single-quote string, see literal-string.
Since a string is considered to be a single line, a multi-line pattern
(containing \n, backslash-n) will not match.  However, a literal NL character
can be matched like an ordinary character.  Examples:
        "foo\nbar" =~ "\n"      evaluates to 1
        "foo\nbar" =~ "\\n"     evaluates to 0

expr5 and expr6                                         expr5 expr6
expr6 + expr6   Number addition, List or Blob concatenation expr-+
expr6 - expr6   Number subtraction                              expr--
expr6 . expr6   String concatenation                            expr-.
expr6 .. expr6  String concatenation                            expr-..

For Lists only "+" is possible and then both expr6 must be a list.  The
result is a new list with the two lists Concatenated.

For String concatenation ".." is preferred, since "." is ambiguous, it is also
used for Dict member access and floating point numbers.
When vimscript-version is 2 or higher, using "." is not allowed.

expr7 * expr7  Number multiplication                            expr-star
expr7 / expr7  Number division                                  expr-/
expr7 % expr7  Number modulo                                    expr-%

For all, except "." and "..", Strings are converted to Numbers.
For bitwise operators see and()or() and xor().

Note the difference between "+" and ".":
        "123" + "456" = 579
        "123" . "456" = "123456"

Since '.' has the same precedence as '+' and '-', you need to read:
        1 . 90 + 90.0
        (1 . 90) + 90.0
That works, since the String "190" is automatically converted to the Number
190, which can be added to the Float 90.0.  However:
        1 . 90 * 90.0
Should be read as:
        1 . (90 * 90.0)
Since '.' has lower precedence than '*'.  This does NOT work, since this
attempts to concatenate a Float and a String.

When dividing a Number by zero the result depends on the value:
          0 / 0  = -0x80000000  (like NaN for Float)
         >0 / 0  =  0x7fffffff  (like positive infinity)
         <0 / 0  = -0x7fffffff  (like negative infinity)
        (before Vim 7.2 it was always 0x7fffffff)

When 64-bit Number support is enabled:
          0 / 0  = -0x8000000000000000  (like NaN for Float)
         >0 / 0  =  0x7fffffffffffffff  (like positive infinity)
         <0 / 0  = -0x7fffffffffffffff  (like negative infinity)

When the righthand side of '%' is zero, the result is 0.

None of these work for Funcrefs.

. and % do not work for Float. E804

expr7                                                   expr7
! expr7                 logical NOT             expr-!
- expr7                 unary minus             expr-unary--
+ expr7                 unary plus              expr-unary-+

For '!' TRUE becomes FALSEFALSE becomes TRUE (one).
For '-' the sign of the number is changed.
For '+' the number is unchanged.  Note: "++" has no effect.

A String will be converted to a Number first.

These three can be repeated and mixed.  Examples:
        !-1         == 0
        !!8         == 1
        --9         == 9

expr8                                                   expr8
This expression is either expr9 or a sequence of the alternatives below,
in any order.  E.g., these are all possible:
        expr8(expr1, ...)[expr1].name
        expr8->(expr1, ...)[expr1]
Evaluation is always from left to right.

expr8[expr1]            item of String or List        expr-[] E111
                                                        E909 subscript
In legacy Vim script:
If expr8 is a Number or String this results in a String that contains the
expr1'th single byte from expr8.  expr8 is used as a String (a number is
automatically converted to a String), expr1 as a Number.  This doesn't
recognize multibyte encodings, see byteidx() for an alternative, or use
split() to turn the string into a list of characters.  Example, to get the
byte under the cursor:
        :let c = getline(".")[col(".") - 1]

In Vim9 script:
If expr8 is a String this results in a String that contains the expr1'th
single character (including any composing characters) from expr8.  To use byte
indexes use strpart().

Index zero gives the first byte or character.  Careful: text column numbers
start with one!

If the length of the String is less than the index, the result is an empty
String.  A negative index always results in an empty string (reason: backward
compatibility).  Use [-1:] to get the last byte or character.
In Vim9 script a negative index is used like with a list: count from the end.

If expr8 is a List then it results the item at index expr1.  See list-index
for possible index values.  If the index is out of range this results in an
error.  Example:
        :let item = mylist[-1]          " get last item

Generally, if a List index is equal to or higher than the length of the
List, or more negative than the length of the List, this results in an

expr8[expr1a : expr1b]  substring or sublist            expr-[:]

If expr8 is a String this results in the substring with the bytes or
characters from expr1a to and including expr1b.  expr8 is used as a String,
expr1a and expr1b are used as a Number.

In legacy Vim script the indexes are byte indexes.  This doesn't recognize
multibyte encodings, see byteidx() for computing the indexes.  If expr8 is
a Number it is first converted to a String.

In Vim9 script the indexes are character indexes and include composing
characters.  To use byte indexes use strpart().  To use character indexes
without including composing characters use strcharpart().

The item at index expr1b is included, it is inclusive.  For an exclusive index
use the slice() function.

If expr1a is omitted zero is used.  If expr1b is omitted the length of the
string minus one is used.

A negative number can be used to measure from the end of the string.  -1 is
the last character, -2 the last but one, etc.

If an index goes out of range for the string characters are omitted.  If
expr1b is smaller than expr1a the result is an empty string.

        :let c = name[-1:]              " last byte of a string
        :let c = name[0:-1]             " the whole string
        :let c = name[-2:-2]            " last but one byte of a string
        :let s = line(".")[4:]          " from the fifth byte to the end
        :let s = s[:-3]                 " remove last two bytes

If expr8 is a List this results in a new List with the items indicated by
the indexes expr1a and expr1b.  This works like with a String, as explained
just above. Also see sublist below.  Examples:
        :let l = mylist[:3]             " first four items
        :let l = mylist[4:4]            " List with one item
        :let l = mylist[:]              " shallow copy of a List

If expr8 is a Blob this results in a new Blob with the bytes in the
indexes expr1a and expr1b, inclusive.  Examples:
        :let b = 0zDEADBEEF
        :let bs = b[1:2]                " 0zADBE
        :let bs = b[:]                  " copy of 0zDEADBEEF

Using expr8[expr1] or expr8[expr1a : expr1b] on a Funcref results in an

Watch out for confusion between a namespace and a variable followed by a colon
for a sublist:
        mylist[n:]     " uses variable n
        mylist[s:]     " uses namespace s:, error!              entry in a Dictionary         expr-entry

If expr8 is a Dictionary and it is followed by a dot, then the following
name will be used as a key in the Dictionary.  This is just like:

The name must consist of alphanumeric characters, just like a variable name,
but it may start with a number.  Curly braces cannot be used.

There must not be white space before or after the dot.

        :let dict = {"one": 1, 2: "two"}
        :echo          " shows "1"
        :echo dict.2            " shows "two"
        :echo dict .2           " error because of space before the dot

Note that the dot is also used for String concatenation.  To avoid confusion
always put spaces around the dot for String concatenation.

expr8(expr1, ...)       Funcref function call

When expr8 is a Funcref type variable, invoke the function it refers to.

expr8->name([args])     method call                     method ->
For methods that are also available as global functions this is the same as:
        name(expr8 [, args])
There can also be methods specifically for the type of "expr8".

This allows for chaining, passing the value that one method returns to the
next method:

Example of using a lambda:
        GetPercentage()->{x -> x * 100}()->printf('%d%%')

When using -> the expr7 operators will be applied first, thus:
Is equivalent to:
And NOT:

"->name(" must not contain white space.  There can be white space before the
"->" and after the "(", thus you can split the lines like this:
        \ ->filter(filterexpr)
        \ ->map(mapexpr)
        \ ->sort()
        \ ->join()

When using the lambda form there must be no white space between the } and the

number                  number constant                 expr-number

                        0x hex-number 0o octal-number binary-number
Decimal, Hexadecimal (starting with 0x or 0X), Binary (starting with 0b or 0B)
and Octal (starting with 0, 0o or 0O).

Floating point numbers can be written in two forms:


{N} and {M} are numbers.  Both {N} and {M} must be present and can only
contain digits.
[-+] means there is an optional plus or minus sign.
{exp} is the exponent, power of 10.
Only a decimal point is accepted, not a comma.  No matter what the current
locale is.
{only when compiled with the +float feature}


These are INVALID:
        3.              empty {M}
        1e40            missing .{M}

Before floating point was introduced, the text "123.456" was interpreted as
the two numbers "123" and "456", both converted to a string and concatenated,
resulting in the string "123456".  Since this was considered pointless, and we
could not find it intentionally being used in Vim scripts, this backwards
incompatibility was accepted in favor of being able to use the normal notation
for floating point numbers.

                                                        float-pi float-e
A few useful values to copy&paste:
        :let pi = 3.14159265359
        :let e  = 2.71828182846
Or, if you don't want to write them in as floating-point literals, you can
also use functions, like the following:
        :let pi = acos(-1.0)
        :let e  = exp(1.0)

The precision and range of floating points numbers depends on what "double"
means in the library Vim was compiled with.  There is no way to change this at

The default for displaying a Float is to use 6 decimal places, like using
printf("%g", f).  You can select something else when using the printf()
function.  Example:
        :echo printf('%.15e', atan(1))

string                                  string String expr-string E114
"string"                string constant         expr-quote

Note that double quotes are used.

A string constant accepts these special characters:
\...    three-digit octal number (e.g., "\316")
\..     two-digit octal number (must be followed by non-digit)
\.      one-digit octal number (must be followed by non-digit)
\x..    byte specified with two hex numbers (e.g., "\x1f")
\x.     byte specified with one hex number (must be followed by non-hex char)
\X..    same as \x..
\X.     same as \x.
\u....  character specified with up to 4 hex numbers, stored according to the
        current value of 'encoding' (e.g., "\u02a4")
\U....  same as \u but allows up to 8 hex numbers.
\b      backspace <BS>
\e      escape <Esc>
\f      formfeed <FF>
\n      newline <NL>
\r      return <CR>
\t      tab <Tab>
\\      backslash
\"      double quote
\<xxx>  Special key named "xxx".  e.g. "\<C-W>" for CTRL-W.  This is for use
        in mappings, the 0x80 byte is escaped.
        To use the double quote character it must be escaped: "<M-\">".
        Don't use <Char-xxxx> to get a utf-8 character, use \uxxxx as
        mentioned above.
\<*xxx> Like \<xxx> but prepends a modifier instead of including it in the
        character.  E.g. "\<C-w>" is one character 0x17 while "\<*C-w>" is four
        bytes: 3 for the CTRL modifier and then character "W".

Note that "\xff" is stored as the byte 255, which may be invalid in some
encodings.  Use "\u00ff" to store character 255 according to the current value
of 'encoding'.

Note that "\000" and "\x00" force the end of the string.

blob-literal                            blob-literal E973

Hexadecimal starting with 0z or 0Z, with an arbitrary number of bytes.
The sequence must be an even number of hex characters.  Example:
        :let b = 0zFF00ED015DAF

literal-string                                          literal-string E115
'string'                string constant                 expr-'

Note that single quotes are used.

This string is taken as it is.  No backslashes are removed or have a special
meaning.  The only exception is that two quotes stand for one quote.

Single quoted strings are useful for patterns, so that backslashes do not need
to be doubled.  These two commands are equivalent:
        if a =~ "\\s*"
        if a =~ '\s*'

option                                          expr-option E112 E113
&option                 option value, local value if possible
&g:option               global option value
&l:option               local option value

        echo "tabstop is " . &tabstop
        if &insertmode

Any option name can be used here.  See options.  When using the local value
and there is no buffer-local or window-local value, the global value is used

register                                                expr-register @r
@r                      contents of register 'r'

The result is the contents of the named register, as a single string.
Newlines are inserted where required.  To get the contents of the unnamed
register use @" or @@.  See registers for an explanation of the available

When using the '=' register you get the expression itself, not what it
evaluates to.  Use eval() to evaluate it.

nesting                                                 expr-nesting E110
(expr1)                 nested expression

environment variable                                    expr-env
$VAR                    environment variable

The String value of any environment variable.  When it is not defined, the
result is an empty string.

The functions getenv() and setenv() can also be used and work for
environment variables with non-alphanumeric names.
The function environ() can be used to get a Dict with all environment

Note that there is a difference between using $VAR directly and using
expand("$VAR").  Using it directly will only expand environment variables that
are known inside the current Vim session.  Using expand() will first try using
the environment variables known inside the current Vim session.  If that
fails, a shell will be used to expand the variable.  This can be slow, but it
does expand all variables that the shell knows about.  Example:
        :echo $shell
        :echo expand("$shell")
The first one probably doesn't echo anything, the second echoes the $shell
variable (if your shell supports it).

internal variable                                       expr-variable
variable                internal variable
See below internal-variables.

function call           expr-function E116 E118 E119 E120
function(expr1, ...)    function call
See below functions.

lambda expression                               expr-lambda lambda
{args -> expr1}         lambda expression

A lambda expression creates a new unnamed function which returns the result of
evaluating expr1.  Lambda expressions differ from user-functions in
the following ways:

1. The body of the lambda expression is an expr1 and not a sequence of Ex
2. The prefix "a:" should not be used for arguments.  E.g.:
        :let F = {arg1, arg2 -> arg1 - arg2}
        :echo F(5, 2)

The arguments are optional.  Example:
        :let F = {-> 'error function'}
        :echo F('ignored')
        error function

Note that in Vim9 script another kind of lambda can be used: vim9-lambda.

Lambda expressions can access outer scope variables and arguments.  This is
often called a closure.  Example where "i" and "a:arg" are used in a lambda
while they already exist in the function scope.  They remain valid even after
the function returns:
        :function Foo(arg)
        :  let i = 3
        :  return {x -> x + i - a:arg}
        :let Bar = Foo(4)
        :echo Bar(6)

Note that the variables must exist in the outer scope before the lambda is
defined for this to work.  See also :func-closure.

Lambda and closure support can be checked with:
        if has('lambda')

Examples for using a lambda expression with sort()map() and filter():
        :echo map([1, 2, 3], {idx, val -> val + 1})
        [2, 3, 4]
        :echo sort([3,7,2,1,4], {a, b -> a - b})
        [1, 2, 3, 4, 7]

The lambda expression is also useful for Channel, Job and timer:
        :let timer = timer_start(500,
                        \ {-> execute("echo 'Handler called'", "")},
                        \ {'repeat': 3})
        Handler called
        Handler called
        Handler called

Note that it is possible to cause memory to be used and not freed if the
closure is referenced by the context it depends on:
        function Function()
           let x = 0
           let F = {-> x}
The closure uses "x" from the function scope, and "F" in that same scope
refers to the closure.  This cycle results in the memory not being freed.
Recommendation: don't do this.

Notice how execute() is used to execute an Ex command.  That's ugly though.
In Vim9 script you can use a command block, see inline-function.

Lambda expressions have internal names like '<lambda>42'.  If you get an error
for a lambda expression, you can find what it is with the following command:
        :function <lambda>42
See also: numbered-function

3. Internal variable                            internal-variables E461

An internal variable name can be made up of letters, digits and '_'.  But it
cannot start with a digit.  It's also possible to use curly braces, see

An internal variable is created with the ":let" command :let.
An internal variable is explicitly destroyed with the ":unlet" command
Using a name that is not an internal variable or refers to a variable that has
been destroyed results in an error.

There are several name spaces for variables.  Which one is to be used is
specified by what is prepended:

                (nothing) In a function: local to a function; otherwise: global
buffer-variable    b:   Local to the current buffer.
window-variable    w:   Local to the current window.
tabpage-variable   t:   Local to the current tab page.
global-variable    g:   Global.
local-variable     l:   Local to a function.
script-variable    s:   Local to a :source'ed Vim script.
function-argument  a:   Function argument (only inside a function).
vim-variable       v:   Global, predefined by Vim.

The scope name by itself can be used as a Dictionary.  For example, to
delete all script-local variables:
        :for k in keys(s:)
        :    unlet s:[k]

Note: in Vim9 script this is different, see vim9-scopes.

                                                buffer-variable b:var b:
A variable name that is preceded with "b:" is local to the current buffer.
Thus you can have several "b:foo" variables, one for each buffer.
This kind of variable is deleted when the buffer is wiped out or deleted with

One local buffer variable is predefined:
                                        b:changedtick changetick
b:changedtick   The total number of changes to the current buffer.  It is
                incremented for each change.  An undo command is also a change
                in this case.  Resetting 'modified' when writing the buffer is
                also counted.
                This can be used to perform an action only when the buffer has
                changed.  Example:
                    :if my_changedtick != b:changedtick
                    :   let my_changedtick = b:changedtick
                    :   call My_Update()
                You cannot change or delete the b:changedtick variable.

                                                window-variable w:var w:
A variable name that is preceded with "w:" is local to the current window.  It
is deleted when the window is closed.

                                                tabpage-variable t:var t:
A variable name that is preceded with "t:" is local to the current tab page,
It is deleted when the tab page is closed. {not available when compiled
without the +windows feature}

                                                global-variable g:var g:
Inside functions global variables are accessed with "g:".  Omitting this will
access a variable local to a function.  But "g:" can also be used in any other
place if you like.

                                                local-variable l:var l:
Inside functions local variables are accessed without prepending anything.
But you can also prepend "l:" if you like.  However, without prepending "l:"
you may run into reserved variable names.  For example "count".  By itself it
refers to "v:count".  Using "l:count" you can have a local variable with the
same name.

                                                script-variable s:var
In a Vim script variables starting with "s:" can be used.  They cannot be
accessed from outside of the scripts, thus are local to the script.

They can be used in:
- commands executed while the script is sourced
- functions defined in the script
- autocommands defined in the script
- functions and autocommands defined in functions and autocommands which were
  defined in the script (recursively)
- user defined commands defined in the script
Thus not in:
- other scripts sourced from this one
- mappings
- menus
- etc.

Script variables can be used to avoid conflicts with global variable names.
Take this example:

        let s:counter = 0
        function MyCounter()
          let s:counter = s:counter + 1
          echo s:counter
        command Tick call MyCounter()

You can now invoke "Tick" from any script, and the "s:counter" variable in
that script will not be changed, only the "s:counter" in the script where
"Tick" was defined is used.

Another example that does the same:

        let s:counter = 0
        command Tick let s:counter = s:counter + 1 | echo s:counter

When calling a function and invoking a user-defined command, the context for
script variables is set to the script where the function or command was

The script variables are also available when a function is defined inside a
function that is defined in a script.  Example:

        let s:counter = 0
        function StartCounting(incr)
          if a:incr
            function MyCounter()
              let s:counter = s:counter + 1
            function MyCounter()
              let s:counter = s:counter - 1

This defines the MyCounter() function either for counting up or counting down
when calling StartCounting().  It doesn't matter from where StartCounting() is
called, the s:counter variable will be accessible in MyCounter().

When the same script is sourced again it will use the same script variables.
They will remain valid as long as Vim is running.  This can be used to
maintain a counter:

        if !exists("s:counter")
          let s:counter = 1
          echo "script executed for the first time"
          let s:counter = s:counter + 1
          echo "script executed " . s:counter . " times now"

Note that this means that filetype plugins don't get a different set of script
variables for each buffer.  Use local buffer variables instead b:var.

PREDEFINED VIM VARIABLES                        vim-variable v:var v:
Some variables can be set by the user, but the type cannot be changed.

                                        v:argv argv-variable
v:argv          The command line arguments Vim was invoked with.  This is a
                list of strings.  The first item is the Vim command.

                                        v:beval_col beval_col-variable
v:beval_col     The number of the column, over which the mouse pointer is.
                This is the byte index in the v:beval_lnum line.
                Only valid while evaluating the 'balloonexpr' option.

                                        v:beval_bufnr beval_bufnr-variable
v:beval_bufnr   The number of the buffer, over which the mouse pointer is. Only
                valid while evaluating the 'balloonexpr' option.

                                        v:beval_lnum beval_lnum-variable
v:beval_lnum    The number of the line, over which the mouse pointer is. Only
                valid while evaluating the 'balloonexpr' option.

                                        v:beval_text beval_text-variable
v:beval_text    The text under or after the mouse pointer.  Usually a word as
                it is useful for debugging a C program.  'iskeyword' applies,
                but a dot and "->" before the position is included.  When on a
                ']' the text before it is used, including the matching '[' and
                word before it.  When on a Visual area within one line the
                highlighted text is used.  Also see <cexpr>.
                Only valid while evaluating the 'balloonexpr' option.

                                        v:beval_winnr beval_winnr-variable
v:beval_winnr   The number of the window, over which the mouse pointer is. Only
                valid while evaluating the 'balloonexpr' option.  The first
                window has number zero (unlike most other places where a
                window gets a number).

                                        v:beval_winid beval_winid-variable
v:beval_winid   The window-ID of the window, over which the mouse pointer
                is.  Otherwise like v:beval_winnr.

                                        v:char char-variable
v:char          Argument for evaluating 'formatexpr' and used for the typed
                character when using <expr> in an abbreviation :map-<expr>.
                It is also used by the InsertCharPre and InsertEnter events.

                        v:charconvert_from charconvert_from-variable
                The name of the character encoding of a file to be converted.
                Only valid while evaluating the 'charconvert' option.

                        v:charconvert_to charconvert_to-variable
                The name of the character encoding of a file after conversion.
                Only valid while evaluating the 'charconvert' option.

                                        v:cmdarg cmdarg-variable
v:cmdarg        This variable is used for two purposes:
                1. The extra arguments given to a file read/write command.
                   Currently these are "++enc=" and "++ff=".  This variable is
                   set before an autocommand event for a file read/write
                   command is triggered.  There is a leading space to make it
                   possible to append this variable directly after the
                   read/write command.  Note: The "+cmd" argument isn't
                   included here, because it will be executed anyway.
                2. When printing a PostScript file with ":hardcopy" this is
                   the argument for the ":hardcopy" command.  This can be used
                   in 'printexpr'.

                                        v:cmdbang cmdbang-variable
v:cmdbang       Set like v:cmdarg for a file read/write command.  When a "!"
                was used the value is 1, otherwise it is 0.  Note that this
                can only be used in autocommands.  For user commands <bang>
                can be used.
                                                v:collate collate-variable
v:collate       The current locale setting for collation order of the runtime
                environment.  This allows Vim scripts to be aware of the
                current locale encoding.  Technical: it's the value of
                LC_COLLATE.  When not using a locale the value is "C".
                This variable can not be set directly, use the :language
                See multi-lang.

                                v:completed_item completed_item-variable
                Dictionary containing the complete-items for the most
                recently completed word after CompleteDone.  The
                Dictionary is empty if the completion failed.

                                        v:count count-variable
v:count         The count given for the last Normal mode command.  Can be used
                to get the count before a mapping.  Read-only.  Example:
        :map _x :<C-U>echo "the count is " . v:count<CR>
                Note: The <C-U> is required to remove the line range that you
                get when typing ':' after a count.
                When there are two counts, as in "3d2w", they are multiplied,
                just like what happens in the command, "d6w" for the example.
                Also used for evaluating the 'formatexpr' option.
                "count" also works, for backwards compatibility, unless
                scriptversion is 3 or higher.

