vim-jp / vimdoc-en / pi_netrw

pi_netrw - Vim Documentation

Return to main English | 日本語
pi_netrw.txt  For Vim version 9.1.  Last change: 2024 May 11

            NETRW REFERENCE MANUAL    by Charles E. Campbell
Author:  Charles E. Campbell  <NcampObell@SdrPchip.AorgM-NOSPAM>
          (remove NOSPAM from Campbell's email first)

Copyright: Copyright (C) 2017 Charles E Campbell    netrw-copyright
        The VIM LICENSE applies to the files in this package, including
        netrw.vim, pi_netrw.txt, netrwFileHandlers.vim, netrwSettings.vim, and
        syntax/netrw.vim.  Like anything else that's free, netrw.vim and its
        associated files are provided *as is* and comes with no warranty of
        any kind, either expressed or implied.  No guarantees of
        merchantability.  No guarantees of suitability for any purpose.  By
        using this plugin, you agree that in no event will the copyright
        holder be liable for any damages resulting from the use of this
        software. Use at your own risk!

                dav    ftp    netrw-file  rcp    scp
                davs   http   netrw.vim   rsync  sftp
                fetch  network

1. Contents                                             netrw-contents {{{1

1.  Contents..............................................netrw-contents
2.  Starting With Netrw...................................netrw-start
3.  Netrw Reference.......................................netrw-ref
      EXTERNAL APPLICATIONS AND PROTOCOLS.................netrw-externapp
      DIRECTORY LISTING...................................netrw-dirlist
      CHANGING THE USERID AND PASSWORD....................netrw-chgup
      VARIABLES AND SETTINGS..............................netrw-variables
4.  Network-Oriented File Transfer........................netrw-xfer
5.  Activation............................................netrw-activate
6.  Transparent Remote File Editing.......................netrw-transparent
7.  Ex Commands...........................................netrw-ex
8.  Variables and Options.................................netrw-variables
9.  Browsing..............................................netrw-browse
      Introduction To Browsing............................netrw-intro-browse
      Quick Reference: Maps...............................netrw-browse-maps
      Quick Reference: Commands...........................netrw-browse-cmds
      Banner Display......................................netrw-I
      Bookmarking A Directory.............................netrw-mb
      Squeezing the Current Tree-Listing Directory........netrw-s-cr
      Browsing With A Horizontally Split Window...........netrw-o
      Browsing With A New Tab.............................netrw-t
      Browsing With A Vertically Split Window.............netrw-v
      Change File Permission..............................netrw-gp
      Change Listing Style.(thin wide long tree)..........netrw-i
      Changing To A Bookmarked Directory..................netrw-gb
      Changing To A Predecessor Directory.................netrw-u
      Changing To A Successor Directory...................netrw-U
      Customizing Browsing With A Special Handler.........netrw-x
      Deleting Bookmarks..................................netrw-mB
      Deleting Files Or Directories.......................netrw-D
      Directory Exploring Commands........................netrw-explore
      Exploring With Stars and Patterns...................netrw-star
      Displaying Information About File...................netrw-qf
      Edit File Or Directory Hiding List..................netrw-ctrl-h
      Editing The Sorting Sequence........................netrw-S
      Forcing treatment as a file or directory............netrw-gd netrw-gf
      Going Up............................................netrw--
      Hiding Files Or Directories.........................netrw-a
      Improving Browsing..................................netrw-ssh-hack
      Listing Bookmarks And History.......................netrw-qb
      Making A New Directory..............................netrw-d
      Making The Browsing Directory The Current Directory.netrw-cd
      Marking Files.......................................netrw-mf
      Unmarking Files.....................................netrw-mF
      Marking Files By Location List......................netrw-qL
      Marking Files By QuickFix List......................netrw-qF
      Marking Files By Regular Expression.................netrw-mr
      Marked Files: Arbitrary Shell Command...............netrw-mx
      Marked Files: Arbitrary Shell Command, En Bloc......netrw-mX
      Marked Files: Arbitrary Vim Command.................netrw-mv
      Marked Files: Argument List.........................netrw-ma netrw-mA
      Marked Files: Buffer List...........................netrw-cb netrw-cB
      Marked Files: Compression And Decompression.........netrw-mz
      Marked Files: Copying...............................netrw-mc
      Marked Files: Diff..................................netrw-md
      Marked Files: Editing...............................netrw-me
      Marked Files: Grep..................................netrw-mg
      Marked Files: Hiding and Unhiding by Suffix.........netrw-mh
      Marked Files: Moving................................netrw-mm
      Marked Files: Printing..............................netrw-mp
      Marked Files: Sourcing..............................netrw-ms
      Marked Files: Setting the Target Directory..........netrw-mt
      Marked Files: Tagging...............................netrw-mT
      Marked Files: Target Directory Using Bookmarks......netrw-Tb
      Marked Files: Target Directory Using History........netrw-Th
      Marked Files: Unmarking.............................netrw-mu
      Netrw Browser Variables.............................netrw-browser-var
      Netrw Browsing And Option Incompatibilities.........netrw-incompatible
      Netrw Settings Window...............................netrw-settings-window
      Obtaining A File....................................netrw-O
      Preview Window......................................netrw-p
      Previous Window.....................................netrw-P
      Refreshing The Listing..............................netrw-ctrl-l
      Reversing Sorting Order.............................netrw-r
      Renaming Files Or Directories.......................netrw-R
      Selecting Sorting Style.............................netrw-s
      Setting Editing Window..............................netrw-C
10. Problems and Fixes....................................netrw-problems
11. Debugging Netrw Itself................................netrw-debug
12. History...............................................netrw-history
13. Todo..................................................netrw-todo
14. Credits...............................................netrw-credits

2. Starting With Netrw                                  netrw-start {{{1

Netrw makes reading files, writing files, browsing over a network, and
local browsing easy!  First, make sure that you have plugins enabled, so
you'll need to have at least the following in your <.vimrc>:
(or see netrw-activate)

        set nocp                    " 'compatible' is not set
        filetype plugin on          " plugins are enabled

(see 'cp' and :filetype-plugin-on)

Netrw supports "transparent" editing of files on other machines using urls
(see netrw-transparent). As an example of this, let's assume you have an
account on some other machine; if you can use scp, try:

        vim scp://hostname/path/to/file

Want to make ssh/scp easier to use? Check out netrw-ssh-hack!

So