                                        v:count1 count1-variable
v:count1        Just like "v:count", but defaults to one when no count is

                                                v:ctype ctype-variable
v:ctype         The current locale setting for characters of the runtime
                environment.  This allows Vim scripts to be aware of the
                current locale encoding.  Technical: it's the value of
                LC_CTYPE.  When not using a locale the value is "C".
                This variable can not be set directly, use the :language
                See multi-lang.

                                        v:dying dying-variable
v:dying         Normally zero.  When a deadly signal is caught it's set to
                one.  When multiple signals are caught the number increases.
                Can be used in an autocommand to check if Vim didn't
                terminate normally. {only works on Unix}
        :au VimLeave * if v:dying | echo "\nAAAAaaaarrrggghhhh!!!\n" | endif
                Note: if another deadly signal is caught when v:dying is one,
                VimLeave autocommands will not be executed.

                                        v:exiting exiting-variable
v:exiting       Vim exit code.  Normally zero, non-zero when something went
                wrong.  The value is v:null before invoking the VimLeavePre
                and VimLeave autocmds.  See :q:x and :cquit.
                        :au VimLeave * echo "Exit value is " .. v:exiting

                                        v:echospace echospace-variable
v:echospace     Number of screen cells that can be used for an :echo message
                in the last screen line before causing the hit-enter-prompt.
                Depends on 'showcmd''ruler' and 'columns'.  You need to
                check 'cmdheight' for whether there are full-width lines
                available above the last line.

                                        v:errmsg errmsg-variable
v:errmsg        Last given error message.  It's allowed to set this variable.
        :let v:errmsg = ""
        :silent! next
        :if v:errmsg != ""
        :  ... handle error
                "errmsg" also works, for backwards compatibility, unless
                scriptversion is 3 or higher.

                                v:errors errors-variable assert-return
v:errors        Errors found by assert functions, such as assert_true().
                This is a list of strings.
                The assert functions append an item when an assert fails.
                The return value indicates this: a one is returned if an item
                was added to v:errors, otherwise zero is returned.
                To remove old results make it empty:
        :let v:errors = []
                If v:errors is set to anything but a list it is made an empty
                list by the assert function.

                                        v:event event-variable
v:event         Dictionary containing information about the current
                autocommand.  See the specific event for what it puts in
                this dictionary.
                The dictionary is emptied when the autocommand finishes,
                please refer to dict-identity for how to get an independent
                copy of it.  Use deepcopy() if you want to keep the
                information after the event triggers.  Example:
                        au TextYankPost * let g:foo = deepcopy(v:event)

                                        v:exception exception-variable
v:exception     The value of the exception most recently caught and not
                finished.  See also v:throwpoint and throw-variables.
        :  throw "oops"
        :catch /.*/
        :  echo "caught " .. v:exception
                Output: "caught oops".

                                        v:false false-variable
v:false         A Number with value zero. Used to put "false" in JSON.  See
                When used as a string this evaluates to "v:false".
                        echo v:false
                That is so that eval() can parse the string back to the same
                value.  Read-only.

                                        v:fcs_reason fcs_reason-variable
v:fcs_reason    The reason why the FileChangedShell event was triggered.
                Can be used in an autocommand to decide what to do and/or what
                to set v:fcs_choice to.  Possible values:
                        deleted         file no longer exists
                        conflict        file contents, mode or timestamp was
                                        changed and buffer is modified
                        changed         file contents has changed
                        mode            mode of file changed
                        time            only file timestamp changed

                                        v:fcs_choice fcs_choice-variable
v:fcs_choice    What should happen after a FileChangedShell event was
                triggered.  Can be used in an autocommand to tell Vim what to
                do with the affected buffer:
                        reload          Reload the buffer (does not work if
                                        the file was deleted).
                        ask             Ask the user what to do, as if there
                                        was no autocommand.  Except that when
                                        only the timestamp changed nothing
                                        will happen.
                        <empty>         Nothing, the autocommand should do
                                        everything that needs to be done.
                The default is empty.  If another (invalid) value is used then
                Vim behaves like it is empty, there is no warning message.

                                        v:fname fname-variable
v:fname         When evaluating 'includeexpr': the file name that was
                detected.  Empty otherwise.

                                        v:fname_in fname_in-variable
v:fname_in      The name of the input file.  Valid while evaluating:
                        option          used for
                        'charconvert'   file to be converted
                        'diffexpr'      original file
                        'patchexpr'     original file
                        'printexpr'     file to be printed
                And set to the swap file name for SwapExists.

                                        v:fname_out fname_out-variable
v:fname_out     The name of the output file.  Only valid while
                        option          used for
                        'charconvert'   resulting converted file (*)
                        'diffexpr'      output of diff
                        'patchexpr'     resulting patched file
                (*) When doing conversion for a write command (e.g., ":w
                file") it will be equal to v:fname_in.  When doing conversion
                for a read command (e.g., ":e file") it will be a temporary
                file and different from v:fname_in.

                                        v:fname_new fname_new-variable
v:fname_new     The name of the new version of the file.  Only valid while
                evaluating 'diffexpr'.

                                        v:fname_diff fname_diff-variable
v:fname_diff    The name of the diff (patch) file.  Only valid while
                evaluating 'patchexpr'.

                                        v:folddashes folddashes-variable
v:folddashes    Used for 'foldtext': dashes representing foldlevel of a closed
                Read-only in the sandboxfold-foldtext

                                        v:foldlevel foldlevel-variable
v:foldlevel     Used for 'foldtext': foldlevel of closed fold.
                Read-only in the sandboxfold-foldtext

                                        v:foldend foldend-variable
v:foldend       Used for 'foldtext': last line of closed fold.
                Read-only in the sandboxfold-foldtext

                                        v:foldstart foldstart-variable
v:foldstart     Used for 'foldtext': first line of closed fold.
                Read-only in the sandboxfold-foldtext

                                        v:hlsearch hlsearch-variable
v:hlsearch      Variable that indicates whether search highlighting is on.
                Setting it makes sense only if 'hlsearch' is enabled which
                requires +extra_search. Setting this variable to zero acts
                like the :nohlsearch command, setting it to one acts like
                        let &hlsearch = &hlsearch
                Note that the value is restored when returning from a
                function. function-search-undo.

                                        v:insertmode insertmode-variable
v:insertmode    Used for the InsertEnter and InsertChange autocommand
                events.  Values:
                        i       Insert mode
                        r       Replace mode
                        v       Virtual Replace mode

                                                v:key key-variable
v:key           Key of the current item of a Dictionary.  Only valid while
                evaluating the expression used with map() and filter().

                                                v:lang lang-variable
v:lang          The current locale setting for messages of the runtime
                environment.  This allows Vim scripts to be aware of the
                current language.  Technical: it's the value of LC_MESSAGES.
                The value is system dependent.
                This variable can not be set directly, use the :language
                It can be different from v:ctype when messages are desired
                in a different language than what is used for character
                encoding.  See multi-lang.

                                                v:lc_time lc_time-variable
v:lc_time       The current locale setting for time messages of the runtime
                environment.  This allows Vim scripts to be aware of the
                current language.  Technical: it's the value of LC_TIME.
                This variable can not be set directly, use the :language
                command.  See multi-lang.

                                                v:lnum lnum-variable
v:lnum          Line number for the 'foldexpr' fold-expr'formatexpr' and
                'indentexpr' expressions, tab page number for 'guitablabel'
                and 'guitabtooltip'.  Only valid while one of these
                expressions is being evaluated.  Read-only when in the

                                        v:mouse_win mouse_win-variable
v:mouse_win     Window number for a mouse click obtained with getchar().
                First window has number 1, like with winnr().  The value is
                zero when there was no mouse button click.

                                        v:mouse_winid mouse_winid-variable
v:mouse_winid   Window ID for a mouse click obtained with getchar().
                The value is zero when there was no mouse button click.

                                        v:mouse_lnum mouse_lnum-variable
v:mouse_lnum    Line number for a mouse click obtained with getchar().
                This is the text line number, not the screen line number.  The
                value is zero when there was no mouse button click.

                                        v:mouse_col mouse_col-variable
v:mouse_col     Column number for a mouse click obtained with getchar().
                This is the screen column number, like with virtcol().  The
                value is zero when there was no mouse button click.

                                        v:none none-variable None
v:none          An empty String. Used to put an empty item in JSON.  See
                This can also be used as a function argument to use the
                default value, see none-function_argument.
                When used as a number this evaluates to zero.
                When used as a string this evaluates to "v:none".
                        echo v:none
                That is so that eval() can parse the string back to the same
                value.  Read-only.

                                        v:null null-variable
v:null          An empty String. Used to put "null" in JSON.  See
                When used as a number this evaluates to zero.
                When used as a string this evaluates to "v:null".
                        echo v:null
                That is so that eval() can parse the string back to the same
                value.  Read-only.

                                        v:numbermax numbermax-variable
v:numbermax     Maximum value of a number.

                                        v:numbermin numbermin-variable
v:numbermin     Minimum value of a number (negative).

                                        v:numbersize numbersize-variable
v:numbersize    Number of bits in a Number.  This is normally 64, but on some
                systems it may be 32.

                                        v:oldfiles oldfiles-variable
v:oldfiles      List of file names that is loaded from the viminfo file on
                startup.  These are the files that Vim remembers marks for.
                The length of the List is limited by the ' argument of the
                'viminfo' option (default is 100).
                When the viminfo file is not used the List is empty.
                Also see :oldfiles and c_#<.
                The List can be modified, but this has no effect on what is
                stored in the viminfo file later.  If you use values other
                than String this will cause trouble.
                {only when compiled with the +viminfo feature}

v:option_new    New value of the option. Valid while executing an OptionSet
v:option_old    Old value of the option. Valid while executing an OptionSet
                autocommand. Depending on the command used for setting and the
                kind of option this is either the local old value or the
                global old value.
                Old local value of the option. Valid while executing an
                OptionSet autocommand.
                Old global value of the option. Valid while executing an
                OptionSet autocommand.
v:option_type   Scope of the set command. Valid while executing an
                OptionSet autocommand. Can be either "global" or "local"
                Command used to set the option. Valid while executing an
                OptionSet autocommand.
                        value           option was set via  
                        "setlocal"      :setlocal or ":let l:xxx"
                        "setglobal"     :setglobal or ":let g:xxx"
                        "set"           :set or :let
                        "modeline"      modeline
                                        v:operator operator-variable
v:operator      The last operator given in Normal mode.  This is a single
                character except for commands starting with <g> or <z>,
                in which case it is two characters.  Best used alongside
                v:prevcount and v:register.  Useful if you want to cancel
                Operator-pending mode and then use the operator, e.g.:
                        :omap O <Esc>:call MyMotion(v:operator)<CR>
                The value remains set until another operator is entered, thus
                don't expect it to be empty.
                v:operator is not set for :delete:yank or other Ex

                                        v:prevcount prevcount-variable
v:prevcount     The count given for the last but one Normal mode command.
                This is the v:count value of the previous command.  Useful if
                you want to cancel Visual or Operator-pending mode and then
                use the count, e.g.:
                        :vmap % <Esc>:call MyFilter(v:prevcount)<CR>

                                        v:profiling profiling-variable
v:profiling     Normally zero.  Set to one after using ":profile start".
                See profiling.

                                        v:progname progname-variable
v:progname      Contains the name (with path removed) with which Vim was
                invoked.  Allows you to do special initialisations for view,
                evim etc., or any other name you might symlink to Vim.

                                        v:progpath progpath-variable
v:progpath      Contains the command with which Vim was invoked, in a form
                that when passed to the shell will run the same Vim executable
                as the current one (if $PATH remains unchanged).
                Useful if you want to message a Vim server using a
                To get the full path use:
                        echo exepath(v:progpath)
                If the command has a relative path it will be expanded to the
                full path, so that it still works after :cd. Thus starting
                "./vim" results in "/home/user/path/to/vim/src/vim".
                On Linux and other systems it will always be the full path.
                On Mac it may just be "vim" and using exepath() as mentioned
                above should be used to get the full path.
                On MS-Windows the executable may be called "vim.exe", but the
                ".exe" is not added to v:progpath.

                                        v:register register-variable
v:register      The name of the register in effect for the current normal mode
                command (regardless of whether that command actually used a
                register).  Or for the currently executing normal mode mapping
                (use this in custom commands that take a register).
                If none is supplied it is the default register '"', unless
                'clipboard' contains "unnamed" or "unnamedplus", then it is
                '*' or '+'.
                Also see getreg() and setreg()

                                        v:scrollstart scrollstart-variable
v:scrollstart   String describing the script or function that caused the
                screen to scroll up.  It's only set when it is empty, thus the
                first reason is remembered.  It is set to "Unknown" for a
                typed command.
                This can be used to find out why your script causes the
                hit-enter prompt.

                                        v:servername servername-variable
v:servername    The resulting registered client-server-name if any.

v:searchforward                 v:searchforward searchforward-variable
                Search direction:  1 after a forward search, 0 after a
                backward search.  It is reset to forward when directly setting
                the last search pattern, see quote/.
                Note that the value is restored when returning from a
                function. function-search-undo.

                                        v:shell_error shell_error-variable
v:shell_error   Result of the last shell command.  When non-zero, the last
                shell command had an error.  When zero, there was no problem.
                This only works when the shell returns the error code to Vim.
                The value -1 is often used when the command could not be
                executed.  Read-only.
        :!mv foo bar
        :if v:shell_error
        :  echo 'could not rename "foo" to "bar"!'
                "shell_error" also works, for backwards compatibility, unless
                scriptversion is 3 or higher.

                                        v:statusmsg statusmsg-variable
v:statusmsg     Last given status message.  It's allowed to set this variable.

                                        v:swapname swapname-variable
v:swapname      Only valid when executing SwapExists autocommands: Name of
                the swap file found.  Read-only.

                                        v:swapchoice swapchoice-variable
v:swapchoice    SwapExists autocommands can set this to the selected choice
                for handling an existing swap file:
                        'o'     Open read-only
                        'e'     Edit anyway
                        'r'     Recover
                        'd'     Delete swapfile
                        'q'     Quit
                        'a'     Abort
                The value should be a single-character string.  An empty value
                results in the user being asked, as would happen when there is
                no SwapExists autocommand.  The default is empty.

                                        v:swapcommand swapcommand-variable
v:swapcommand   Normal mode command to be executed after a file has been
                opened.  Can be used for a SwapExists autocommand to have
                another Vim open the file and jump to the right place.  For
                example, when jumping to a tag the value is ":tag tagname\r".
                For ":edit +cmd file" the value is ":cmd\r".

                                v:t_TYPE v:t_bool t_bool-variable
v:t_bool        Value of Boolean type.  Read-only.  See: type()
                                        v:t_channel t_channel-variable
v:t_channel     Value of Channel type.  Read-only.  See: type()
                                        v:t_dict t_dict-variable
v:t_dict        Value of Dictionary type.  Read-only.  See: type()
                                        v:t_float t_float-variable
v:t_float       Value of Float type.  Read-only.  See: type()
                                        v:t_func t_func-variable
v:t_func        Value of Funcref type.  Read-only.  See: type()
                                        v:t_job t_job-variable
v:t_job         Value of Job type.  Read-only.  See: type()
                                        v:t_list t_list-variable
v:t_list        Value of List type.  Read-only.  See: type()
                                        v:t_none t_none-variable
v:t_none        Value of None type.  Read-only.  See: type()
                                        v:t_number t_number-variable
v:t_number      Value of Number type.  Read-only.  See: type()
                                        v:t_string t_string-variable
v:t_string      Value of String type.  Read-only.  See: type()
                                        v:t_blob t_blob-variable
v:t_blob        Value of Blob type.  Read-only.  See: type()

                                v:termresponse termresponse-variable
v:termresponse  The escape sequence returned by the terminal for the t_RV
                termcap entry.  It is set when Vim receives an escape sequence
                that starts with ESC [ or CSI, then '>' or '?' and ends in a
                'c', with only digits and ';' in between.
                When this option is set, the TermResponse autocommand event is
                fired, so that you can react to the response from the
                terminal.  You can use terminalprops() to see what Vim
                figured out about the terminal.
                The response from a new xterm is: "<Esc>[> Pp ; Pv ; Pc c".  Pp
                is the terminal type: 0 for vt100 and 1 for vt220.  Pv is the
                patch level (since this was introduced in patch 95, it's
                always 95 or bigger).  Pc is always zero.
                {only when compiled with +termresponse feature}

v:termblinkresp The escape sequence returned by the terminal for the t_RC
                termcap entry.  This is used to find out whether the terminal
                cursor is blinking. This is used by term_getcursor().

v:termstyleresp The escape sequence returned by the terminal for the t_RS
                termcap entry.  This is used to find out what the shape of the
                cursor is.  This is used by term_getcursor().

v:termrbgresp   The escape sequence returned by the terminal for the t_RB
                termcap entry.  This is used to find out what the terminal
                background color is, see 'background'.

v:termrfgresp   The escape sequence returned by the terminal for the t_RF
                termcap entry.  This is used to find out what the terminal
                foreground color is.

v:termu7resp    The escape sequence returned by the terminal for the t_u7
                termcap entry.  This is used to find out what the terminal
                does with ambiguous width characters, see 'ambiwidth'.

                                        v:testing testing-variable
v:testing       Must be set before using test_garbagecollect_now().
                Also, when set certain error messages won't be shown for 2
                seconds. (e.g. "'dictionary' option is empty")

                                v:this_session this_session-variable
v:this_session  Full filename of the last loaded or saved session file.  See
                :mksession.  It is allowed to set this variable.  When no
                session file has been saved, this variable is empty.
                "this_session" also works, for backwards compatibility, unless
                scriptversion is 3 or higher

                                        v:throwpoint throwpoint-variable
v:throwpoint    The point where the exception most recently caught and not
                finished was thrown.  Not set when commands are typed.  See
                also v:exception and throw-variables.
        :  throw "oops"
        :catch /.*/
        :  echo "Exception from" v:throwpoint
                Output: "Exception from test.vim, line 2"

                                                v:true true-variable
v:true          A Number with value one. Used to put "true" in JSON.  See
                When used as a string this evaluates to "v:true".
                        echo v:true
                That is so that eval() can parse the string back to the same
                value.  Read-only.
                                                v:val val-variable
v:val           Value of the current item of a List or Dictionary.  Only
                valid while evaluating the expression used with map() and
                filter().  Read-only.

                                        v:version version-variable
v:version       Version number of Vim: Major version number times 100 plus
                minor version number.  Version 5.0 is 500.  Version 5.1
                is 501.  Read-only.  "version" also works, for backwards
                compatibility, unless scriptversion is 3 or higher.
                Use has() to check if a certain patch was included, e.g.:
                        if has("patch-7.4.123")
                Note that patch numbers are specific to the version, thus both
                version 5.0 and 5.1 may have a patch 123, but these are
                completely different.

                                        v:versionlong versionlong-variable
v:versionlong   Like v:version, but also including the patchlevel in the last
                four digits.  Version 8.1 with patch 123 has value 8010123.
                This can be used like this:
                        if v:versionlong >= 8010123
                However, if there are gaps in the list of patches included
                this will not work well.  This can happen if a recent patch
                was included into an older version, e.g. for a security fix.
                Use the has() function to make sure the patch is actually

                                v:vim_did_enter vim_did_enter-variable
v:vim_did_enter Zero until most of startup is done.  It is set to one just
                before VimEnter autocommands are triggered.

                                        v:warningmsg warningmsg-variable
v:warningmsg    Last given warning message.  It's allowed to set this variable.

                                        v:windowid windowid-variable
v:windowid      When any X11 based GUI is running or when running in a
                terminal and Vim connects to the X server (-X) this will be
                set to the window ID.
                When an MS-Windows GUI is running this will be set to the
                window handle.
                Otherwise the value is zero.
                Note: for windows inside Vim use winnr() or win_getid(),
                see window-ID.

4. Builtin Functions                                    functions

See function-list for a list grouped by what the function is used for.

(Use CTRL-] on the function name to jump to the full explanation.)

USAGE                           RESULT  DESCRIPTION

abs({expr})                     Float or Number  absolute value of {expr}
acos({expr})                    Float   arc cosine of {expr}
add({object}{item})           List/Blob   append {item} to {object}
and({expr}{expr})             Number  bitwise AND
append({lnum}{text})          Number  append {text} below line {lnum}
                                Number  append {text} below line {lnum}
                                        in buffer {expr}
argc([{winid}])                 Number  number of files in the argument list
argidx()                        Number  current index in the argument list
arglistid([{winnr} [, {tabnr}]]) Number argument list id
argv({nr} [, {winid}])          String  {nr} entry of the argument list
argv([-1, {winid}])             List    the argument list
asin({expr})                    Float   arc sine of {expr}
assert_beeps({cmd})             Number  assert {cmd} causes a beep
assert_equal({exp}{act} [, {msg}])
                                Number  assert {exp} is equal to {act}
assert_equalfile({fname-one}{fname-two} [, {msg}])
                                Number  assert file contents are equal
assert_exception({error} [, {msg}])
                                Number  assert {error} is in v:exception
assert_fails({cmd} [, {error} [, {msg} [, {lnum} [, {context}]]]])
                                Number  assert {cmd} fails
assert_false({actual} [, {msg}])
                                Number  assert {actual} is false
assert_inrange({lower}{upper}{actual} [, {msg}])
                                Number  assert {actual} is inside the range
assert_match({pat}{text} [, {msg}])
                                Number  assert {pat} matches {text}
assert_nobeep({cmd})            Number  assert {cmd} does not cause a beep
assert_notequal({exp}{act} [, {msg}])
                                Number  assert {exp} is not equal {act}
assert_notmatch({pat}{text} [, {msg}])
                                Number  assert {pat} not matches {text}
assert_report({msg})            Number  report a test failure
assert_true({actual} [, {msg}]) Number  assert {actual} is true
atan({expr})                    Float   arc tangent of {expr}
atan2({expr1}{expr2})         Float   arc tangent of {expr1} / {expr2}
balloon_gettext()               String  current text in the balloon
balloon_show({expr})            none    show {expr} inside the balloon
balloon_split({msg})            List    split {msg} as used for a balloon
                                String  put up a file requester
browsedir({title}{initdir})   String  put up a directory requester
bufadd({name})                  Number  add a buffer to the buffer list
bufexists({expr})               Number  TRUE if buffer {expr} exists
buflisted({expr})               Number  TRUE if buffer {expr} is listed
bufload({expr})                 Number  load buffer {expr} if not loaded yet
bufloaded({expr})               Number  TRUE if buffer {expr} is loaded
bufname([{expr}])               String  Name of the buffer {expr}
bufnr([{expr} [, {create}]])    Number  Number of the buffer {expr}
bufwinid({expr})                Number  window ID of buffer {expr}
bufwinnr({expr})                Number  window number of buffer {expr}
byte2line({byte})               Number  line number at byte count {byte}
byteidx({expr}{nr})           Number  byte index of {nr}'th char in {expr}
byteidxcomp({expr}{nr})       Number  byte index of {nr}'th char in {expr}
call({func}{arglist} [, {dict}])
                                any     call {func} with arguments {arglist}
ceil({expr})                    Float   round {expr} up
ch_canread({handle})            Number  check if there is something to read
ch_close({handle})              none    close {handle}
ch_close_in({handle})           none    close in part of {handle}
ch_evalexpr({handle}{expr} [, {options}])
                                any     evaluate {expr} on JSON {handle}
ch_evalraw({handle}{string} [, {options}])
                                any     evaluate {string} on raw {handle}
ch_getbufnr({handle}{what})   Number  get buffer number for {handle}/{what}
ch_getjob({channel})            Job     get the Job of {channel}
ch_info({handle})               String  info about channel {handle}
ch_log({msg} [, {handle}])      none    write {msg} in the channel log file
ch_logfile({fname} [, {mode}])  none    start logging channel activity
ch_open({address} [, {options}])
                                Channel open a channel to {address}
ch_read({handle} [, {options}]) String  read from {handle}
ch_readblob({handle} [, {options}])
                                Blob    read Blob from {handle}
ch_readraw({handle} [, {options}])
                                String  read raw from {handle}
ch_sendexpr({handle}{expr} [, {options}])
                                any     send {expr} over JSON {handle}
ch_sendraw({handle}{expr} [, {options}])
                                any     send {expr} over raw {handle}
                                none    set options for {handle}
ch_status({handle} [, {options}])
                                String  status of channel {handle}
changenr()                      Number  current change number
char2nr({expr} [, {utf8}])      Number  ASCII/UTF8 value of first char in {expr}
charclass({string})             Number  character class of {string}
charcol({expr})                 Number  column number of cursor or mark
charidx({string}{idx} [, {countcc}])
                                Number  char index of byte {idx} in {string}
chdir({dir})                    String  change current working directory
cindent({lnum})                 Number  C indent for line {lnum}
clearmatches([{win}])           none    clear all matches
col({expr})                     Number  column byte index of cursor or mark
complete({startcol}{matches}) none    set Insert mode completion
complete_add({expr})            Number  add completion match
complete_check()                Number  check for key typed during completion
complete_info([{what}])         Dict    get current completion information
confirm({msg} [, {choices} [, {default} [, {type}]]])
                                Number  number of choice picked by user
copy({expr})                    any     make a shallow copy of {expr}
cos({expr})                     Float   cosine of {expr}
cosh({expr})                    Float   hyperbolic cosine of {expr}
count({comp}{expr} [, {ic} [, {start}]])
                                Number  count how many {expr} are in {comp}
cscope_connection([{num}{dbpath} [, {prepend}]])
                                Number  checks existence of cscope connection
cursor({lnum}{col} [, {off}])
                                Number  move cursor to {lnum}{col}{off}
cursor({list})                  Number  move cursor to position in {list}
debugbreak({pid})               Number  interrupt process being debugged
deepcopy({expr} [, {noref}])    any     make a full copy of {expr}
delete({fname} [, {flags}])     Number  delete the file or directory {fname}
deletebufline({expr}{first} [, {last}])
                                Number  delete lines from buffer {expr}
did_filetype()                  Number  TRUE if FileType autocmd event used
diff_filler({lnum})             Number  diff filler lines about {lnum}
diff_hlID({lnum}{col})        Number  diff highlighting at {lnum}/{col}
digraph_get({chars})            String  get the digraph of {chars}
digraph_getlist([{listall}])    List    get all digraphs
digraph_set({chars}{digraph}) Boolean register digraph
digraph_setlist({digraphlist})  Boolean register multiple digraphs
echoraw({expr})                 none    output {expr} as-is
empty({expr})                   Number  TRUE if {expr} is empty
environ()                       Dict    return environment variables
escape({string}{chars})       String  escape {chars} in {string} with '\'
eval({string})                  any     evaluate {string} into its value
eventhandler()                  Number  TRUE if inside an event handler
executable({expr})              Number  1 if executable {expr} exists
execute({command})              String  execute {command} and get the output
exepath({expr})                 String  full path of the command {expr}
exists({expr})                  Number  TRUE if {expr} exists
exp({expr})                     Float   exponential of {expr}
expand({expr} [, {nosuf} [, {list}]])
                                any     expand special keywords in {expr}
expandcmd({expr})               String  expand {expr} like with :edit
extend({expr1}{expr2} [, {expr3}])
                                List/Dict insert items of {expr2} into {expr1}
extendnew({expr1}{expr2} [, {expr3}])
                                List/Dict like extend() but creates a new
                                        List or Dictionary
feedkeys({string} [, {mode}])   Number  add key sequence to typeahead buffer
filereadable({file})            Number  TRUE if {file} is a readable file
filewritable({file})            Number  TRUE if {file} is a writable file
filter({expr1}{expr2})        List/Dict  remove items from {expr1} where
                                        {expr2} is 0
finddir({name} [, {path} [, {count}]])
                                String  find directory {name} in {path}
findfile({name} [, {path} [, {count}]])
                                String  find file {name} in {path}
flatten({list} [, {maxdepth}])  List    flatten {list} up to {maxdepth} levels
flattennew({list} [, {maxdepth}])
                                List    flatten a copy of {list}
float2nr({expr})                Number  convert Float {expr} to a Number
floor({expr})                   Float   round {expr} down
fmod({expr1}{expr2})          Float   remainder of {expr1} / {expr2}
fnameescape({fname})            String  escape special characters in {fname}
fnamemodify({fname}{mods})    String  modify file name
foldclosed({lnum})              Number  first line of fold at {lnum} if closed
foldclosedend({lnum})           Number  last line of fold at {lnum} if closed
foldlevel({lnum})               Number  fold level at {lnum}
foldtext()                      String  line displayed for closed fold
foldtextresult({lnum})          String  text for closed fold at {lnum}
foreground()                    Number  bring the Vim window to the foreground
fullcommand({name})             String  get full command from {name}
funcref({name} [, {arglist}] [, {dict}])
                                Funcref reference to function {name}
function({name} [, {arglist}] [, {dict}])
                                Funcref named reference to function {name}
garbagecollect([{atexit}])      none    free memory, breaking cyclic references
get({list}{idx} [, {def}])    any     get item {idx} from {list} or {def}
get({dict}{key} [, {def}])    any     get item {key} from {dict} or {def}
get({func}{what})             any     get property of funcref/partial {func}
getbufinfo([{expr}])            List    information about buffers
getbufline({expr}{lnum} [, {end}])
                                List    lines {lnum} to {end} of buffer {expr}
getbufvar({expr}{varname} [, {def}])
                                any     variable {varname} in buffer {expr}
getchangelist([{expr}])         List    list of change list items
getchar([expr])                 Number or String
                                        get one character from the user
getcharmod()                    Number  modifiers for the last typed character
getcharpos({expr})              List    position of cursor, mark, etc.
getcharsearch()                 Dict    last character search
getcharstr([expr])              String  get one character from the user
getcmdline()                    String  return the current command-line
getcmdpos()                     Number  return cursor position in command-line
getcmdtype()                    String  return current command-line type
getcmdwintype()                 String  return current command-line window type
getcompletion({pat}{type} [, {filtered}])
                                List    list of cmdline completion matches
getcurpos([{winnr}])            List    position of the cursor
getcursorcharpos([{winnr}])     List    character position of the cursor
getcwd([{winnr} [, {tabnr}]])   String  get the current working directory
getenv({name})                  String  return environment variable
getfontname([{name}])           String  name of font being used
getfperm({fname})               String  file permissions of file {fname}
getfsize({fname})               Number  size in bytes of file {fname}
getftime({fname})               Number  last modification time of file
getftype({fname})               String  description of type of file {fname}
getimstatus()                   Number  TRUE if the IME status is active
getjumplist([{winnr} [, {tabnr}]])
                                List    list of jump list items
getline({lnum})                 String  line {lnum} of current buffer
getline({lnum}{end})          List    lines {lnum} to {end} of current buffer
getloclist({nr})                List    list of location list items
getloclist({nr}{what})        Dict    get specific location list properties
getmarklist([{expr}])           List    list of global/local marks
getmatches([{win}])             List    list of current matches
getmousepos()                   Dict    last known mouse position
getpid()                        Number  process ID of Vim
getpos({expr})                  List    position of cursor, mark, etc.
getqflist()                     List    list of quickfix items
getqflist({what})               Dict    get specific quickfix list properties
getreg([{regname} [, 1 [, {list}]]])
                                String or List   contents of a register
getreginfo([{regname}])         Dict    information about a register
getregtype([{regname}])         String  type of a register
gettabinfo([{expr}])            List    list of tab pages
gettabvar({nr}{varname} [, {def}])
                                any     variable {varname} in tab {nr} or {def}
gettabwinvar({tabnr}{winnr}{name} [, {def}])
                                any     {name} in {winnr} in tab page {tabnr}
gettagstack([{nr}])             Dict    get the tag stack of window {nr}
gettext({text})                 String  lookup translation of {text}
getwininfo([{winid}])           List    list of info about each window
getwinpos([{timeout}])          List    X and Y coord in pixels of the Vim window
getwinposx()                    Number  X coord in pixels of the Vim window
getwinposy()                    Number  Y coord in pixels of the Vim window
getwinvar({nr}{varname} [, {def}])
                                any     variable {varname} in window {nr}
glob({expr} [, {nosuf} [, {list} [, {alllinks}]]])
                                any     expand file wildcards in {expr}
glob2regpat({expr})             String  convert a glob pat into a search pat
globpath({path}{expr} [, {nosuf} [, {list} [, {alllinks}]]])
                                String  do glob({expr}) for all dirs in {path}
has({feature} [, {check}])      Number  TRUE if feature {feature} supported
has_key({dict}{key})          Number  TRUE if {dict} has entry {key}
haslocaldir([{winnr} [, {tabnr}]])
                                Number  TRUE if the window executed :lcd
                                        or :tcd
hasmapto({what} [, {mode} [, {abbr}]])
                                Number  TRUE if mapping to {what} exists
histadd({history}{item})      Number  add an item to a history
histdel({history} [, {item}])   Number  remove an item from a history
histget({history} [, {index}])  String  get the item {index} from a history
histnr({history})               Number  highest index of a history
hlID({name})                    Number  syntax ID of highlight group {name}
hlexists({name})                Number  TRUE if highlight group {name} exists
hostname()                      String  name of the machine Vim is running on
iconv({expr}{from}{to})     String  convert encoding of {expr}
indent({lnum})                  Number  indent of line {lnum}
index({object}{expr} [, {start} [, {ic}]])
                                Number  index in {object} where {expr} appears
input({prompt} [, {text} [, {completion}]])
                                String  get input from the user
inputdialog({prompt} [, {text} [, {completion}]])
                                String  like input() but in a GUI dialog
inputlist({textlist})           Number  let the user pick from a choice list
inputrestore()                  Number  restore typeahead
inputsave()                     Number  save and clear typeahead
inputsecret({prompt} [, {text}]) String like input() but hiding the text
insert({object}{item} [, {idx}]) List insert {item} in {object} [before {idx}]
interrupt()                     none    interrupt script execution
invert({expr})                  Number  bitwise invert
isdirectory({directory})        Number  TRUE if {directory} is a directory
isinf({expr})                   Number  determine if {expr} is infinity value
                                        (positive or negative)
islocked({expr})                Number  TRUE if {expr} is locked
isnan({expr})                   Number  TRUE if {expr} is NaN
items({dict})                   List    key-value pairs in {dict}
job_getchannel({job})           Channel get the channel handle for {job}
job_info([{job}])               Dict    get information about {job}
job_setoptions({job}{options}) none   set options for {job}
job_start({command} [, {options}])
                                Job     start a job
job_status({job})               String  get the status of {job}
job_stop({job} [, {how}])       Number  stop {job}
join({list} [, {sep}])          String  join {list} items into one String
js_decode({string})             any     decode JS style JSON
js_encode({expr})               String  encode JS style JSON
json_decode({string})           any     decode JSON
json_encode({expr})             String  encode JSON
keys({dict})                    List    keys in {dict}
len({expr})                     Number  the length of {expr}
libcall({lib}{func}{arg})   String  call {func} in library {lib} with {arg}
libcallnr({lib}{func}{arg}) Number  idem, but return a Number
line({expr} [, {winid}])        Number  line nr of cursor, last line or mark
line2byte({lnum})               Number  byte count of line {lnum}
lispindent({lnum})              Number  Lisp indent for line {lnum}
list2str({list} [, {utf8}])     String  turn numbers in {list} into a String
listener_add({callback} [, {buf}])
                                Number  add a callback to listen to changes
listener_flush([{buf}])         none    invoke listener callbacks
listener_remove({id})           none    remove a listener callback
localtime()                     Number  current time
log({expr})                     Float   natural logarithm (base e) of {expr}
log10({expr})                   Float   logarithm of Float {expr} to base 10
luaeval({expr} [, {expr}])      any     evaluate Lua expression
map({expr1}{expr2})           List/Dict  change each item in {expr1} to {expr}
maparg({name} [, {mode} [, {abbr} [, {dict}]]])
                                String or Dict
                                        rhs of mapping {name} in mode {mode}
mapcheck({name} [, {mode} [, {abbr}]])
                                String  check for mappings matching {name}
mapnew({expr1}{expr2})        List/Dict  like map() but creates a new List
                                           or Dictionary
mapset({mode}{abbr}{dict})  none    restore mapping from maparg() result
match({expr}{pat} [, {start} [, {count}]])
                                Number  position where {pat} matches in {expr}
matchadd({group}{pattern} [, {priority} [, {id} [, {dict}]]])
                                Number  highlight {pattern} with {group}
matchaddpos({group}{pos} [, {priority} [, {id} [, {dict}]]])
                                Number  highlight positions with {group}
matcharg({nr})                  List    arguments of :match
matchdelete({id} [, {win}])     Number  delete match identified by {id}
matchend({expr}{pat} [, {start} [, {count}]])
                                Number  position where {pat} ends in {expr}
matchfuzzy({list}{str} [, {dict}])
                                List    fuzzy match {str} in {list}
matchfuzzypos({list}{str} [, {dict}])
                                List    fuzzy match {str} in {list}
matchlist({expr}{pat} [, {start} [, {count}]])
                                List    match and submatches of {pat} in {expr}
matchstr({expr}{pat} [, {start} [, {count}]])
                                String  {count}'th match of {pat} in {expr}
matchstrpos({expr}{pat} [, {start} [, {count}]])
                                List    {count}'th match of {pat} in {expr}
max({expr})                     Number  maximum value of items in {expr}
menu_info({name} [, {mode}])    Dict    get menu item information
min({expr})                     Number  minimum value of items in {expr}
mkdir({name} [, {path} [, {prot}]])
                                Number  create directory {name}
mode([expr])                    String  current editing mode
mzeval({expr})                  any     evaluate MzScheme expression
nextnonblank({lnum})            Number  line nr of non-blank line >= {lnum}
nr2char({expr} [, {utf8}])      String  single char with ASCII/UTF8 value {expr}
or({expr}{expr})              Number  bitwise OR
pathshorten({expr} [, {len}])   String  shorten directory names in a path
perleval({expr})                any     evaluate Perl expression
popup_atcursor({what}{options}) Number create popup window near the cursor
popup_beval({what}{options})  Number  create popup window for 'ballooneval'
popup_clear()                   none    close all popup windows
popup_close({id} [, {result}])  none    close popup window {id}
popup_create({what}{options}) Number  create a popup window
popup_dialog({what}{options}) Number  create a popup window used as a dialog
popup_filter_menu({id}{key})  Number  filter for a menu popup window
popup_filter_yesno({id}{key}) Number  filter for a dialog popup window
popup_findinfo()                Number  get window ID of info popup window
popup_findpreview()             Number  get window ID of preview popup window
popup_getoptions({id})          Dict    get options of popup window {id}
popup_getpos({id})              Dict    get position of popup window {id}
popup_hide({id})                none    hide popup menu {id}
popup_list()                    List    get a list of window IDs of all popups
popup_locate({row}{col})      Number  get window ID of popup at position
popup_menu({what}{options})   Number  create a popup window used as a menu
popup_move({id}{options})     none    set position of popup window {id}
                                Number  create a notification popup window
                                none    set options for popup window {id}
popup_settext({id}{text})     none    set the text of popup window {id}
popup_show({id})                none    unhide popup window {id}
pow({x}{y})                   Float   {x} to the power of {y}
prevnonblank({lnum})            Number  line nr of non-blank line <= {lnum}
printf({fmt}{expr1}...)       String  format text
prompt_getprompt({buf})         String  get prompt text
prompt_setcallback({buf}{expr}) none  set prompt callback function
prompt_setinterrupt({buf}{text}) none set prompt interrupt function
prompt_setprompt({buf}{text}) none    set prompt text
prop_add({lnum}{col}{props})  none  add a text property
prop_clear({lnum} [, {lnum-end} [, {props}]])
                                none    remove all text properties
prop_find({props} [, {direction}])
                                Dict    search for a text property
prop_list({lnum} [, {props}])   List    text properties in {lnum}
prop_remove({props} [, {lnum} [, {lnum-end}]])
                                Number  remove a text property
prop_type_add({name}{props})  none    define a new property type
                                none    change an existing property type
prop_type_delete({name} [, {props}])
                                none    delete a property type
prop_type_get({name} [, {props}])
                                Dict    get property type values
prop_type_list([{props}])       List    get list of property types
pum_getpos()                    Dict    position and size of pum if visible
pumvisible()                    Number  whether popup menu is visible
py3eval({expr})                 any     evaluate python3 expression
pyeval({expr})                  any     evaluate Python expression
pyxeval({expr})                 any     evaluate python_x expression
rand([{expr}])                  Number  get pseudo-random number
range({expr} [, {max} [, {stride}]])
                                List    items from {expr} to {max}
readblob({fname})               Blob    read a Blob from {fname}
readdir({dir} [, {expr} [, {dict}]])
                                List    file names in {dir} selected by {expr}
readdirex({dir} [, {expr} [, {dict}]])
                                List    file info in {dir} selected by {expr}
readfile({fname} [, {type} [, {max}]])
                                List    get list of lines from file {fname}
reduce({object}{func} [, {initial}])
                                any     reduce {object} using {func}
reg_executing()                 String  get the executing register name
reg_recording()                 String  get the recording register name
reltime([{start} [, {end}]])    List    get time value
reltimefloat({time})            Float   turn the time value into a Float
reltimestr({time})              String  turn time value into a String
remote_expr({server}{string} [, {idvar} [, {timeout}]])
                                String  send expression
remote_foreground({server})     Number  bring Vim server to the foreground
remote_peek({serverid} [, {retvar}])
                                Number  check for reply string
remote_read({serverid} [, {timeout}])
                                String  read reply string
remote_send({server}{string} [, {idvar}])
                                String  send key sequence
remote_startserver({name})      none    become server {name}
remove({list}{idx} [, {end}]) any/List
                                        remove items {idx}-{end} from {list}
remove({blob}{idx} [, {end}]) Number/Blob
                                        remove bytes {idx}-{end} from {blob}
remove({dict}{key})           any     remove entry {key} from {dict}
rename({from}{to})            Number  rename (move) file from {from} to {to}
repeat({expr}{count})         String  repeat {expr} {count} times
resolve({filename})             String  get filename a shortcut points to
reverse({list})                 List    reverse {list} in-place
round({expr})                   Float   round off {expr}
rubyeval({expr})                any     evaluate Ruby expression
screenattr({row}{col})        Number  attribute at screen position
screenchar({row}{col})        Number  character at screen position
screenchars({row}{col})       List    List of characters at screen position
screencol()                     Number  current cursor column
screenpos({winid}{lnum}{col}) Dict  screen row and col of a text character
screenrow()                     Number  current cursor row
screenstring({row}{col})      String  characters at screen position
search({pattern} [, {flags} [, {stopline} [, {timeout} [, {skip}]]]])
                                Number  search for {pattern}
searchcount([{options}])        Dict    get or update search stats
searchdecl({name} [, {global} [, {thisblock}]])
                                Number  search for variable declaration
searchpair({start}{middle}{end} [, {flags} [, {skip} [...]]])
                                Number  search for other end of start/end pair
searchpairpos({start}{middle}{end} [, {flags} [, {skip} [...]]])
                                List    search for other end of start/end pair
searchpos({pattern} [, {flags} [, {stopline} [, {timeout} [, {skip}]]]])
                                List    search for {pattern}
                                Number  send reply string
serverlist()                    String  get a list of available servers
                                Number  set line {lnum} to {text} in buffer
                                none    set {varname} in buffer {expr} to {val}
setcellwidths({list})           none    set character cell width overrides
setcharpos({expr}{list})      Number  set the {expr} position to {list}
setcharsearch({dict})           Dict    set character search from {dict}
setcmdpos({pos})                Number  set cursor position in command-line
setcursorcharpos({list})        Number  move cursor to position in {list}
setenv({name}{val})           none    set environment variable
setfperm({fname}{mode})       Number  set {fname} file permissions to {mode}
setline({lnum}{line})         Number  set line {lnum} to {line}
setloclist({nr}{list} [, {action}])
                                Number  modify location list using {list}
                                Number  modify specific location list props
setmatches({list} [, {win}])    Number  restore a list of matches
setpos({expr}{list})          Number  set the {expr} position to {list}
setqflist({list} [, {action}])  Number  modify quickfix list using {list}
                                Number  modify specific quickfix list props
setreg({n}{v} [, {opt}])      Number  set register to value and type
settabvar({nr}{varname}{val}) none  set {varname} in tab page {nr} to {val}
                                none    set {varname} in window {winnr} in tab
                                        page {tabnr} to {val}
settagstack({nr}{dict} [, {action}])
                                Number  modify tag stack using {dict}
setwinvar({nr}{varname}{val}) none  set {varname} in window {nr} to {val}
sha256({string})                String  SHA256 checksum of {string}
shellescape({string} [, {special}])
                                String  escape {string} for use as shell
                                        command argument
shiftwidth([{col}])             Number  effective value of 'shiftwidth'
sign_define({name} [, {dict}])  Number  define or update a sign
sign_define({list})             List    define or update a list of signs
sign_getdefined([{name}])       List    get a list of defined signs
sign_getplaced([{expr} [, {dict}]])
                                List    get a list of placed signs
                                Number  jump to a sign
sign_place({id}{group}{name}{expr} [, {dict}])
                                Number  place a sign
sign_placelist({list})          List    place a list of signs
sign_undefine([{name}])         Number  undefine a sign
sign_undefine({list})           List    undefine a list of signs
sign_unplace({group} [, {dict}])
                                Number  unplace a sign
sign_unplacelist({list})        List    unplace a list of signs
simplify({filename})            String  simplify filename as much as possible
sin({expr})                     Float   sine of {expr}
sinh({expr})                    Float   hyperbolic sine of {expr}
slice({expr}{start} [, {end}])  String, List or Blob
                                        slice of a String, List or Blob
sort({list} [, {func} [, {dict}]])
                                List    sort {list}, using {func} to compare
sound_clear()                   none    stop playing all sounds
sound_playevent({name} [, {callback}])
                                Number  play an event sound
sound_playfile({path} [, {callback}])
                                Number  play sound file {path}
sound_stop({id})                none    stop playing sound {id}
soundfold({word})               String  sound-fold {word}
spellbadword()                  String  badly spelled word at cursor
spellsuggest({word} [, {max} [, {capital}]])
                                List    spelling suggestions
split({expr} [, {pat} [, {keepempty}]])
                                List    make List from {pat} separated {expr}
sqrt({expr})                    Float   square root of {expr}
srand([{expr}])                 List    get seed for rand()
state([{what}])                 String  current state of Vim
str2float({expr})               Float   convert String to Float
str2list({expr} [, {utf8}])     List    convert each character of {expr} to
                                        ASCII/UTF8 value
str2nr({expr} [, {base} [, {quoted}]])
                                Number  convert String to Number
strcharlen({expr})              Number  character length of the String {expr}
strcharpart({str}{start} [, {len} [, {skipcc}]])
                                String  {len} characters of {str} at
                                        character {start}
strchars({expr} [, {skipcc}])   Number  character count of the String {expr}
strdisplaywidth({expr} [, {col}]) Number display length of the String {expr}
strftime({format} [, {time}])   String  format time with a specified format
strgetchar({str}{index})      Number  get char {index} from {str}
stridx({haystack}{needle} [, {start}])
                                Number  index of {needle} in {haystack}
string({expr})                  String  String representation of {expr} value
strlen({expr})                  Number  length of the String {expr}
strpart({str}{start} [, {len} [, {chars}]])
                                String  {len} bytes/chars of {str} at
                                        byte {start}
                                Number  Convert {timestring} to unix timestamp
strridx({haystack}{needle} [, {start}])
                                Number  last index of {needle} in {haystack}
strtrans({expr})                String  translate string to make it printable
strwidth({expr})                Number  display cell length of the String {expr}
submatch({nr} [, {list}])       String or List
                                        specific match in ":s" or substitute()
                                String  all {pat} in {expr} replaced with {sub}
swapinfo({fname})               Dict    information about swap file {fname}
swapname({expr})                String  swap file of buffer {expr}
synID({lnum}{col}{trans})   Number  syntax ID at {lnum} and {col}
synIDattr({synID}{what} [, {mode}])
                                String  attribute {what} of syntax ID {synID}
synIDtrans({synID})             Number  translated syntax ID of {synID}
synconcealed({lnum}{col})     List    info about concealing
synstack({lnum}{col})         List    stack of syntax IDs at {lnum} and {col}
system({expr} [, {input}])      String  output of shell command/filter {expr}
systemlist({expr} [, {input}])  List    output of shell command/filter {expr}
tabpagebuflist([{arg}])         List    list of buffer numbers in tab page
tabpagenr([{arg}])              Number  number of current or last tab page
tabpagewinnr({tabarg} [, {arg}]) Number number of current window in tab page
tagfiles()                      List    tags files used
taglist({expr} [, {filename}])  List    list of tags matching {expr}
tan({expr})                     Float   tangent of {expr}
tanh({expr})                    Float   hyperbolic tangent of {expr}
tempname()                      String  name for a temporary file
term_dumpdiff({filename}{filename} [, {options}])
                                Number  display difference between two dumps
term_dumpload({filename} [, {options}])
                                Number  displaying a screen dump
term_dumpwrite({buf}{filename} [, {options}])
                                none    dump terminal window contents
term_getaltscreen({buf})        Number  get the alternate screen flag
term_getansicolors({buf})       List    get ANSI palette in GUI color mode
term_getattr({attr}{what})    Number  get the value of attribute {what}
term_getcursor({buf})           List    get the cursor position of a terminal
term_getjob({buf})              Job     get the job associated with a terminal
term_getline({buf}{row})      String  get a line of text from a terminal
term_getscrolled({buf})         Number  get the scroll count of a terminal
term_getsize({buf})             List    get the size of a terminal
term_getstatus({buf})           String  get the status of a terminal
term_gettitle({buf})            String  get the title of a terminal
term_gettty({buf}, [{input}])   String  get the tty name of a terminal
term_list()                     List    get the list of terminal buffers
term_scrape({buf}{row})       List    get row of a terminal screen
term_sendkeys({buf}{keys})    none    send keystrokes to a terminal
                                none    set ANSI palette in GUI color mode
term_setapi({buf}{expr})      none    set terminal-api function name prefix
term_setkill({buf}{how})      none    set signal to stop job in terminal
term_setrestore({buf}{command}) none  set command to restore terminal
                                none    set the size of a terminal
term_start({cmd} [, {options}]) Number  open a terminal window and run a job
term_wait({buf} [, {time}])     Number  wait for screen to be updated
terminalprops()                 Dict    properties of the terminal
                                none    make memory allocation fail
test_autochdir()                none    enable 'autochdir' during startup
test_feedinput({string})        none    add key sequence to input buffer
test_garbagecollect_now()       none    free memory right now for testing
test_garbagecollect_soon()      none    free memory soon for testing
test_getvalue({string})         any     get value of an internal variable
                                none    drop a list of files in a window
                                none    add a mouse event to the input buffer
test_ignore_error({expr})       none    ignore a specific error
test_null_blob()                Blob    null value for testing
test_null_channel()             Channel null value for testing
test_null_dict()                Dict    null value for testing
test_null_function()            Funcref null value for testing
test_null_job()                 Job     null value for testing
test_null_list()                List    null value for testing
test_null_partial()             Funcref null value for testing
test_null_string()              String  null value for testing
test_option_not_set({name})     none    reset flag indicating option was set
test_override({expr}{val})    none    test with Vim internal overrides
test_refcount({expr})           Number  get the reference count of {expr}
                                none    scroll in the GUI for testing
test_setmouse({row}{col})     none    set the mouse position for testing
test_settime({expr})            none    set current time for testing
test_srand_seed([seed])         none    set seed for testing srand()
test_unknown()                  any     unknown value for testing
test_void()                     any     void value for testing
timer_info([{id}])              List    information about timers
timer_pause({id}{pause})      none    pause or unpause a timer
timer_start({time}{callback} [, {options}])
                                Number  create a timer
timer_stop({timer})             none    stop a timer
timer_stopall()                 none    stop all timers
tolower({expr})                 String  the String {expr} switched to lowercase
toupper({expr})                 String  the String {expr} switched to uppercase
tr({src}{fromstr}{tostr})   String  translate chars of {src} in {fromstr}
                                        to chars in {tostr}
trim({text} [, {mask} [, {dir}]])
                                String  trim characters in {mask} from {text}
trunc({expr})                   Float   truncate Float {expr}
type({expr})                    Number  type of value {expr}
typename({expr})                String  representation of the type of {expr}
undofile({name})                String  undo file name for {name}
undotree()                      List    undo file tree
uniq({list} [, {func} [, {dict}]])
                                List    remove adjacent duplicates from a list
values({dict})                  List    values in {dict}
virtcol({expr})                 Number  screen column of cursor or mark
visualmode([expr])              String  last visual mode used
wildmenumode()                  Number  whether 'wildmenu' mode is active
win_execute({id}{command} [, {silent}])
                                String  execute {command} in window {id}
win_findbuf({bufnr})            List    find windows containing {bufnr}
win_getid([{win} [, {tab}]])    Number  get window ID for {win} in {tab}
win_gettype([{nr}])             String  type of window {nr}
win_gotoid({expr})              Number  go to window with ID {expr}
win_id2tabwin({expr})           List    get tab and window nr from window ID
win_id2win({expr})              Number  get window nr from window ID
win_screenpos({nr})             List    get screen position of window {nr}
win_splitmove({nr}{target} [, {options}])
                                Number  move window {nr} to split of {target}
winbufnr({nr})                  Number  buffer number of window {nr}
wincol()                        Number  window column of the cursor
windowsversion()                String  MS-Windows OS version
winheight({nr})                 Number  height of window {nr}
winlayout([{tabnr}])            List    layout of windows in tab {tabnr}
winline()                       Number  window line of the cursor
winnr([{expr}])                 Number  number of current window
winrestcmd()                    String  returns command to restore window sizes
winrestview({dict})             none    restore view of current window
winsaveview()                   Dict    save view of current window
winwidth({nr})                  Number  width of window {nr}
wordcount()                     Dict    get byte/char/word statistics
writefile({object}{fname} [, {flags}])
                                Number  write Blob or List of lines to file
xor({expr}{expr})             Number  bitwise XOR

abs({expr})                                                     abs()
                Return the absolute value of {expr}.  When {expr} evaluates to
                a Float abs() returns a Float.  When {expr} can be
                converted to a Number abs() returns a Number.  Otherwise
                abs() gives an error message and returns -1.
                        echo abs(1.456)
                        echo abs(-5.456)
                        echo abs(-4)

                Can also be used as a method:

                {only available when compiled with the +float feature}

acos({expr})                                                    acos()
                Return the arc cosine of {expr} measured in radians, as a
                Float in the range of [0, pi].
                {expr} must evaluate to a Float or a Number in the range
                [-1, 1].
                        :echo acos(0)
                        :echo acos(-0.5)

                Can also be used as a method:

                {only available when compiled with the +float feature}

add({object}{expr})                                   add()
                Append the item {expr} to List or Blob {object}.  Returns
                the resulting List or Blob.  Examples:
                        :let alist = add([1, 2, 3], item)
                        :call add(mylist, "woodstock")
                Note that when {expr} is a List it is appended as a single
                item.  Use extend() to concatenate Lists.
                When {object} is a Blob then  {expr} must be a number.
                Use insert() to add an item at another position.

                Can also be used as a method:

and({expr}{expr})                                     and()
                Bitwise AND on the two arguments.  The arguments are converted
                to a number.  A List, Dict or Float argument causes an error.
                        :let flag = and(bits, 0x80)
                Can also be used as a method:
                        :let flag = bits->and(0x80)

append({lnum}{text})                                  append()
                When {text} is a List: Append each item of the List as a
                text line below line {lnum} in the current buffer.
                Otherwise append {text} as one text line below line {lnum} in
                the current buffer.
                Any type of item is accepted and converted to a String.
                {lnum} can be zero to insert a line before the first one.
                {lnum} is used like with getline().
                Returns 1 for failure ({lnum} out of range or out of memory),
                0 for success.  Example:
                        :let failed = append(line('$'), "# THE END")
                        :let failed = append(0, ["Chapter 1", "the beginning"])

                Can also be used as a method after a List, the base is
                passed as the second argument:

appendbufline({expr}{lnum}{text})                   appendbufline()
                Like append() but append the text in buffer {expr}.

                This function works only for loaded buffers. First call
                bufload() if needed.

                For the use of {expr}, see bufname().

                {lnum} is used like with append().  Note that using line()
                would use the current buffer, not the one appending to.
                Use "$" to append at the end of the buffer.

                On success 0 is returned, on failure 1 is returned.

                If {expr} is not a valid buffer or {lnum} is not valid, an
                error message is given. Example:
                        :let failed = appendbufline(13, 0, "# THE START")

                Can also be used as a method after a List, the base is
                passed as the second argument:
                        mylist->appendbufline(buf, lnum)

argc([{winid}])                                 argc()
                The result is the number of files in the argument list.  See
                If {winid} is not supplied, the argument list of the current
                window is used.
                If {winid} is -1, the global argument list is used.
                Otherwise {winid} specifies the window of which the argument
                list is used: either the window number or the window ID.
                Returns -1 if the {winid} argument is invalid.

argidx()        The result is the current index in the argument list.  0 is
                the first file.  argc() - 1 is the last one.  See arglist.

arglistid([{winnr} [, {tabnr}]])
                Return the argument list ID.  This is a number which
                identifies the argument list being used.  Zero is used for the
                global argument list.  See arglist.
                Returns -1 if the arguments are invalid.

                Without arguments use the current window.
                With {winnr} only use this window in the current tab page.
                With {winnr} and {tabnr} use the window in the specified tab
                {winnr} can be the window number or the window-ID.

argv([{nr} [, {winid}]])
                The result is the {nr}th file in the argument list.  See
                arglist.  "argv(0)" is the first one.  Example:
        :let i = 0
        :while i < argc()
        :  let f = escape(fnameescape(argv(i)), '.')
        :  exe 'amenu Arg.' . f . ' :e ' . f . '<CR>'
        :  let i = i + 1
                Without the {nr} argument, or when {nr} is -1, a List with
                the whole arglist is returned.

                The {winid} argument specifies the window ID, see argc().
                For the Vim command line arguments see v:argv.

asin({expr})                                            asin()
                Return the arc sine of {expr} measured in radians, as a Float
                in the range of [-pi/2, pi/2].
                {expr} must evaluate to a Float or a Number in the range
                [-1, 1].
                        :echo asin(0.8)
                        :echo asin(-0.5)

                Can also be used as a method:

                {only available when compiled with the +float feature}

assert_ functions are documented here: assert-functions-details

atan({expr})                                            atan()
                Return the principal value of the arc tangent of {expr}, in
                the range [-pi/2, +pi/2] radians, as a Float.
                {expr} must evaluate to a Float or a Number.
                        :echo atan(100)
                        :echo atan(-4.01)

                Can also be used as a method:

                {only available when compiled with the +float feature}

atan2({expr1}{expr2})                                 atan2()
                Return the arc tangent of {expr1} / {expr2}, measured in
                radians, as a Float in the range [-pi, pi].
                {expr1} and {expr2} must evaluate to a Float or a Number.
                        :echo atan2(-1, 1)
                        :echo atan2(1, -1)

                Can also be used as a method:

                {only available when compiled with the +float feature}

balloon_gettext()                                       balloon_gettext()
                Return the current text in the balloon.  Only for the string,
                not used for the List.

balloon_show({expr})                                    balloon_show()
                Show {expr} inside the balloon.  For the GUI {expr} is used as
                a string.  For a terminal {expr} can be a list, which contains
                the lines of the balloon.  If {expr} is not a list it will be
                split with balloon_split().
                If {expr} is an empty string any existing balloon is removed.

                        func GetBalloonContent()
                           " ... initiate getting the content
                           return ''
                        set balloonexpr=GetBalloonContent()

                        func BalloonCallback(result)
                          call balloon_show(a:result)
                Can also be used as a method:

                The intended use is that fetching the content of the balloon
                is initiated from 'balloonexpr'.  It will invoke an
                asynchronous method, in which a callback invokes
                balloon_show().  The 'balloonexpr' itself can return an
                empty string or a placeholder.

                When showing a balloon is not possible nothing happens, no
                error message.
                {only available when compiled with the +balloon_eval or
                +balloon_eval_term feature}

balloon_split({msg})                                    balloon_split()
                Split {msg} into lines to be displayed in a balloon.  The
                splits are made for the current window size and optimize to
                show debugger output.
                Returns a List with the split lines.
                Can also be used as a method:

                {only available when compiled with the +balloon_eval_term

                Put up a file requester.  This only works when "has("browse")"
                returns TRUE (only in some GUI versions).
                The input fields are:
                    {save}      when TRUE, select file to write
                    {title}     title for the requester
                    {initdir}   directory to start browsing in
                    {default}   default file name
                An empty string is returned when the "Cancel" button is hit,
                something went wrong, or browsing is not possible.

                Put up a directory requester.  This only works when
                "has("browse")" returns TRUE (only in some GUI versions).
                On systems where a directory browser is not supported a file
                browser is used.  In that case: select a file in the directory
                to be used.
                The input fields are:
                    {title}     title for the requester
                    {initdir}   directory to start browsing in
                When the "Cancel" button is hit, something went wrong, or
                browsing is not possible, an empty string is returned.

bufadd({name})                                          bufadd()
                Add a buffer to the buffer list with {name}.
                If a buffer for file {name} already exists, return that buffer
                number.  Otherwise return the buffer number of the newly
                created buffer.  When {name} is an empty string then a new
                buffer is always created.
                The buffer will not have 'buflisted' set and not be loaded
                yet.  To add some text to the buffer use this:
                        let bufnr = bufadd('someName')
                        call bufload(bufnr)
                        call setbufline(bufnr, 1, ['some', 'text'])
                Can also be used as a method:
                        let bufnr = 'somename'->bufadd()

bufexists({expr})                                       bufexists()
                The result is a Number, which is TRUE if a buffer called
                {expr} exists.
                If the {expr} argument is a number, buffer numbers are used.
                Number zero is the alternate buffer for the current window.

                If the {expr} argument is a string it must match a buffer name
                exactly.  The name can be:
                - Relative to the current directory.
                - A full path.
                - The name of a buffer with 'buftype' set to "nofile".
                - A URL name.
                Unlisted buffers will be found.
                Note that help files are listed by their short name in the
                output of :buffers, but bufexists() requires using their
                long name to be able to find them.
                bufexists() may report a buffer exists, but to use the name
                with a :buffer command you may need to use expand().  Esp
                for MS-Windows 8.3 names in the form "c:\DOCUME~1"
                Use "bufexists(0)" to test for the existence of an alternate
                file name.

                Can also be used as a method:
                        let exists = 'somename'->bufexists()

                Obsolete name: buffer_exists().         buffer_exists()

buflisted({expr})                                       buflisted()
                The result is a Number, which is TRUE if a buffer called
                {expr} exists and is listed (has the 'buflisted' option set).
                The {expr} argument is used like with bufexists().

                Can also be used as a method:
                        let listed = 'somename'->buflisted()

bufload({expr})                                         bufload()
                Ensure the buffer {expr} is loaded.  When the buffer name
                refers to an existing file then the file is read.  Otherwise
                the buffer will be empty.  If the buffer was already loaded
                then there is no change.
                If there is an existing swap file for the file of the buffer,
                there will be no dialog, the buffer will be loaded anyway.
                The {expr} argument is used like with bufexists().

                Can also be used as a method:
                        eval 'somename'->bufload()

bufloaded({expr})                                       bufloaded()
                The result is a Number, which is TRUE if a buffer called
                {expr} exists and is loaded (shown in a window or hidden).
                The {expr} argument is used like with bufexists().

                Can also be used as a method:
                        let loaded = 'somename'->bufloaded()

bufname([{expr}])                                       bufname()
                The result is the name of a buffer.  Mostly as it is displayed
                by the :ls command, but not using special names such as
                "[No Name]".
                If {expr} is omitted the current buffer is used.
                If {expr} is a Number, that buffer number's name is given.
                Number zero is the alternate buffer for the current window.
                If {expr} is a String, it is used as a file-pattern to match
                with the buffer names.  This is always done like 'magic' is
                set and 'cpoptions' is empty.  When there is more than one
                match an empty string is returned.
                "" or "%" can be used for the current buffer, "#" for the
                alternate buffer.
                A full match is preferred, otherwise a match at the start, end
                or middle of the buffer name is accepted.  If you only want a
                full match then put "^" at the start and "$" at the end of the
                Listed buffers are found first.  If there is a single match
                with a listed buffer, that one is returned.  Next unlisted
                buffers are searched for.
                If the {expr} is a String, but you want to use it as a buffer
                number, force it to be a Number by adding zero to it:
                        :echo bufname("3" + 0)
                Can also be used as a method:
                        echo bufnr->bufname()

                If the buffer doesn't exist, or doesn't have a name, an empty
                string is returned.
        bufname("#")            alternate buffer name
        bufname(3)              name of buffer 3
        bufname("%")            name of current buffer
        bufname("file2")        name of buffer where "file2" matches.
                Obsolete name: buffer_name().

bufnr([{expr} [, {create}]])
                The result is the number of a buffer, as it is displayed by
                the :ls command.  For the use of {expr}, see bufname()

                If the buffer doesn't exist, -1 is returned.  Or, if the
                {create} argument is present and TRUE, a new, unlisted,
                buffer is created and its number is returned.  Example:
                        let newbuf = bufnr('Scratch001', 1)
                Using an empty name uses the current buffer. To create a new
                buffer with an empty name use bufadd().

                bufnr("$") is the last buffer:
                        :let last_buffer = bufnr("$")
                The result is a Number, which is the highest buffer number
                of existing buffers.  Note that not all buffers with a smaller
                number necessarily exist, because ":bwipeout" may have removed
                them.  Use bufexists() to test for the existence of a buffer.

                Can also be used as a method:
                        echo bufref->bufnr()

                Obsolete name: buffer_number().         buffer_number()
                Obsolete name for bufnr("$"): last_buffer_nr().

bufwinid({expr})                                        bufwinid()
                The result is a Number, which is the window-ID of the first
                window associated with buffer {expr}.  For the use of {expr},
                see bufname() above.  If buffer {expr} doesn't exist or
                there is no such window, -1 is returned.  Example:

        echo "A window containing buffer 1 is " . (bufwinid(1))

                Only deals with the current tab page.

                Can also be used as a method:

bufwinnr({expr})                                        bufwinnr()
                Like bufwinid() but return the window number instead of the
                If buffer {expr} doesn't exist or there is no such window, -1
                is returned.  Example:

        echo "A window containing buffer 1 is " . (bufwinnr(1))

                The number can be used with CTRL-W_w and ":wincmd w"

                Can also be used as a method:

byte2line({byte})                                       byte2line()
                Return the line number that contains the character at byte
                count {byte} in the current buffer.  This includes the
                end-of-line character, depending on the 'fileformat' option
                for the current buffer.  The first character has byte count
                Also see line2byte()go and :goto.

                Can also be used as a method:

                {not available when compiled without the +byte_offset

byteidx({expr}{nr})                                   byteidx()
                Return byte index of the {nr}'th character in the string
                {expr}.  Use zero for the first character, it then returns
                If there are no multibyte characters the returned value is
                equal to {nr}.
                Composing characters are not counted separately, their byte
                length is added to the preceding base character.  See
                byteidxcomp() below for counting composing characters
                Example :
                        echo matchstr(str, ".", byteidx(str, 3))
                will display the fourth character.  Another way to do the
                        let s = strpart(str, byteidx(str, 3))
                        echo strpart(s, 0, byteidx(s, 1))
                Also see strgetchar() and strcharpart().

                If there are less than {nr} characters -1 is returned.
                If there are exactly {nr} characters the length of the string
                in bytes is returned.

                Can also be used as a method:

byteidxcomp({expr}{nr})                                       byteidxcomp()
                Like byteidx(), except that a composing character is counted
                as a separate character.  Example:
                        let s = 'e' . nr2char(0x301)
                        echo byteidx(s, 1)
                        echo byteidxcomp(s, 1)
                        echo byteidxcomp(s, 2)
                The first and third echo result in 3 ('e' plus composing
                character is 3 bytes), the second echo results in 1 ('e' is
                one byte).
                Only works differently from byteidx() when 'encoding' is set
                to a Unicode encoding.

                Can also be used as a method:

call({func}{arglist} [, {dict}])                      call() E699
                Call function {func} with the items in List {arglist} as
                {func} can either be a Funcref or the name of a function.
                a:firstline and a:lastline are set to the cursor line.
                Returns the return value of the called function.
                {dict} is for functions with the "dict" attribute.  It will be
                used to set the local variable "self". Dictionary-function

                Can also be used as a method:
                        GetFunc()->call([arg, arg], dict)

ceil({expr})                                                    ceil()
                Return the smallest integral value greater than or equal to
                {expr} as a Float (round up).
                {expr} must evaluate to a Float or a Number.
                        echo ceil(1.456)
                        echo ceil(-5.456)
                        echo ceil(4.0)

                Can also be used as a method:

                {only available when compiled with the +float feature}

ch_ functions are documented here: channel-functions-details

changenr()                                              changenr()
                Return the number of the most recent change.  This is the same
                number as what is displayed with :undolist and can be used
                with the :undo command.
                When a change was made it is the number of that change.  After
                redo it is the number of the redone change.  After undo it is
                one less than the number of the undone change.

char2nr({expr} [, {utf8}])                                      char2nr()
                Return number value of the first char in {expr}.  Examples:
                        char2nr(" ")            returns 32
                        char2nr("ABC")          returns 65
                When {utf8} is omitted or zero, the current 'encoding' is used.
                Example for "utf-8":
                        char2nr("á")            returns 225
                        char2nr("á"[0])         returns 195
                With {utf8} set to TRUE, always treat as utf-8 characters.
                A combining character is a separate character.
                nr2char() does the opposite.
                To turn a string into a list of character numbers:
                    let str = "ABC"
                    let list = map(split(str, '\zs'), {_, val -> char2nr(val)})
                Result: [65, 66, 67]

                Can also be used as a method:

charclass({string})                                     charclass()
                Return the character class of the first character in {string}.
                The character class is one of:
                        0       blank
                        1       punctuation
                        2       word character
                        3       emoji
                        other   specific Unicode class
                The class is used in patterns and word motions.

charcol({expr}) Same as col() but returns the character index of the column
                position given with {expr} instead of the byte position.

                With the cursor on '세' in line 5 with text "여보세요":
                        charcol('.')            returns 3
                        col('.')                returns 7

                Can also be used as a method:

charidx({string}{idx} [, {countcc}])
                Return the character index of the byte at {idx} in {string}.
                The index of the first character is zero.
                If there are no multibyte characters the returned value is
                equal to {idx}.
                When {countcc} is omitted or FALSE, then composing characters
                are not counted separately, their byte length is
                added to the preceding base character.
                When {countcc} is TRUE, then composing characters are
                counted as separate characters.
                Returns -1 if the arguments are invalid or if {idx} is greater
                than the index of the last byte in {string}.  An error is
                given if the first argument is not a string, the second
                argument is not a number or when the third argument is present
                and is not zero or one.
                See byteidx() and byteidxcomp() for getting the byte index
                from the character index.
                        echo charidx('áb́ć', 3)          returns 1
                        echo charidx('áb́ć', 6, 1)       returns 4
                        echo charidx('áb́ć', 16)         returns -1

                Can also be used as a method:

chdir({dir})                                            chdir()
                Change the current working directory to {dir}.  The scope of
                the directory change depends on the directory of the current
                        - If the current window has a window-local directory
                          (:lcd), then changes the window local directory.
                        - Otherwise, if the current tabpage has a local
                          directory (:tcd) then changes the tabpage local
                        - Otherwise, changes the global directory.
                {dir} must be a String.
                If successful, returns the previous working directory.  Pass
                this to another chdir() to restore the directory.
                On failure, returns an empty string.

                        let save_dir = chdir(newdir)
                        if save_dir != ""
                           " ... do some work
                           call chdir(save_dir)

                Can also be used as a method:

cindent({lnum})                                         cindent()
                Get the amount of indent for line {lnum} according the C
                indenting rules, as with 'cindent'.
                The indent is counted in spaces, the value of 'tabstop' is
                relevant.  {lnum} is used just like in getline().
                When {lnum} is invalid or Vim was not compiled the +cindent
                feature, -1 is returned.
                See C-indenting.

                Can also be used as a method:

clearmatches([{win}])                                   clearmatches()
                Clears all matches previously defined for the current window
                by matchadd() and the :match commands.
                If {win} is specified, use the window with this number or
                window ID instead of the current window.

                Can also be used as a method:

col({expr})     The result is a Number, which is the byte index of the column
                position given with {expr}.  The accepted positions are:
                    .       the cursor position
                    $       the end of the cursor line (the result is the
                            number of bytes in the cursor line plus one)
                    'x      position of mark x (if the mark is not set, 0 is
                    v       In Visual mode: the start of the Visual area (the
                            cursor is the end).  When not in Visual mode
                            returns the cursor position.  Differs from '< in
                            that it's updated right away.
                Additionally {expr} can be [lnum, col]: a List with the line
                and column number. Most useful when the column is "$", to get
                the last column of a specific line.  When "lnum" or "col" is
                out of range then col() returns zero.
                To get the line number use line().  To get both use
                For the screen column position use virtcol().  For the
                character position use charcol().
                Note that only marks in the current file can be used.
                        col(".")                column of cursor
                        col("$")                length of cursor line plus one
                        col("'t")               column of mark t
                        col("'" . markname)     column of mark markname
                The first column is 1.  0 is returned for an error.
                For an uppercase mark the column may actually be in another
                For the cursor position, when 'virtualedit' is active, the
                column is one higher if the cursor is after the end of the
                line.  This can be used to obtain the column in Insert mode:
                        :imap <F2> <C-O>:let save_ve = &ve<CR>
                                \<C-O>:set ve=all<CR>
                                \<C-O>:echo col(".") . "\n" <Bar>
                                \let &ve = save_ve<CR>

                Can also be used as a method:

complete({startcol}{matches})                 complete() E785
                Set the matches for Insert mode completion.
                Can only be used in Insert mode.  You need to use a mapping
                with CTRL-R = (see i_CTRL-R).  It does not work after CTRL-O
                or with an expression mapping.
                {startcol} is the byte offset in the line where the completed
                text start.  The text up to the cursor is the original text
                that will be replaced by the matches.  Use col('.') for an
                empty string.  "col('.') - 1" will replace one character by a
                {matches} must be a List.  Each List item is one match.
                See complete-items for the kind of items that are possible.
                Note that the after calling this function you need to avoid
                inserting anything that would cause completion to stop.
                The match can be selected with CTRL-N and CTRL-P as usual with
                Insert mode completion.  The popup menu will appear if
                specified, see ins-completion-menu.
        inoremap <F5> <C-R>=ListMonths()<CR>

        func! ListMonths()
          call complete(col('.'), ['January', 'February', 'March',
                \ 'April', 'May', 'June', 'July', 'August', 'September',
                \ 'October', 'November', 'December'])
          return ''
                This isn't very useful, but it shows how it works.  Note that
                an empty string is returned to avoid a zero being inserted.

                Can also be used as a method, the base is passed as the
                second argument:

complete_add({expr})                            complete_add()
                Add {expr} to the list of matches.  Only to be used by the
                function specified with the 'completefunc' option.
                Returns 0 for failure (empty string or out of memory),
                1 when the match was added, 2 when the match was already in
                the list.
                See complete-functions for an explanation of {expr}.  It is
                the same as one item in the list that 'omnifunc' would return.

                Can also be used as a method:

complete_check()                                complete_check()
                Check for a key typed while looking for completion matches.
                This is to be used when looking for matches takes some time.
                Returns TRUE when searching for matches is to be aborted,
                zero otherwise.
                Only to be used by the function specified with the
                'completefunc' option.

                Returns a Dictionary with information about Insert mode
                completion.  See ins-completion.
                The items are:
                   mode         Current completion mode name string.
                                See complete_info_mode for the values.
                   pum_visible  TRUE if popup menu is visible.
                                See pumvisible().
                   items        List of completion matches.  Each item is a
                                dictionary containing the entries "word",
                                "abbr", "menu", "kind", "info" and "user_data".
                                See complete-items.
                   selected     Selected item index.  First index is zero.
                                Index is -1 if no item is selected (showing
                                typed text only, or the last completion after
                                no item is selected when using the <Up> or
                                <Down> keys)
                   inserted     Inserted string. [NOT IMPLEMENT YET]

                mode values are:
                   ""                Not in completion mode
                   "keyword"         Keyword completion i_CTRL-X_CTRL-N
                   "ctrl_x"          Just pressed CTRL-X i_CTRL-X
                   "whole_line"      Whole lines i_CTRL-X_CTRL-L
                   "files"           File names i_CTRL-X_CTRL-F
                   "tags"            Tags i_CTRL-X_CTRL-]
                   "path_defines"    Definition completion i_CTRL-X_CTRL-D
                   "path_patterns"   Include completion i_CTRL-X_CTRL-I
                   "dictionary"      Dictionary i_CTRL-X_CTRL-K
                   "thesaurus"       Thesaurus i_CTRL-X_CTRL-T
                   "cmdline"         Vim Command line i_CTRL-X_CTRL-V
                   "function"        User defined completion i_CTRL-X_CTRL-U
                   "omni"            Omni completion i_CTRL-X_CTRL-O
                   "spell"           Spelling suggestions i_CTRL-X_s
                   "eval"            complete() completion
                   "unknown"         Other internal modes

                If the optional {what} list argument is supplied, then only
                the items listed in {what} are returned.  Unsupported items in
                {what} are silently ignored.

                To get the position and size of the popup menu, see
                pum_getpos(). It's also available in v:event during the
                CompleteChanged event.

                        " Get all items
                        call complete_info()
                        " Get only 'mode'
                        call complete_info(['mode'])
                        " Get only 'mode' and 'pum_visible'
                        call complete_info(['mode', 'pum_visible'])

                Can also be used as a method:

confirm({msg} [, {choices} [, {default} [, {type}]]])
                confirm() offers the user a dialog, from which a choice can be
                made.  It returns the number of the choice.  For the first
                choice this is 1.
                Note: confirm() is only supported when compiled with dialog
                support, see +dialog_con and +dialog_gui.

                {msg} is displayed in a dialog with {choices} as the
                alternatives.  When {choices} is missing or empty, "&OK" is
                used (and translated).
                {msg} is a String, use '\n' to include a newline.  Only on
                some systems the string is wrapped when it doesn't fit.

                {choices} is a String, with the individual choices separated
                by '\n', e.g.
                        confirm("Save changes?", "&Yes\n&No\n&Cancel")
                The letter after the '&' is the shortcut key for that choice.
                Thus you can type 'c' to select "Cancel".  The shortcut does
                not need to be the first letter:
                        confirm("file has been modified", "&Save\nSave &All")
                For the console, the first letter of each choice is used as
                the default shortcut key.  Case is ignored.

                The optional {default} argument is the number of the choice
                that is made if the user hits <CR>.  Use 1 to make the first
                choice the default one.  Use 0 to not set a default.  If
                {default} is omitted, 1 is used.

                The optional {type} argument gives the type of dialog.  This
                is only used for the icon of the GTK, Mac, Motif and Win32
                GUI.  It can be one of these values: "Error", "Question",
                "Info", "Warning" or "Generic".  Only the first character is
                relevant.  When {type} is omitted, "Generic" is used.

                If the user aborts the dialog by pressing <Esc>CTRL-C,
                or another valid interrupt key, confirm() returns 0.

                An example:
   :let choice = confirm("What do you want?", "&Apples\n&Oranges\n&Bananas", 2)
   :if choice == 0
   :    echo "make up your mind!"
   :elseif choice == 3
   :    echo "tasteful"
   :    echo "I prefer bananas myself."
                In a GUI dialog, buttons are used.  The layout of the buttons
                depends on the 'v' flag in 'guioptions'.  If it is included,
                the buttons are always put vertically.  Otherwise,  confirm()
                tries to put the buttons in one horizontal line.  If they
                don't fit, a vertical layout is used anyway.  For some systems
                the horizontal layout is always used.

                Can also be used as a methodin:

copy({expr})    Make a copy of {expr}.  For Numbers and Strings this isn't
                different from using {expr} directly.
                When {expr} is a List a shallow copy is created.  This means
                that the original List can be changed without changing the
                copy, and vice versa.  But the items are identical, thus
                changing an item changes the contents of both Lists.
                A Dictionary is copied in a similar way as a List.
                Also see deepcopy().
                Can also be used as a method:

cos({expr})                                             cos()
                Return the cosine of {expr}, measured in radians, as a Float.
                {expr} must evaluate to a Float or a Number.
                        :echo cos(100)
                        :echo cos(-4.01)

                Can also be used as a method:

                {only available when compiled with the +float feature}

cosh({expr})                                            cosh()
                Return the hyperbolic cosine of {expr} as a Float in the range
                [1, inf].
                {expr} must evaluate to a Float or a Number.
                        :echo cosh(0.5)
                        :echo cosh(-0.5)

                Can also be used as a method:

                {only available when compiled with the +float feature}

count({comp}{expr} [, {ic} [, {start}]])                      count()
                Return the number of times an item with value {expr} appears
                in StringList or Dictionary {comp}.

                If {start} is given then start with the item with this index.
                {start} can only be used with a List.

                When {ic} is given and it's TRUE then case is ignored.

                When {comp} is a string then the number of not overlapping
                occurrences of {expr} is returned. Zero is returned when
                {expr} is an empty string.

                Can also be used as a method:

cscope_connection([{num} , {dbpath} [, {prepend}]])
                Checks for the existence of a cscope connection.  If no
                parameters are specified, then the function returns:
                        0, if cscope was not available (not compiled in), or
                           if there are no cscope connections;
                        1, if there is at least one cscope connection.

                If parameters are specified, then the value of {num}
                determines how existence of a cscope connection is checked:

                {num}   Description of existence check
                -----   ------------------------------
                0       Same as no parameters (e.g., "cscope_connection()").
                1       Ignore {prepend}, and use partial string matches for
                2       Ignore {prepend}, and use exact string matches for
                3       Use {prepend}, use partial string matches for both
                        {dbpath} and {prepend}.
                4       Use {prepend}, use exact string matches for both
                        {dbpath} and {prepend}.

                Note: All string comparisons are case sensitive!

                Examples.  Suppose we had the following (from ":cs show"):

  # pid    database name                        prepend path
  0 27664  cscope.out                           /usr/local

                Invocation                                      Return Val
                ----------                                      ----------
                cscope_connection()                                     1
                cscope_connection(1, "out")                             1
                cscope_connection(2, "out")                             0
                cscope_connection(3, "out")                             0
                cscope_connection(3, "out", "local")                    1
                cscope_connection(4, "out")                             0
                cscope_connection(4, "out", "local")                    0
                cscope_connection(4, "cscope.out", "/usr/local")        1

cursor({lnum}{col} [, {off}])                         cursor()
                Positions the cursor at the column (byte count) {col} in the
                line {lnum}.  The first column is one.

                When there is one argument {list} this is used as a List
                with two, three or four item:
                This is like the return value of getpos() or getcurpos(),
                but without the first item.

                To position the cursor using the character count, use

                Does not change the jumplist.
                {lnum} is used like with getline().
                If {lnum} is greater than the number of lines in the buffer,
                the cursor will be positioned at the last line in the buffer.
                If {lnum} is zero, the cursor will stay in the current line.
                If {col} is greater than the number of bytes in the line,
                the cursor will be positioned at the last character in the
                If {col} is zero, the cursor will stay in the current column.
                If {curswant} is given it is used to set the preferred column
                for vertical movement.  Otherwise {col} is used.

                When 'virtualedit' is used {off} specifies the offset in
                screen columns from the start of the character.  E.g., a
                position within a <Tab> or after the last character.
                Returns 0 when the position could be set, -1 otherwise.

                Can also be used as a method:

debugbreak({pid})                                       debugbreak()
                Specifically used to interrupt a program being debugged.  It
                will cause process {pid} to get a SIGTRAP.  Behavior for other
                processes is undefined. See terminal-debugger.
                {only available on MS-Windows}

                Can also be used as a method:

deepcopy({expr} [, {noref}])                            deepcopy() E698
                Make a copy of {expr}.  For Numbers and Strings this isn't
                different from using {expr} directly.
                When {expr} is a List a full copy is created.  This means
                that the original List can be changed without changing the
                copy, and vice versa.  When an item is a List or
                Dictionary, a copy for it is made, recursively.  Thus
                changing an item in the copy does not change the contents of
                the original List.
                A Dictionary is copied in a similar way as a List.

                When {noref} is omitted or zero a contained List or
                Dictionary is only copied once.  All references point to
                this single copy.  With {noref} set to 1 every occurrence of a
                List or Dictionary results in a new copy.  This also means
                that a cyclic reference causes deepcopy() to fail.
                Nesting is possible up to 100 levels.  When there is an item
                that refers back to a higher level making a deep copy with
                {noref} set to 1 will fail.
                Also see copy().

                Can also be used as a method:

delete({fname} [, {flags}])                                     delete()
                Without {flags} or with {flags} empty: Deletes the file by the
                name {fname}.  This also works when {fname} is a symbolic link.

                When {flags} is "d": Deletes the directory by the name
                {fname}.  This fails when directory {fname} is not empty.

                When {flags} is "rf": Deletes the directory by the name
                {fname} and everything in it, recursively.  BE CAREFUL!
                Note: on MS-Windows it is not possible to delete a directory
                that is being used.

                A symbolic link itself is deleted, not what it points to.

                The result is a Number, which is 0/false if the delete
                operation was successful and -1/true when the deletion failed
                or partly failed.

                Use remove() to delete an item from a List.
                To delete a line from the buffer use :delete or

                Can also be used as a method:

deletebufline({expr}{first} [, {last}])               deletebufline()
                Delete lines {first} to {last} (inclusive) from buffer {expr}.
                If {last} is omitted then delete line {first} only.
                On success 0 is returned, on failure 1 is returned.

                This function works only for loaded buffers. First call
                bufload() if needed.

                For the use of {expr}, see bufname() above.

                {first} and {last} are used like with getline()Note that
                when using line() this refers to the current buffer. Use "$"
                to refer to the last line in buffer {expr}.

                Can also be used as a method:

did_filetype()  Returns TRUE when autocommands are being executed and the
                FileType event has been triggered at least once.  Can be used
                to avoid triggering the FileType event again in the scripts
                that detect the file type. FileType
                Returns FALSE when :setf FALLBACK was used.
                When editing another file, the counter is reset, thus this
                really checks if the FileType event has been triggered for the
                current buffer.  This allows an autocommand that starts
                editing another buffer to set 'filetype' and load a syntax

diff_filler({lnum})                                     diff_filler()
                Returns the number of filler lines above line {lnum}.
                These are the lines that were inserted at this point in
                another diff'ed window.  These filler lines are shown in the
                display but don't exist in the buffer.
                {lnum} is used like with getline().  Thus "." is the current
                line, "'m" mark m, etc.
                Returns 0 if the current window is not in diff mode.

                Can also be used as a method:

diff_hlID({lnum}{col})                                diff_hlID()
                Returns the highlight ID for diff mode at line {lnum} column
                {col} (byte index).  When the current line does not have a
                diff change zero is returned.
                {lnum} is used like with getline().  Thus "." is the current
                line, "'m" mark m, etc.
                {col} is 1 for the leftmost column, {lnum} is 1 for the first
                The highlight ID can be used with synIDattr() to obtain
                syntax information about the highlighting.

                Can also be used as a method:

digraph_get({chars})                                    digraph_get() E1214
                Return the digraph of {chars}.  This should be a string with
                exactly two characters.  If {chars} are not just two
                characters, or the digraph of {chars} does not exist, an error
                is given and an empty string is returned.

                The character will be converted from Unicode to 'encoding'
                when needed.  This does require the conversion to be
                available, it might fail.

                Also see digraph_getlist().

                " Get a built-in digraph
                :echo digraph_get('00')         " Returns '∞'

                " Get a user-defined digraph
                :call digraph_set('aa', 'あ')
                :echo digraph_get('aa')         " Returns 'あ'

                Can also be used as a method:

                This function works only when compiled with the +digraphs
                feature.  If this feature is disabled, this function will
                display an error message.

digraph_getlist([{listall}])                            digraph_getlist()
                Return a list of digraphs.  If the {listall} argument is given
                and it is TRUE, return all digraphs, including the default
                digraphs.  Otherwise, return only user-defined digraphs.

                The characters will be converted from Unicode to 'encoding'
                when needed.  This does require the conservation to be
                available, it might fail.

                Also see digraph_get().

                " Get user-defined digraphs
                :echo digraph_getlist()

                " Get all the digraphs, including default digraphs
                :echo digraph_getlist(1)

                Can also be used as a method:

                This function works only when compiled with the +digraphs
                feature.  If this feature is disabled, this function will
                display an error message.

digraph_set({chars}{digraph})                         digraph_set() E1205
                Add digraph {chars} to the list.  {chars} must be a string
                with two characters.  {digraph} is a string with one utf-8
                encoded character. Be careful, composing characters are NOT
                ignored.  This function is similar to :digraphs command, but
                useful to add digraphs start with a white space.

                The function result is v:true if digraph is registered.  If
                this fails an error message is given and v:false is returned.

                If you want to define multiple digraphs at once, you can use

                        call digraph_set('  ', 'あ')

                Can be used as a method:

                This function works only when compiled with the +digraphs
                feature.  If this feature is disabled, this function will
                display an error message.

digraph_setlist({digraphlist})                          digraph_setlist()
                Similar to digraph_set() but this function can add multiple
                digraphs at once.  {digraphlist} is a list composed of lists,
                where each list contains two strings with {chars} and
                {digraph} as in digraph_set().
                    call digraph_setlist([['aa', 'あ'], ['ii', 'い']])

                It is similar to the following:
                    for [chars, digraph] in [['aa', 'あ'], ['ii', 'い']]
                          call digraph_set(chars, digraph)
                Except that the function returns after the first error,
                following digraphs will not be added.

                Can be used as a method:

                This function works only when compiled with the +digraphs
                feature.  If this feature is disabled, this function will
                display an error message.

echoraw({expr})                                         echoraw()
                Output {expr} as-is, including unprintable characters.  This
                can be used to output a terminal code. For example, to disable
                        call echoraw(&t_TE)
                and to enable it again:
                        call echoraw(&t_TI)
                Use with care, you can mess up the terminal this way.

empty({expr})                                           empty()
                Return the Number 1 if {expr} is empty, zero otherwise.
                - A List or Dictionary is empty when it does not have any
                - A String is empty when its length is zero.
                - A Number and Float are empty when their value is zero.
                - v:falsev:none and v:null are empty, v:true is not.
                - A Job is empty when it failed to start.
                - A Channel is empty when it is closed.
                - A Blob is empty when its length is zero.

                For a long List this is much faster than comparing the
                length with zero.

                Can also be used as a method:

environ()                                               environ()
                Return all of environment variables as dictionary. You can
                check if an environment variable exists like this:
                        :echo has_key(environ(), 'HOME')
                Note that the variable name may be CamelCase; to ignore case
                use this:
                        :echo index(keys(environ()), 'HOME', 0, 1) != -1

escape({string}{chars})                               escape()
                Escape the characters in {chars} that occur in {string} with a
                backslash.  Example:
                        :echo escape('c:\program files\vim', ' \')
                results in:
                        c:\\program\ files\\vim
                Also see shellescape() and fnameescape().

                Can also be used as a method:
                        GetText()->escape(' \')

eval({string})  Evaluate {string} and return the result.  Especially useful to
                turn the result of string() back into the original value.
                This works for Numbers, Floats, Strings, Blobs and composites
                of them.  Also works for Funcrefs that refer to existing

                Can also be used as a method:

eventhandler()                                          eventhandler()
                Returns 1 when inside an event handler.  That is that Vim got
                interrupted while waiting for the user to type a character,
                e.g., when dropping a file on Vim.  This means interactive
                commands cannot be used.  Otherwise zero is returned.

executable({expr})                                      executable()
                This function checks if an executable with the name {expr}
                exists.  {expr} must be the name of the program without any
                executable() uses the value of $PATH and/or the normal
                searchpath for programs.                PATHEXT
                On MS-Windows the ".exe", ".bat", etc. can optionally be
                included.  Then the extensions in $PATHEXT are tried.  Thus if
                "foo.exe" does not exist, "foo.exe.bat" can be found.  If
                $PATHEXT is not set then ".com;.exe;.bat;.cmd" is used.  A dot
                by itself can be used in $PATHEXT to try using the name
                without an extension.  When 'shell' looks like a Unix shell,
                then the name is also tried without adding an extension.
                On MS-Windows it only checks if the file exists and is not a
                directory, not if it's really executable.
                On MS-Windows an executable in the same directory as Vim is
                always found.  Since this directory is added to $PATH it
                should also work to execute it win32-PATH.
                The result is a Number:
                        1       exists
                        0       does not exist
                        -1      not implemented on this system
                exepath() can be used to get the full path of an executable.

                Can also be used as a method:

execute({command} [, {silent}])                                 execute()
                Execute an Ex command or commands and return the output as a
                {command} can be a string or a List.  In case of a List the
                lines are executed one by one.
                This is equivalent to:
                        redir => var
                        redir END

                The optional {silent} argument can have these values:
                        ""              no :silent used
                        "silent"        :silent used
                        "silent!"       :silent! used
                The default is "silent".  Note that with "silent!", unlike
                :redir, error messages are dropped.  When using an external
                command the screen may be messed up, use system() instead.
                It is not possible to use :redir anywhere in {command}.

                To get a list of lines use split() on the result:
                        split(execute('args'), "\n")

                To execute a command in another window than the current one
                use win_execute().

                When used recursively the output of the recursive call is not
                included in the output of the higher level call.

                Can also be used as a method:

exepath({expr})                                         exepath()
                If {expr} is an executable and is either an absolute path, a
                relative path or found in $PATH, return the full path.
                Note that the current directory is used when {expr} starts
                with "./", which may be a problem for Vim:
                        echo exepath(v:progpath)
                If {expr} cannot be found in $PATH or is not executable then
                an empty string is returned.

                Can also be used as a method:

exists({expr})  The result is a Number, which is TRUE if {expr} is defined,
                zero otherwise.
                Note: In a compiled :def function local variables and
                arguments are not visible to exists().

                For checking for a supported feature use has().
                For checking if a file exists use filereadable().

                The {expr} argument is a string, which contains one of these:
                        &option-name    Vim option (only checks if it exists,
                                        not if it really works)
                        +option-name    Vim option that works.
                        $ENVNAME        environment variable (could also be
                                        done by comparing with an empty
                        *funcname       built-in function (see functions)
                                        or user defined function (see
                                        user-functions) that is implemented.
                                        Also works for a variable that is a
                        ?funcname       built-in function that could be
                                        implemented; to be used to check if
                                        "funcname" is valid
                        varname         internal variable (see
                                        internal-variables).  Also works
                                        for curly-braces-namesDictionary
                                        entries, List items, etc.
                                        Does not work for local variables in a
                                        compiled :def function.
                                        Beware that evaluating an index may
                                        cause an error message for an invalid
                                        expression.  E.g.:
                                           :let l = [1, 2, 3]
                                           :echo exists("l[5]")
                                           :echo exists("l[xx]")
                                           E121: Undefined variable: xx
                        :cmdname        Ex command: built-in command, user
                                        command or command modifier :command.
                                        1  for match with start of a command
                                        2  full match with a command
                                        3  matches several user commands
                                        To check for a supported command
                                        always check the return value to be 2.
                        :2match         The :2match command.
                        :3match         The :3match command.
                        #event          autocommand defined for this event
                        #event#pattern  autocommand defined for this event and
                                        pattern (the pattern is taken
                                        literally and compared to the
                                        autocommand patterns character by
                        #group          autocommand group exists
                        #group#event    autocommand defined for this group and
                                        autocommand defined for this group,
                                        event and pattern.
                        ##event         autocommand for this event is

                There must be no space between the symbol (&/$/*/#) and the
                There must be no extra characters after the name, although in
                a few cases this is ignored.  That may become more strict in
                the future, thus don't count on it!
                Working example:
                NOT working example:
                        exists(":make install")

                Note that the argument must be a string, not the name of the
                variable itself.  For example:
                This doesn't check for existence of the "bufcount" variable,
                but gets the value of "bufcount", and checks if that exists.

                Can also be used as a method:

exp({expr})                                             exp()
                Return the exponential of {expr} as a Float in the range
                [0, inf].
                {expr} must evaluate to a Float or a Number.
                        :echo exp(2)
                        :echo exp(-1)

                Can also be used as a method:

                {only available when compiled with the +float feature}

expand({expr} [, {nosuf} [, {list}]])                           expand()
                Expand wildcards and the following special keywords in {expr}.
                'wildignorecase' applies.

                If {list} is given and it is TRUE, a List will be returned.
                Otherwise the result is a String and when there are several
                matches, they are separated by <NL> characters.  [Note: in
                version 5.0 a space was used, which caused problems when a
                file name contains a space]

                If the expansion fails, the result is an empty string.  A name
                for a non-existing file is not included, unless {expr} does
                not start with '%', '#' or '<', see below.

                When {expr} starts with '%', '#' or '<', the expansion is done
                like for the cmdline-special variables with their associated
                modifiers.  Here is a short overview:

                        %               current file name
                        #               alternate file name
                        #n              alternate file name n
                        <cfile>         file name under the cursor
                        <afile>         autocmd file name
                        <abuf>          autocmd buffer number (as a String!)
                        <amatch>        autocmd matched name
                        <cexpr>         C expression under the cursor
                        <sfile>         sourced script file or function name
                        <slnum>         sourced script line number or function
                                        line number
                        <sflnum>        script file line number, also when in
                                        a function
                        <SID>           "<SNR>123_"  where "123" is the
                                        current script ID  <SID>
                        <stack>         call stack
                        <cword>         word under the cursor
                        <cWORD>         WORD under the cursor
                        <client>        the {clientid} of the last received
                                        message server2client()
                        :p              expand to full path
                        :h              head (last path component removed)
                        :t              tail (last path component only)
                        :r              root (one extension removed)
                        :e              extension only

                        :let &tags = expand("%:p:h") . "/tags"
                Note that when expanding a string that starts with '%', '#' or
                '<', any following text is ignored.  This does NOT work:
                        :let doesntwork = expand("%:h.bak")
                Use this:
                        :let doeswork = expand("%:h") . ".bak"
                Also note that expanding "<cfile>" and others only returns the
                referenced file name without further expansion.  If "<cfile>"
                is "~/.cshrc", you need to do another expand() to have the
                "~/" expanded into the path of the home directory:
                        :echo expand(expand("<cfile>"))

                There cannot be white space between the variables and the
                following modifier.  The fnamemodify() function can be used
                to modify normal file names.

                When using '%' or '#', and the current or alternate file name
                is not defined, an empty string is used.  Using "%:p" in a
                buffer with no name, results in the current directory, with a
                '/' added.

                When {expr} does not start with '%', '#' or '<', it is
                expanded like a file name is expanded on the command line.
                'suffixes' and 'wildignore' are used, unless the optional
                {nosuf} argument is given and it is TRUE.
                Names for non-existing files are included.  The "**" item can
                be used to search in a directory tree.  For example, to find
                all "README" files in the current directory and below:
                        :echo expand("**/README")

                expand() can also be used to expand variables and environment
                variables that are only known in a shell.  But this can be
                slow, because a shell may be used to do the expansion.  See
                The expanded variable is still handled like a list of file
                names.  When an environment variable cannot be expanded, it is
                left unchanged.  Thus ":echo expand('$FOOBAR')" results in

                See glob() for finding existing files.  See system() for
                getting the raw output of an external command.

                Can also be used as a method:

expandcmd({expr})                                       expandcmd()
                Expand special items in {expr} like what is done for an Ex
                command such as :edit.  This expands special keywords, like
                with expand(), and environment variables, anywhere in
                {expr}.  "~user" and "~/path" are only expanded at the start.
                Returns the expanded string.  Example:
                        :echo expandcmd('make %<.o')

                Can also be used as a method:

extend({expr1}{expr2} [, {expr3}])                    extend()
                {expr1} and {expr2} must be both Lists or both

                If they are Lists: Append {expr2} to {expr1}.
                If {expr3} is given insert the items of {expr2} before the
                item with index {expr3} in {expr1}.  When {expr3} is zero
                insert before the first item.  When {expr3} is equal to
                len({expr1}) then {expr2} is appended.
                        :echo sort(extend(mylist, [7, 5]))
                        :call extend(mylist, [2, 3], 1)
                When {expr1} is the same List as {expr2} then the number of
                items copied is equal to the original length of the List.
                E.g., when {expr3} is 1 you get N new copies of the first item
                (where N is the original length of the List).
                Use add() to concatenate one item to a list.  To concatenate
                two lists into a new list use the + operator:
                        :let newlist = [1, 2, 3] + [4, 5]

                If they are Dictionaries:
                Add all entries from {expr2} to {expr1}.
                If a key exists in both {expr1} and {expr2} then {expr3} is
                used to decide what to do:
                {expr3} = "keep": keep the value of {expr1}
                {expr3} = "force": use the value of {expr2}
                {expr3} = "error": give an error message                E737
                When {expr3} is omitted then "force" is assumed.

                {expr1} is changed when {expr2} is not empty.  If necessary
                make a copy of {expr1} first.
                {expr2} remains unchanged.
                When {expr1} is locked and {expr2} is not empty the operation
                Returns {expr1}.

                Can also be used as a method:

extendnew({expr1}{expr2} [, {expr3}])                 extendnew()
                Like extend() but instead of adding items to {expr1} a new
                List or Dictionary is created and returned.  {expr1} remains
                unchanged.  Items can still be changed by {expr2}, if you
                don't want that use deepcopy() first.

feedkeys({string} [, {mode}])                           feedkeys()
                Characters in {string} are queued for processing as if they
                come from a mapping or were typed by the user.

                By default the string is added to the end of the typeahead
                buffer, thus if a mapping is still being executed the
                characters come after them.  Use the 'i' flag to insert before
                other characters, they will be executed next, before any
                characters from a mapping.

                The function does not wait for processing of keys contained in

                To include special keys into {string}, use double-quotes
                and "\..." notation expr-quote. For example,
                feedkeys("\<CR>") simulates pressing of the <Enter> key. But
                feedkeys('\<CR>') pushes 5 characters.
                A special code that might be useful is <Ignore>, it exits the
                wait for a character without doing anything.  <Ignore>

                {mode} is a String, which can contain these character flags:
                'm'     Remap keys. This is default.  If {mode} is absent,
                        keys are remapped.
                'n'     Do not remap keys.
                't'     Handle keys as if typed; otherwise they are handled as
                        if coming from a mapping.  This matters for undo,
                        opening folds, etc.
                'L'     Lowlevel input.  Only works for Unix or when using the
                        GUI. Keys are used as if they were coming from the
                        terminal.  Other flags are not used.  E980
                        When a CTRL-C interrupts and 't' is included it sets
                        the internal "got_int" flag.
                'i'     Insert the string instead of appending (see above).
                'x'     Execute commands until typeahead is empty.  This is
                        similar to using ":normal!".  You can call feedkeys()
                        several times without 'x' and then one time with 'x'
                        (possibly with an empty {string}) to execute all the
                        typeahead.  Note that when Vim ends in Insert mode it
                        will behave as if <Esc> is typed, to avoid getting
                        stuck, waiting for a character to be typed before the
                        script continues.
                        Note that if you manage to call feedkeys() while
                        executing commands, thus calling it recursively, then
                        all typeahead will be consumed by the last call.
                '!'     When used with 'x' will not end Insert mode. Can be
                        used in a test when a timer is set to exit Insert mode
                        a little later.  Useful for testing CursorHoldI.

                Return value is always 0.

                Can also be used as a method:

filereadable({file})                                    filereadable()
                The result is a Number, which is TRUE when a file with the
                name {file} exists, and can be read.  If {file} doesn't exist,
                or is a directory, the result is FALSE.  {file} is any
                expression, which is used as a String.
                If you don't care about the file being readable you can use
                {file} is used as-is, you may want to expand wildcards first:
                        echo filereadable('~/.vimrc')
                        echo filereadable(expand('~/.vimrc'))

                Can also be used as a method:
                Obsolete name: file_readable().

filewritable({file})                                    filewritable()
                The result is a Number, which is 1 when a file with the
                name {file} exists, and can be written.  If {file} doesn't
                exist, or is not writable, the result is 0.  If {file} is a
                directory, and we can write to it, the result is 2.

                Can also be used as a method:

filter({expr1}{expr2})                                filter()
                {expr1} must be a ListBlob or Dictionary.
                For each item in {expr1} evaluate {expr2} and when the result
                is zero remove the item from the List or Dictionary. For a
                Blob each byte is removed.

                {expr2} must be a string or Funcref.

                If {expr2} is a string, inside {expr2} v:val has the value
                of the current item.  For a Dictionary v:key has the key
                of the current item and for a List v:key has the index of
                the current item.  For a Blob v:key has the index of the
                current byte.
                        call filter(mylist, 'v:val !~ "OLD"')
                Removes the items where "OLD" appears.
                        call filter(mydict, 'v:key >= 8')
                Removes the items with a key below 8.
                        call filter(var, 0)
                Removes all the items, thus clears the List or Dictionary.

                Note that {expr2} is the result of expression and is then
                used as an expression again.  Often it is good to use a
                literal-string to avoid having to double backslashes.

                If {expr2} is a Funcref it must take two arguments:
                        1. the key or the index of the current item.
                        2. the value of the current item.
                The function must return TRUE if the item should be kept.
                Example that keeps the odd items of a list:
                        func Odd(idx, val)
                          return a:idx % 2 == 1
                        call filter(mylist, function('Odd'))
                It is shorter when using a lambda:
                        call filter(myList, {idx, val -> idx * val <= 42})
                If you do not use "val" you can leave it out:
                        call filter(myList, {idx -> idx % 2 == 1})

                The operation is done in-place.  If you want a List or
                Dictionary to remain unmodified make a copy first:
                        :let l = filter(copy(mylist), 'v:val =~ "KEEP"')

                Returns {expr1}, the List , Blob or Dictionary that was
                filtered.  When an error is encountered while evaluating
                {expr2} no further items in {expr1} are processed.  When
                {expr2} is a Funcref errors inside a function are ignored,
                unless it was defined with the "abort" flag.

                Can also be used as a method:

finddir({name} [, {path} [, {count}]])                          finddir()
                Find directory {name} in {path}.  Supports both downwards and
                upwards recursive directory searches.  See file-searching
                for the syntax of {path}.
                Returns the path of the first found match.  When the found
                directory is below the current directory a relative path is
                returned.  Otherwise a full path is returned.
                If {path} is omitted or empty then 'path' is used.
                If the optional {count} is given, find {count}'s occurrence of
                {name} in {path} instead of the first one.
                When {count} is negative return all the matches in a List.
                This is quite similar to the ex-command :find.
                {only available when compiled with the +file_in_path

                Can also be used as a method:

findfile({name} [, {path} [, {count}]])                         findfile()
                Just like finddir(), but find a file instead of a directory.
                Uses 'suffixesadd'.
                        :echo findfile("tags.vim", ".;")
                Searches from the directory of the current file upwards until
                it finds the file "tags.vim".

                Can also be used as a method:

flatten({list} [, {maxdepth}])                                  flatten()
                Flatten {list} up to {maxdepth} levels.  Without {maxdepth}
                the result is a List without nesting, as if {maxdepth} is
                a very large number.
                The {list} is changed in place, use flattennew() if you do
                not want that.
                In Vim9 script flatten() cannot be used, you must always use
                {maxdepth} means how deep in nested lists changes are made.
                {list} is not modified when {maxdepth} is 0.
                {maxdepth} must be positive number.

                If there is an error the number zero is returned.

                        :echo flatten([1, [2, [3, 4]], 5])
                        [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
                        :echo flatten([1, [2, [3, 4]], 5], 1)
                        [1, 2, [3, 4], 5]

flattennew({list} [, {maxdepth}])                       flattennew()
                Like flatten() but first make a copy of {list}.

float2nr({expr})                                        float2nr()
                Convert {expr} to a Number by omitting the part after the
                decimal point.
                {expr} must evaluate to a Float or a Number.
                When the value of {expr} is out of range for a Number the
                result is truncated to 0x7fffffff or -0x7fffffff (or when
                64-bit Number support is enabled, 0x7fffffffffffffff or
                -0x7fffffffffffffff).  NaN results in -0x80000000 (or when
                64-bit Number support is enabled, -0x8000000000000000).
                        echo float2nr(3.95)
                        echo float2nr(-23.45)
                        echo float2nr(1.0e100)
                        2147483647  (or 9223372036854775807)
                        echo float2nr(-1.0e150)
                        -2147483647 (or -9223372036854775807)
                        echo float2nr(1.0e-100)

                Can also be used as a method:

                {only available when compiled with the +float feature}

floor({expr})                                                   floor()
                Return the largest integral value less than or equal to
                {expr} as a Float (round down).
                {expr} must evaluate to a Float or a Number.
                        echo floor(1.856)
                        echo floor(-5.456)
                        echo floor(4.0)

                Can also be used as a method:

                {only available when compiled with the +float feature}

fmod({expr1}{expr2})                                  fmod()
                Return the remainder of {expr1} / {expr2}, even if the
                division is not representable.  Returns {expr1} - i * {expr2}
                for some integer i such that if {expr2} is non-zero, the
                result has the same sign as {expr1} and magnitude less than
                the magnitude of {expr2}.  If {expr2} is zero, the value
                returned is zero.  The value returned is a Float.
                {expr1} and {expr2} must evaluate to a Float or a Number.
                        :echo fmod(12.33, 1.22)
                        :echo fmod(-12.33, 1.22)

                Can also be used as a method:

                {only available when compiled with +float feature}

fnameescape({string})                                   fnameescape()
                Escape {string} for use as file name command argument.  All
                characters that have a special meaning, such as '%' and '|'
                are escaped with a backslash.
                For most systems the characters escaped are
                " \t\n*?[{`$\\%#'\"|!<".  For systems where a backslash
                appears in a filename, it depends on the value of 'isfname'.
                A leading '+' and '>' is also escaped (special after :edit
                and :write).  And a "-" by itself (special after :cd).
                        :let fname = '+some str%nge|name'
                        :exe "edit " . fnameescape(fname)
                results in executing:
                        edit \+some\ str\%nge\|name

                Can also be used as a method:

fnamemodify({fname}{mods})                            fnamemodify()
                Modify file name {fname} according to {mods}.  {mods} is a
                string of characters like it is used for file names on the
                command line.  See filename-modifiers.
                        :echo fnamemodify("main.c", ":p:h")
                results in:
                If {mods} is empty then {fname} is returned.
                Note: Environment variables don't work in {fname}, use
                expand() first then.

                Can also be used as a method:

foldclosed({lnum})                                      foldclosed()
                The result is a Number.  If the line {lnum} is in a closed
                fold, the result is the number of the first line in that fold.
                If the line {lnum} is not in a closed fold, -1 is returned.
                {lnum} is used like with getline().  Thus "." is the current
                line, "'m" mark m, etc.

                Can also be used as a method:

foldclosedend({lnum})                                   foldclosedend()
                The result is a Number.  If the line {lnum} is in a closed
                fold, the result is the number of the last line in that fold.
                If the line {lnum} is not in a closed fold, -1 is returned.
                {lnum} is used like with getline().  Thus "." is the current
                line, "'m" mark m, etc.

                Can also be used as a method:

foldlevel({lnum})                                       foldlevel()
                The result is a Number, which is the foldlevel of line {lnum}
                in the current buffer.  For nested folds the deepest level is
                returned.  If there is no fold at line {lnum}, zero is
                returned.  It doesn't matter if the folds are open or closed.
                When used while updating folds (from 'foldexpr') -1 is
                returned for lines where folds are still to be updated and the
                foldlevel is unknown.  As a special case the level of the
                previous line is usually available.
                {lnum} is used like with getline().  Thus "." is the current
                line, "'m" mark m, etc.

                Can also be used as a method:

foldtext()      Returns a String, to be displayed for a closed fold.  This is
                the default function used for the 'foldtext' option and should
                only be called from evaluating 'foldtext'.  It uses the
                v:foldstartv:foldend and v:folddashes variables.
                The returned string looks like this:
                        +-- 45 lines: abcdef
                The number of leading dashes depends on the foldlevel.  The
                "45" is the number of lines in the fold.  "abcdef" is the text
                in the first non-blank line of the fold.  Leading white space,
                "//" or "/*" and the text from the 'foldmarker' and
                'commentstring' options is removed.
                When used to draw the actual foldtext, the rest of the line
                will be filled with the fold char from the 'fillchars'
                {not available when compiled without the +folding feature}

foldtextresult({lnum})                                  foldtextresult()
                Returns the text that is displayed for the closed fold at line
                {lnum}.  Evaluates 'foldtext' in the appropriate context.
                When there is no closed fold at {lnum} an empty string is
                {lnum} is used like with getline().  Thus "." is the current
                line, "'m" mark m, etc.
                Useful when exporting folded text, e.g., to HTML.
                {not available when compiled without the +folding feature}

                Can also be used as a method:

foreground()    Move the Vim window to the foreground.  Useful when sent from
                a client to a Vim server. remote_send()
                On Win32 systems this might not work, the OS does not always
                allow a window to bring itself to the foreground.  Use
                remote_foreground() instead.
                {only in the Win32, Athena, Motif and GTK GUI versions and the
                Win32 console version}

fullcommand({name})                                             fullcommand()
                Get the full command name from a short abbreviated command
                name; see 20.2 for details on command abbreviations.

                {name} may start with a : and can include a [range], these
                are skipped and not returned.
                Returns an empty string if a command doesn't exist or if it's
                ambiguous (for user-defined functions).

                For example fullcommand('s')fullcommand('sub'),
                fullcommand(':%substitute') all return "substitute".

                Can also be used as a method:

funcref({name} [, {arglist}] [, {dict}])
                Just like function(), but the returned Funcref will lookup
                the function by reference, not by name.  This matters when the
                function {name} is redefined later.

                Unlike function(){name} must be an existing user function.
                Also for autoloaded functions. {name} cannot be a builtin

                Can also be used as a method:

                                function() partial E700 E922 E923
function({name} [, {arglist}] [, {dict}])
                Return a Funcref variable that refers to function {name}.
                {name} can be the name of a user defined function or an
                internal function.

                {name} can also be a Funcref or a partial.  When it is a
                partial the dict stored in it will be used and the {dict}
                argument is not allowed. E.g.:
                        let FuncWithArg = function(dict.Func, [arg])
                        let Broken = function(dict.Func, [arg], dict)

                When using the Funcref the function will be found by {name},
                also when it was redefined later.  Use funcref() to keep the
                same function.

                When {arglist} or {dict} is present this creates a partial.
                That means the argument list and/or the dictionary is stored in
                the Funcref and will be used when the Funcref is called.

                The arguments are passed to the function in front of other
                arguments, but after any argument from method.  Example:
                        func Callback(arg1, arg2, name)
                        let Partial = function('Callback', ['one', 'two'])
                        call Partial('name')
                Invokes the function as with:
                        call Callback('one', 'two', 'name')

                With a method:
                        func Callback(one, two, three)
                        let Partial = function('Callback', ['two'])
                        eval 'one'->Partial('three')
                Invokes the function as with:
                        call Callback('one', 'two', 'three')

                The function() call can be nested to add more arguments to the
                Funcref.  The extra arguments are appended to the list of
                arguments.  Example:
                        func Callback(arg1, arg2, name)
                        let Func = function('Callback', ['one'])
                        let Func2 = function(Func, ['two'])
                        call Func2('name')
                Invokes the function as with:
                        call Callback('one', 'two', 'name')

                The Dictionary is only useful when calling a "dict" function.
                In that case the {dict} is passed in as "self". Example:
                        function Callback() dict
                           echo "called for " .
                        let context = {"name": "example"}
                        let Func = function('Callback', context)
                        call Func()     " will echo: called for example
                The use of function() is not needed when there are no extra
                arguments, these two are equivalent:
                        let Func = function('Callback', context)
                        let Func = context.Callback

                The argument list and the Dictionary can be combined:
                        function Callback(arg1, count) dict
                        let context = {"name": "example"}
                        let Func = function('Callback', ['one'], context)
                        call Func(500)
                Invokes the function as with:
                        call context.Callback('one', 500)

                Can also be used as a method:

garbagecollect([{atexit}])                              garbagecollect()
                Cleanup unused ListsDictionariesChannels and Jobs
                that have circular references.

                There is hardly ever a need to invoke this function, as it is
                automatically done when Vim runs out of memory or is waiting
                for the user to press a key after 'updatetime'.  Items without
                circular references are always freed when they become unused.
                This is useful if you have deleted a very big List and/or
                Dictionary with circular references in a script that runs
                for a long time.

                When the optional {atexit} argument is one, garbage
                collection will also be done when exiting Vim, if it wasn't
                done before.  This is useful when checking for memory leaks.

                The garbage collection is not done immediately but only when
                it's safe to perform.  This is when waiting for the user to
                type a character.  To force garbage collection immediately use

get({list}{idx} [, {default}])                        get()
                Get item {idx} from List {list}.  When this item is not
                available return {default}.  Return zero when {default} is
                Preferably used as a method:
get({blob}{idx} [, {default}])
                Get byte {idx} from Blob {blob}.  When this byte is not
                available return {default}.  Return -1 when {default} is
                Preferably used as a method:
get({dict}{key} [, {default}])
                Get item with key {key} from Dictionary {dict}.  When this
                item is not available return {default}.  Return zero when
                {default} is omitted.  Useful example:
                        let val = get(g:, 'var_name', 'default')
                This gets the value of g:var_name if it exists, and uses
                'default' when it does not exist.
                Preferably used as a method:
                Get an item with from Funcref {func}.  Possible values for
                {what} are:
                        "name"  The function name
                        "func"  The function
                        "dict"  The dictionary
                        "args"  The list with arguments
                Preferably used as a method:

                Get information about buffers as a List of Dictionaries.

                Without an argument information about all the buffers is

                When the argument is a Dictionary only the buffers matching
                the specified criteria are returned.  The following keys can
                be specified in {dict}:
                        buflisted       include only listed buffers.
                        bufloaded       include only loaded buffers.
                        bufmodified     include only modified buffers.

                Otherwise, {expr} specifies a particular buffer to return
                information for.  For the use of {expr}, see bufname()
                above.  If the buffer is found the returned List has one item.
                Otherwise the result is an empty list.

                Each returned List item is a dictionary with the following
                        bufnr           Buffer number.
                        changed         TRUE if the buffer is modified.
                        changedtick     Number of changes made to the buffer.
                        hidden          TRUE if the buffer is hidden.
                        lastused        Timestamp in seconds, like
                                        localtime(), when the buffer was
                                        last used.
                                        {only with the +viminfo feature}
                        listed          TRUE if the buffer is listed.
                        lnum            Line number used for the buffer when
                                        opened in the current window.
                                        Only valid if the buffer has been
                                        displayed in the window in the past.
                                        If you want the line number of the
                                        last known cursor position in a given
                                        window, use line():
                                                :echo line('.', {winid})

                        linecount       Number of lines in the buffer (only
                                        valid when loaded)
                        loaded          TRUE if the buffer is loaded.
                        name            Full path to the file in the buffer.
                        signs           List of signs placed in the buffer.
                                        Each list item is a dictionary with
                                        the following fields:
                                            id    sign identifier
                                            lnum  line number
                                            name  sign name
                        variables       A reference to the dictionary with
                                        buffer-local variables.
                        windows         List of window-IDs that display this
                        popups          List of popup window-IDs that
                                        display this buffer

                        for buf in getbufinfo()
                        for buf in getbufinfo({'buflisted':1})
                            if buf.changed

                To get buffer-local options use:
                        getbufvar({bufnr}, '&option_name')

                Can also be used as a method:

getbufline({expr}{lnum} [, {end}])
                Return a List with the lines starting from {lnum} to {end}
                (inclusive) in the buffer {expr}.  If {end} is omitted, a
                List with only the line {lnum} is returned.

                For the use of {expr}, see bufname() above.

                For {lnum} and {end} "$" can be used for the last line of the
                buffer.  Otherwise a number must be used.

                When {lnum} is smaller than 1 or bigger than the number of
                lines in the buffer, an empty List is returned.

                When {end} is greater than the number of lines in the buffer,
                it is treated as {end} is set to the number of lines in the
                buffer.  When {end} is before {lnum} an empty List is

                This function works only for loaded buffers.  For unloaded and
                non-existing buffers, an empty List is returned.

                        :let lines = getbufline(bufnr("myfile"), 1, "$")

                Can also be used as a method:

getbufvar({expr}{varname} [, {def}])                          getbufvar()
                The result is the value of option or local buffer variable
                {varname} in buffer {expr}.  Note that the name without "b:"
                must be used.
                When {varname} is empty returns a Dictionary with all the
                buffer-local variables.
                When {varname} is equal to "&" returns a Dictionary with all
                the buffer-local options.
                Otherwise, when {varname} starts with "&" returns the value of
                a buffer-local option.
                This also works for a global or buffer-local option, but it
                doesn't work for a global variable, window-local variable or
                window-local option.
                For the use of {expr}, see bufname() above.
                When the buffer or variable doesn't exist {def} or an empty
                string is returned, there is no error message.
                        :let bufmodified = getbufvar(1, "&mod")
                        :echo "todo myvar = " . getbufvar("todo", "myvar")

                Can also be used as a method:

getchangelist([{expr}])                                 getchangelist()
                Returns the changelist for the buffer {expr}. For the use
                of {expr}, see bufname() above. If buffer {expr} doesn't
                exist, an empty list is returned.

                The returned list contains two entries: a list with the change
                locations and the current position in the list.  Each
                entry in the change list is a dictionary with the following
                        col             column number
                        coladd          column offset for 'virtualedit'
                        lnum            line number
                If buffer {expr} is the current buffer, then the current
                position refers to the position in the list. For other
                buffers, it is set to the length of the list.

                Can also be used as a method:

getchar([expr])                                         getchar()
                Get a single character from the user or input stream.
                If [expr] is omitted, wait until a character is available.
                If [expr] is 0, only get a character when one is available.
                        Return zero otherwise.
                If [expr] is 1, only check if a character is available, it is
                        not consumed.  Return zero if no character available.
                If you prefer always getting a string use getcharstr().

                Without [expr] and when [expr] is 0 a whole character or
                special key is returned.  If it is a single character, the
                result is a number.  Use nr2char() to convert it to a String.
                Otherwise a String is returned with the encoded character.
                For a special key it's a String with a sequence of bytes
                starting with 0x80 (decimal: 128).  This is the same value as
                the String "\<Key>", e.g., "\<Left>".  The returned value is
                also a String when a modifier (shift, control, alt) was used
                that is not included in the character.

                When [expr] is 0 and Esc is typed, there will be a short delay
                while Vim waits to see if this is the start of an escape

                When [expr] is 1 only the first byte is returned.  For a
                one-byte character it is the character itself as a number.
                Use nr2char() to convert it to a String.

                Use getcharmod() to obtain any additional modifiers.

                When the user clicks a mouse button, the mouse event will be
                returned.  The position can then be found in v:mouse_col,
                v:mouse_lnumv:mouse_winid and v:mouse_win.
                getmousepos() can also be used.  Mouse move events will be
                This example positions the mouse as it would normally happen:
                        let c = getchar()
                        if c == "\<LeftMouse>" && v:mouse_win > 0
                          exe v:mouse_win . "wincmd w"
                          exe v:mouse_lnum
                          exe "normal " . v:mouse_col . "|"

                When using bracketed paste only the first character is
                returned, the rest of the pasted text is dropped.

                There is no prompt, you will somehow have to make clear to the
                user that a character has to be typed.  The screen is not
                redrawn, e.g. when resizing the window.  When using a popup
                window it should work better with a popup-filter.

                There is no mapping for the character.
                Key codes are replaced, thus when the user presses the <Del>
                key you get the code for the <Del> key, not the raw character
                sequence.  Examples:
                        getchar() == "\<Del>"
                        getchar() == "\<S-Left>"
                This example redefines "f" to ignore case:
                        :nmap f :call FindChar()<CR>
                        :function FindChar()
                        :  let c = nr2char(getchar())
                        :  while col('.') < col('$') - 1
                        :    normal l
                        :    if getline('.')[col('.') - 1] ==? c
                        :      break
                        :    endif
                        :  endwhile

                You may also receive synthetic characters, such as
                <CursorHold>. Often you will want to ignore this and get
                another character:
                        :function GetKey()
                        :  let c = getchar()
                        :  while c == "\<CursorHold>"
                        :    let c = getchar()
                        :  endwhile
                        :  return c

getcharmod()                                            getcharmod()
                The result is a Number which is the state of the modifiers for
                the last obtained character with getchar() or in another way.
                These values are added together:
                        2       shift
                        4       control
                        8       alt (meta)
                        16      meta (when it's different from ALT)
                        32      mouse double click
                        64      mouse triple click
                        96      mouse quadruple click (== 32 + 64)
                        128     command (Macintosh only)
                Only the modifiers that have not been included in the
                character itself are obtained.  Thus Shift-a results in "A"
                without a modifier.

                Get the position for {expr}. Same as getpos() but the column
                number in the returned List is a character index instead of
                a byte index.
                If getpos() returns a very large column number, such as
                2147483647, then getcharpos() will return the character index
                of the last character.

                With the cursor on '세' in line 5 with text "여보세요":
                        getcharpos('.')         returns [0, 5, 3, 0]
                        getpos('.')             returns [0, 5, 7, 0]

                Can also be used as a method:

getcharsearch()                                         getcharsearch()
                Return the current character search information as a {dict}
                with the following entries:

                    char        character previously used for a character
                                search (tfT, or F); empty string
                                if no character search has been performed
                    forward     direction of character search; 1 for forward,
                                0 for backward
                    until       type of character search; 1 for a t or T
                                character search, 0 for an f or F
                                character search

                This can be useful to always have ; and , search
                forward/backward regardless of the direction of the previous
                character search:
                        :nnoremap <expr> ; getcharsearch().forward ? ';' : ','
                        :nnoremap <expr> , getcharsearch().forward ? ',' : ';'
                Also see setcharsearch().

getcharstr([expr])                                      getcharstr()
                Get a single character from the user or input stream as a
                If [expr] is omitted, wait until a character is available.
                If [expr] is 0 or false, only get a character when one is
                        available.  Return an empty string otherwise.
                If [expr] is 1 or true, only check if a character is
                        available, it is not consumed.  Return an empty string
                        if no character is available.
                Otherwise this works like getchar(), except that a number
                result is converted to a string.

getcmdline()                                            getcmdline()
                Return the current command-line.  Only works when the command
                line is being edited, thus requires use of c_CTRL-\_e or
                        :cmap <F7> <C-\>eescape(getcmdline(), ' \')<CR>
                Also see getcmdtype()getcmdpos() and setcmdpos().
                Returns an empty string when entering a password or using

getcmdpos()                                             getcmdpos()
                Return the position of the cursor in the command line as a
                byte count.  The first column is 1.
                Only works when editing the command line, thus requires use of
                c_CTRL-\_e or c_CTRL-R_= or an expression mapping.
                Returns 0 otherwise.
                Also see getcmdtype()setcmdpos() and getcmdline().

getcmdtype()                                            getcmdtype()
                Return the current command-line type. Possible return values
                    :   normal Ex command
                    >   debug mode command debug-mode
                    /   forward search command
                    ?   backward search command
                    @   input() command
                    -   :insert or :append command
                    =   i_CTRL-R_=
                Only works when editing the command line, thus requires use of
                c_CTRL-\_e or c_CTRL-R_= or an expression mapping.
                Returns an empty string otherwise.
                Also see getcmdpos()setcmdpos() and getcmdline().

getcmdwintype()                                         getcmdwintype()
                Return the current command-line-window type. Possible return
                values are the same as getcmdtype(). Returns an empty string
                when not in the command-line window.

getcompletion({pat}{type} [, {filtered}])             getcompletion()
                Return a list of command-line completion matches. {type}
                specifies what for.  The following completion types are

                arglist         file names in argument list
                augroup         autocmd groups
                buffer          buffer names
                behave          :behave suboptions
                color           color schemes
                command         Ex command (and arguments)
                cmdline         cmdline-completion result
                compiler        compilers
                cscope          :cscope suboptions
                diff_buffer     :diffget and :diffput completion
                dir             directory names
                environment     environment variable names
                event           autocommand events
                expression      Vim expression
                file            file and directory names
                file_in_path    file and directory names in 'path'
                filetype        filetype names 'filetype'
                function        function name
                help            help subjects
                highlight       highlight groups
                history         :history suboptions
                locale          locale names (as output of locale -a)
                mapclear        buffer argument
                mapping         mapping name
                menu            menus
                messages        :messages suboptions
                option          options
                packadd         optional package pack-add names
                shellcmd        Shell command
                sign            :sign suboptions
                syntax          syntax file names 'syntax'
                syntime         :syntime suboptions
                tag             tags
                tag_listfiles   tags, file names
                user            user names
                var             user variables

                If {pat} is an empty string, then all the matches are
                returned.  Otherwise only items matching {pat} are returned.
                See wildcards for the use of special characters in {pat}.

                If the optional {filtered} flag is set to 1, then 'wildignore'
                is applied to filter the results.  Otherwise all the matches
                are returned. The 'wildignorecase' option always applies.

                If {type} is "cmdline", then the cmdline-completion result is
                returned.  For example, to complete the possible values after
                a ":call" command:
                        echo getcompletion('call ', 'cmdline')

                If there are no matches, an empty list is returned.  An
                invalid value for {type} produces an error.

                Can also be used as a method:

                Get the position of the cursor.  This is like getpos('.'), but
                includes an extra "curswant" item in the list:
                    [0, lnum, col, off, curswant]
                The "curswant" number is the preferred column when moving the
                cursor vertically.  Also see getcursorcharpos() and
                The first "bufnum" item is always zero. The byte position of
                the cursor is returned in 'col'. To get the character
                position, use getcursorcharpos().

                The optional {winid} argument can specify the window.  It can
                be the window number or the window-ID.  The last known
                cursor position is returned, this may be invalid for the
                current value of the buffer if it is not the current window.
                If {winid} is invalid a list with zeroes is returned.

                This can be used to save and restore the cursor position:
                        let save_cursor = getcurpos()
                        call setpos('.', save_cursor)
                Note that this only works within the window.  See
                winrestview() for restoring more state.

                Can also be used as a method:

                Same as getcurpos() but the column number in the returned
                List is a character index instead of a byte index.

                With the cursor on '보' in line 3 with text "여보세요":
                        getcursorcharpos()      returns [0, 3, 2, 0, 3]
                        getcurpos()             returns [0, 3, 4, 0, 3]

                Can also be used as a method:

getcwd([{winnr} [, {tabnr}]])
                The result is a String, which is the name of the current
                working directory.

                With {winnr} return the local current directory of this window
                in the current tab page.  {winnr} can be the window number or
                the window-ID.
                If {winnr} is -1 return the name of the global working
                directory.  See also haslocaldir().

                With {winnr} and {tabnr} return the local current directory of
                the window in the specified tab page. If {winnr} is -1 return
                the working directory of the tabpage.
                If {winnr} is zero use the current window, if {tabnr} is zero
                use the current tabpage.
                Without any arguments, return the working directory of the
                current window.
                Return an empty string if the arguments are invalid.

                        " Get the working directory of the current window
                        :echo getcwd()
                        :echo getcwd(0)
                        :echo getcwd(0, 0)
                        " Get the working directory of window 3 in tabpage 2
                        :echo getcwd(3, 2)
                        " Get the global working directory
                        :echo getcwd(-1)
                        " Get the working directory of tabpage 3
                        :echo getcwd(-1, 3)
                        " Get the working directory of current tabpage
                        :echo getcwd(-1, 0)

                Can also be used as a method:

getenv({name})                                          getenv()
                Return the value of environment variable {name}.
                When the variable does not exist v:null is returned.  That
                is different from a variable set to an empty string, although
                some systems interpret the empty value as the variable being
                deleted.  See also expr-env.

                Can also be used as a method:

getfontname([{name}])                                   getfontname()
                Without an argument returns the name of the normal font being
                used.  Like what is used for the Normal highlight group
                With an argument a check is done whether {name} is a valid
                font name.  If not then an empty string is returned.
                Otherwise the actual font name is returned, or {name} if the
                GUI does not support obtaining the real name.
                Only works when the GUI is running, thus not in your vimrc or
                gvimrc file.  Use the GUIEnter autocommand to use this
                function just after the GUI has started.
                Note that the GTK GUI accepts any font name, thus checking for
                a valid name does not work.

getfperm({fname})                                       getfperm()
                The result is a String, which is the read, write, and execute
                permissions of the given file {fname}.
                If {fname} does not exist or its directory cannot be read, an
                empty string is returned.
                The result is of the form "rwxrwxrwx", where each group of
                "rwx" flags represent, in turn, the permissions of the owner
                of the file, the group the file belongs to, and other users.
                If a user does not have a given permission the flag for this
                is replaced with the string "-".  Examples:
                        :echo getfperm("/etc/passwd")
                        :echo getfperm(expand("~/.vimrc"))
                This will hopefully (from a security point of view) display
                the string "rw-r--r--" or even "rw-------".

                Can also be used as a method:

                For setting permissions use setfperm().

getfsize({fname})                                       getfsize()
                The result is a Number, which is the size in bytes of the
                given file {fname}.
                If {fname} is a directory, 0 is returned.
                If the file {fname} can't be found, -1 is returned.
                If the size of {fname} is too big to fit in a Number then -2
                is returned.

                Can also be used as a method:

getftime({fname})                                       getftime()
                The result is a Number, which is the last modification time of
                the given file {fname}.  The value is measured as seconds
                since 1st Jan 1970, and may be passed to strftime().  See also
                localtime() and strftime().
                If the file {fname} can't be found -1 is returned.

                Can also be used as a method:

getftype({fname})                                       getftype()
                The result is a String, which is a description of the kind of
                file of the given file {fname}.
                If {fname} does not exist an empty string is returned.
                Here is a table over different kinds of files and their
                        Normal file             "file"
                        Directory               "dir"
                        Symbolic link           "link"
                        Block device            "bdev"
                        Character device        "cdev"
                        Socket                  "socket"
                        FIFO                    "fifo"
                        All other               "other"
                Note that a type such as "link" will only be returned on
                systems that support it.  On some systems only "dir" and
                "file" are returned.  On MS-Windows a symbolic link to a
                directory returns "dir" instead of "link".

                Can also be used as a method:

getimstatus()                                           getimstatus()
                The result is a Number, which is TRUE when the IME status is
                See 'imstatusfunc'.

getjumplist([{winnr} [, {tabnr}]])                      getjumplist()
                Returns the jumplist for the specified window.

                Without arguments use the current window.
                With {winnr} only use this window in the current tab page.
                {winnr} can also be a window-ID.
                With {winnr} and {tabnr} use the window in the specified tab

                The returned list contains two entries: a list with the jump
                locations and the last used jump position number in the list.
                Each entry in the jump location list is a dictionary with
                the following entries:
                        bufnr           buffer number
                        col             column number
                        coladd          column offset for 'virtualedit'
                        filename        filename if available
                        lnum            line number

                Can also be used as a method:

getline({lnum} [, {end}])
                Without {end} the result is a String, which is line {lnum}
                from the current buffer.  Example:
                When {lnum} is a String that doesn't start with a
                digit, line() is called to translate the String into a Number.
                To get the line under the cursor:
                When {lnum} is smaller than 1 or bigger than the number of
                lines in the buffer, an empty string is returned.

                When {end} is given the result is a List where each item is
                a line from the current buffer in the range {lnum} to {end},
                including line {end}.
                {end} is used in the same way as {lnum}.
                Non-existing lines are silently omitted.
                When {end} is before {lnum} an empty List is returned.
                        :let start = line('.')
                        :let end = search("^$") - 1
                        :let lines = getline(start, end)

                Can also be used as a method:

                To get lines from another buffer see getbufline()

getloclist({nr} [, {what}])                             getloclist()
                Returns a List with all the entries in the location list for
                window {nr}.  {nr} can be the window number or the window-ID.
                When {nr} is zero the current window is used.

                For a location list window, the displayed location list is
                returned.  For an invalid window number {nr}, an empty list is
                returned. Otherwise, same as getqflist().

                If the optional {what} dictionary argument is supplied, then
                returns the items listed in {what} as a dictionary. Refer to
                getqflist() for the supported items in {what}.

                In addition to the items supported by getqflist() in {what},
                the following item is supported by getloclist():

                        filewinid       id of the window used to display files
                                        from the location list. This field is
                                        applicable only when called from a
                                        location list window. See
                                        location-list-file-window for more

                Returns a Dictionary with default values if there is no
                location list for the window {nr}.
                Returns an empty Dictionary if window {nr} does not exist.

                Examples (See also getqflist-examples):
                        :echo getloclist(3, {'all': 0})
                        :echo getloclist(5, {'filewinid': 0})

getmarklist([{expr}])                                   getmarklist()
                Without the {expr} argument returns a List with information
                about all the global marks. mark

                If the optional {expr} argument is specified, returns the
                local marks defined in buffer {expr}.  For the use of {expr},
                see bufname().

                Each item in the returned List is a Dict with the following:
                    mark   name of the mark prefixed by "'"
                    pos    a List with the position of the mark:
                                [bufnum, lnum, col, off]
                           Refer to getpos() for more information.
                    file   file name

                Refer to getpos() for getting information about a specific

                Can also be used as a method:

getmatches([{win}])                                     getmatches()
                Returns a List with all matches previously defined for the
                current window by matchadd() and the :match commands.
                getmatches() is useful in combination with setmatches(),
                as setmatches() can restore a list of matches saved by
                If {win} is specified, use the window with this number or
                window ID instead of the current window.
                        :echo getmatches()
                        [{'group': 'MyGroup1', 'pattern': 'TODO',
                        'priority': 10, 'id': 1}, {'group': 'MyGroup2',
                        'pattern': 'FIXME', 'priority': 10, 'id': 2}]
                        :let m = getmatches()
                        :call clearmatches()
                        :echo getmatches()
                        :call setmatches(m)
                        :echo getmatches()
                        [{'group': 'MyGroup1', 'pattern': 'TODO',
                        'priority': 10, 'id': 1}, {'group': 'MyGroup2',
                        'pattern': 'FIXME', 'priority': 10, 'id': 2}]
                        :unlet m

getmousepos()                                           getmousepos()
                Returns a Dictionary with the last known position of the
                mouse.  This can be used in a mapping for a mouse click or in
                a filter of a popup window.  The items are:
                        screenrow       screen row
                        screencol       screen column
                        winid           Window ID of the click
                        winrow          row inside "winid"
                        wincol          column inside "winid"
                        line            text line inside "winid"
                        column          text column inside "winid"
                All numbers are 1-based.

                If not over a window, e.g. when in the command line, then only
                "screenrow" and "screencol" are valid, the others are zero.

                When on the status line below a window or the vertical
                separator right of a window, the "line" and "column" values
                are zero.

                When the position is after the text then "column" is the
                length of the text in bytes plus one.

                If the mouse is over a popup window then that window is used.

                When using getchar() the Vim variables v:mouse_lnum,
                v:mouse_col and v:mouse_winid also provide these values.

getpid()        Return a Number which is the process ID of the Vim process.
                On Unix and MS-Windows this is a unique number, until Vim

getpos({expr})  Get the position for {expr}.  For possible values of {expr}
                see line().  For getting the cursor position see
                The result is a List with four numbers:
                    [bufnum, lnum, col, off]
                "bufnum" is zero, unless a mark like '0 or 'A is used, then it
                is the buffer number of the mark.
                "lnum" and "col" are the position in the buffer.  The first
                column is 1.
                The "off" number is zero, unless 'virtualedit' is used.  Then
                it is the offset in screen columns from the start of the
                character.  E.g., a position within a <Tab> or after the last
                Note that for '< and '> Visual mode matters: when it is "V"
                (visual line mode) the column of '< is zero and the column of
                '> is a large number.
                The column number in the returned List is the byte position
                within the line. To get the character position in the line,
                use getcharpos().
                The column number can be very large, e.g. 2147483647, in which
                case it means "after the end of the line".
                This can be used to save and restore the position of a mark:
                        let save_a_mark = getpos("'a")
                        call setpos("'a", save_a_mark)
                Also see getcharpos()getcurpos() and setpos().

                Can also be used as a method:

getqflist([{what}])                                     getqflist()
                Returns a List with all the current quickfix errors.  Each
                list item is a dictionary with these entries:
                        bufnr   number of buffer that has the file name, use
                                bufname() to get the name
                        module  module name
                        lnum    line number in the buffer (first line is 1)
                                end of line number if the item is multiline
                        col     column number (first column is 1)
                        end_col end of column number if the item has range
                        vcol    TRUE: "col" is visual column
                                FALSE: "col" is byte index
                        nr      error number
                        pattern search pattern used to locate the error
                        text    description of the error
                        type    type of the error, 'E', '1', etc.
                        valid   TRUE: recognized error message

                When there is no error list or it's empty, an empty list is
                returned. Quickfix list entries with a non-existing buffer
                number are returned with "bufnr" set to zero (Note: some
                functions accept buffer number zero for the alternate buffer,
                you may need to explicitly check for zero).

                Useful application: Find pattern matches in multiple files and
                do something with them:
                        :vimgrep /theword/jg *.c
                        :for d in getqflist()
                        :   echo bufname(d.bufnr) ':' d.lnum '=' d.text

                If the optional {what} dictionary argument is supplied, then
                returns only the items listed in {what} as a dictionary. The
                following string items are supported in {what}:
                        changedtick     get the total number of changes made
                                        to the list quickfix-changedtick
                        context get the quickfix-context
                        efm     errorformat to use when parsing "lines". If
                                not present, then the 'errorformat' option
                                value is used.
                        id      get information for the quickfix list with
                                quickfix-ID; zero means the id for the
                                current list or the list specified by "nr"
                        idx     get information for the quickfix entry at this
                                index in the list specified by 'id' or 'nr'.
                                If set to zero, then uses the current entry.
                                See quickfix-index
                        items   quickfix list entries
                        lines   parse a list of lines using 'efm' and return
                                the resulting entries.  Only a List type is
                                accepted.  The current quickfix list is not
                                modified. See quickfix-parse.
                        nr      get information for this quickfix list; zero
                                means the current quickfix list and "$" means
                                the last quickfix list
                        qfbufnr number of the buffer displayed in the quickfix
                                window. Returns 0 if the quickfix buffer is
                                not present. See quickfix-buffer.
                        size    number of entries in the quickfix list
                        title   get the list title quickfix-title
                        winid   get the quickfix window-ID
                        all     all of the above quickfix properties
                Non-string items in {what} are ignored. To get the value of a
                particular item, set it to zero.
                If "nr" is not present then the current quickfix list is used.
                If both "nr" and a non-zero "id" are specified, then the list
                specified by "id" is used.
                To get the number of lists in the quickfix stack, set "nr" to
                "$" in {what}. The "nr" value in the returned dictionary
                contains the quickfix stack size.
                When "lines" is specified, all the other items except "efm"
                are ignored.  The returned dictionary contains the entry
                "items" with the list of entries.

                The returned dictionary contains the following entries:
                        changedtick     total number of changes made to the
                                        list quickfix-changedtick
                        context quickfix list context. See quickfix-context
                                If not present, set to "".
                        id      quickfix list ID quickfix-ID. If not
                                present, set to 0.
                        idx     index of the quickfix entry in the list. If not
                                present, set to 0.
                        items   quickfix list entries. If not present, set to
                                an empty list.
                        nr      quickfix list number. If not present, set to 0
                        qfbufnr number of the buffer displayed in the quickfix
                                window. If not present, set to 0.
                        size    number of entries in the quickfix list. If not
                                present, set to 0.
                        title   quickfix list title text. If not present, set
                                to "".
                        winid   quickfix window-ID. If not present, set to 0

                Examples (See also getqflist-examples):
                        :echo getqflist({'all': 1})
                        :echo getqflist({'nr': 2, 'title': 1})
                        :echo getqflist({'lines' : ["F1:10:L10"]})

getreg([{regname} [, 1 [, {list}]]])                    getreg()
                The result is a String, which is the contents of register
                {regname}.  Example:
                        :let cliptext = getreg('*')
                When {regname} was not set the result is an empty string.

                getreg('=') returns the last evaluated value of the expression
                register.  (For use in maps.)
                getreg('=', 1) returns the expression itself, so that it can
                be restored with setreg().  For other registers the extra
                argument is ignored, thus you can always give it.

                If {list} is present and TRUE, the result type is changed
                to List. Each list item is one text line. Use it if you care
                about zero bytes possibly present inside register: without
                third argument both NLs and zero bytes are represented as NLs
                (see NL-used-for-Nul).
                When the register was not set an empty list is returned.

                If {regname} is not specified, v:register is used.
                In Vim9-script {regname} must be one character.

                Can also be used as a method:

getreginfo([{regname}])                                 getreginfo()
                Returns detailed information about register {regname} as a
                Dictionary with the following entries:
                        regcontents     List of lines contained in register
                                        {regname}, like
                                        getreg({regname}, 1, 1).
                        regtype         the type of register {regname}, as in
                        isunnamed       Boolean flag, v:true if this register
                                        is currently pointed to by the unnamed
                        points_to       for the unnamed register, gives the
                                        single letter name of the register
                                        currently pointed to (see quotequote).
                                        For example, after deleting a line
                                        with dd, this field will be "1",
                                        which is the register that got the
                                        deleted text.

                If {regname} is invalid or not set, an empty Dictionary
                will be returned.
                If {regname} is not specified, v:register is used.
                The returned Dictionary can be passed to setreg().
                In Vim9-script {regname} must be one character.

                Can also be used as a method:

getregtype([{regname}])                                 getregtype()
                The result is a String, which is type of register {regname}.
                The value will be one of:
                    "v"                 for characterwise text
                    "V"                 for linewise text
                    "<CTRL-V>{width}"   for blockwise-visual text
                    ""                  for an empty or unknown register
                <CTRL-V> is one character with value 0x16.
                If {regname} is not specified, v:register is used.
                In Vim9-script {regname} must be one character.

                Can also be used as a method:

gettabinfo([{tabnr}])                                   gettabinfo()
                If {tabnr} is not specified, then information about all the
                tab pages is returned as a List. Each List item is a
                Dictionary.  Otherwise, {tabnr} specifies the tab page
                number and information about that one is returned.  If the tab
                page does not exist an empty List is returned.

                Each List item is a Dictionary with the following entries:
                        tabnr           tab page number.
                        variables       a reference to the dictionary with
                                        tabpage-local variables
                        windows         List of window-IDs in the tab page.

                Can also be used as a method:

gettabvar({tabnr}{varname} [, {def}])                         gettabvar()
                Get the value of a tab-local variable {varname} in tab page
                Tabs are numbered starting with one.
                When {varname} is empty a dictionary with all tab-local
                variables is returned.
                Note that the name without "t:" must be used.
                When the tab or variable doesn't exist {def} or an empty
                string is returned, there is no error message.

                Can also be used as a method:

gettabwinvar({tabnr}{winnr}{varname} [, {def}])             gettabwinvar()
                Get the value of window-local variable {varname} in window
                {winnr} in tab page {tabnr}.
                When {varname} is empty a dictionary with all window-local
                variables is returned.
                When {varname} is equal to "&" get the values of all
                window-local options in a Dictionary.
                Otherwise, when {varname} starts with "&" get the value of a
                window-local option.
                Note that {varname} must be the name without "w:".
                Tabs are numbered starting with one.  For the current tabpage
                use getwinvar().
                {winnr} can be the window number or the window-ID.
                When {winnr} is zero the current window is used.
                This also works for a global option, buffer-local option and
                window-local option, but it doesn't work for a global variable
                or buffer-local variable.
                When the tab, window or variable doesn't exist {def} or an
                empty string is returned, there is no error message.
                        :let list_is_on = gettabwinvar(1, 2, '&list')
                        :echo "myvar = " . gettabwinvar(3, 1, 'myvar')

                To obtain all window-local variables use:
                        gettabwinvar({tabnr}, {winnr}, '&')

                Can also be used as a method:
                        GetTabnr()->gettabwinvar(winnr, varname)

gettagstack([{winnr}])                                  gettagstack()
                The result is a Dict, which is the tag stack of window {winnr}.
                {winnr} can be the window number or the window-ID.
                When {winnr} is not specified, the current window is used.
                When window {winnr} doesn't exist, an empty Dict is returned.

                The returned dictionary contains the following entries:
                        curidx          Current index in the stack. When at
                                        top of the stack, set to (length + 1).
                                        Index of bottom of the stack is 1.
                        items           List of items in the stack. Each item
                                        is a dictionary containing the
                                        entries described below.
                        length          Number of entries in the stack.

                Each item in the stack is a dictionary with the following
                        bufnr           buffer number of the current jump
                        from            cursor position before the tag jump.
                                        See getpos() for the format of the
                                        returned list.
                        matchnr         current matching tag number. Used when
                                        multiple matching tags are found for a
                        tagname         name of the tag

                See tagstack for more information about the tag stack.

                Can also be used as a method:

gettext({text})                                         gettext()
                Translate {text} if possible.
                This is mainly for use in the distributed Vim scripts.  When
                generating message translations the {text} is extracted by
                xgettext, the translator can add the translated message in the
                .po file and Vim will lookup the translation when gettext() is
                For {text} double quoted strings are preferred, because
                xgettext does not understand escaping in single quoted

getwininfo([{winid}])                                   getwininfo()
                Returns information about windows as a List with Dictionaries.

                If {winid} is given Information about the window with that ID
                is returned, as a List with one item.  If the window does not
                exist the result is an empty list.

                Without {winid} information about all the windows in all the
                tab pages is returned.

                Each List item is a Dictionary with the following entries:
                        botline         last complete displayed buffer line
                        bufnr           number of buffer in the window
                        height          window height (excluding winbar)
                        loclist         1 if showing a location list
                                        {only with the +quickfix feature}
                        quickfix        1 if quickfix or location list window
                                        {only with the +quickfix feature}
                        terminal        1 if a terminal window
                                        {only with the +terminal feature}
                        tabnr           tab page number
                        topline         first displayed buffer line
                        variables       a reference to the dictionary with
                                        window-local variables
                        width           window width
                        winbar          1 if the window has a toolbar, 0
                        wincol          leftmost screen column of the window;
                                        "col" from win_screenpos()
                        winid           window-ID
                        winnr           window number
                        winrow          topmost screen line of the window;
                                        "row" from win_screenpos()

                Can also be used as a method:

getwinpos([{timeout}])                                  getwinpos()
                The result is a List with two numbers, the result of
                getwinposx() and getwinposy() combined:
                        [x-pos, y-pos]
                {timeout} can be used to specify how long to wait in msec for
                a response from the terminal.  When omitted 100 msec is used.
                Use a longer time for a remote terminal.
                When using a value less than 10 and no response is received
                within that time, a previously reported position is returned,
                if available.  This can be used to poll for the position and
                do some work in the meantime:
                        while 1
                          let res = getwinpos(1)
                          if res[0] >= 0
                          " Do some work here

                Can also be used as a method:

getwinposx()    The result is a Number, which is the X coordinate in pixels of
                the left hand side of the GUI Vim window. Also works for an
                xterm (uses a timeout of 100 msec).
                The result will be -1 if the information is not available.
                The value can be used with :winpos.

getwinposy()    The result is a Number, which is the Y coordinate in pixels of
                the top of the GUI Vim window.  Also works for an xterm (uses
                a timeout of 100 msec).
                The result will be -1 if the information is not available.
                The value can be used with :winpos.

getwinvar({winnr}{varname} [, {def}])                         getwinvar()
                Like gettabwinvar() for the current tabpage.
                        :let list_is_on = getwinvar(2, '&list')
                        :echo "myvar = " . getwinvar(1, 'myvar')

                Can also be used as a method:

glob({expr} [, {nosuf} [, {list} [, {alllinks}]]])              glob()
                Expand the file wildcards in {expr}.  See wildcards for the
                use of special characters.

                Unless the optional {nosuf} argument is given and is TRUE,
                the 'suffixes' and 'wildignore' options apply: Names matching
                one of the patterns in 'wildignore' will be skipped and
                'suffixes' affect the ordering of matches.
                'wildignorecase' always applies.

                When {list} is present and it is TRUE the result is a List
                with all matching files. The advantage of using a List is,
                you also get filenames containing newlines correctly.
                Otherwise the result is a String and when there are several
                matches, they are separated by <NL> characters.

                If the expansion fails, the result is an empty String or List.

                You can also use readdir() if you need to do complicated
                things, such as limiting the number of matches.

                A name for a non-existing file is not included.  A symbolic
                link is only included if it points to an existing file.
                However, when the {alllinks} argument is present and it is
                TRUE then all symbolic links are included.

                For most systems backticks can be used to get files names from
                any external command.  Example:
                        :let tagfiles = glob("`find . -name tags -print`")
                        :let &tags = substitute(tagfiles, "\n", ",", "g")
                The result of the program inside the backticks should be one
                item per line.  Spaces inside an item are allowed.

                See expand() for expanding special Vim variables.  See
                system() for getting the raw output of an external command.

                Can also be used as a method:

glob2regpat({expr})                                      glob2regpat()
                Convert a file pattern, as used by glob(), into a search
                pattern.  The result can be used to match with a string that
                is a file name.  E.g.
                        if filename =~ glob2regpat('Make*.mak')
                This is equivalent to:
                        if filename =~ '^Make.*\.mak$'
                When {expr} is an empty string the result is "^$", match an
                empty string.
                Note that the result depends on the system.  On MS-Windows
                a backslash usually means a path separator.

                Can also be used as a method:
globpath({path}{expr} [, {nosuf} [, {list} [, {alllinks}]]])
                Perform glob() for {expr} on all directories in {path} and
                concatenate the results.  Example:
                        :echo globpath(&rtp, "syntax/c.vim")

                {path} is a comma-separated list of directory names.  Each
                directory name is prepended to {expr} and expanded like with
                glob().  A path separator is inserted when needed.
                To add a comma inside a directory name escape it with a
                backslash.  Note that on MS-Windows a directory may have a
                trailing backslash, remove it if you put a comma after it.
                If the expansion fails for one of the directories, there is no
                error message.

                Unless the optional {nosuf} argument is given and is TRUE,
                the 'suffixes' and 'wildignore' options apply: Names matching
                one of the patterns in 'wildignore' will be skipped and
                'suffixes' affect the ordering of matches.

                When {list} is present and it is TRUE the result is a List
                with all matching files. The advantage of using a List is, you
                also get filenames containing newlines correctly. Otherwise
                the result is a String and when there are several matches,
                they are separated by <NL> characters.  Example:
                        :echo globpath(&rtp, "syntax/c.vim", 0, 1)

                {alllinks} is used as with glob().

                The "**" item can be used to search in a directory tree.
                For example, to find all "README.txt" files in the directories
                in 'runtimepath' and below:
                        :echo globpath(&rtp, "**/README.txt")
                Upwards search and limiting the depth of "**" is not
                supported, thus using 'path' will not always work properly.

                Can also be used as a method, the base is passed as the
                second argument:

has({feature} [, {check}])
                When {check} is omitted or is zero: The result is a Number,
                which is 1 if the feature {feature} is supported, zero
                otherwise.  The {feature} argument is a string, case is
                ignored.  See feature-list below.

                When {check} is present and not zero: The result is a Number,
                which is 1 if the feature {feature} could ever be supported,
                zero otherwise.  This is useful to check for a typo in
                {feature} and to detect dead code.  Keep in mind that an older
                Vim version will not know about a feature added later and
                features that have been abandoned will not be known by the
                current Vim version.

                Also see exists().

                Note that to skip code that has a syntax error when the
                feature is not available, Vim may skip the rest of the line
                and miss a following endif.  Therefore put the endif on a
                separate line:
                        if has('feature')
                          let x = this->breaks->without->the->feature
                If the endif would be moved to the second line as "| endif" it
                would not be found.

has_key({dict}{key})                                  has_key()
                The result is a Number, which is TRUE if Dictionary {dict}
                has an entry with key {key}.  FALSE otherwise.

                Can also be used as a method:

haslocaldir([{winnr} [, {tabnr}]])                      haslocaldir()
                The result is a Number:
                    1   when the window has set a local directory via :lcd
                    2   when the tab-page has set a local directory via :tcd
                    0   otherwise.

                Without arguments use the current window.
                With {winnr} use this window in the current tab page.
                With {winnr} and {tabnr} use the window in the specified tab
                {winnr} can be the window number or the window-ID.
                If {winnr} is -1 it is ignored and only the tabpage is used.
                Return 0 if the arguments are invalid.
                        if haslocaldir() == 1
                          " window local directory case
                        elseif haslocaldir() == 2
                          " tab-local directory case
                          " global directory case

                        " current window
                        :echo haslocaldir()
                        :echo haslocaldir(0)
                        :echo haslocaldir(0, 0)
                        " window n in current tab page
                        :echo haslocaldir(n)
                        :echo haslocaldir(n, 0)
                        " window n in tab page m
                        :echo haslocaldir(n, m)
                        " tab page m
                        :echo haslocaldir(-1, m)

                Can also be used as a method:

hasmapto({what} [, {mode} [, {abbr}]])                  hasmapto()
                The result is a Number, which is TRUE if there is a mapping
                that contains {what} in somewhere in the rhs (what it is
                mapped to) and this mapping exists in one of the modes
                indicated by {mode}.
                When {abbr} is there and it is TRUE use abbreviations
                instead of mappings.  Don't forget to specify Insert and/or
                Command-line mode.
                Both the global mappings and the mappings local to the current
                buffer are checked for a match.
                If no matching mapping is found FALSE is returned.
                The following characters are recognized in {mode}:
                        n       Normal mode
                        v       Visual and Select mode
                        x       Visual mode
                        s       Select mode
                        o       Operator-pending mode
                        i       Insert mode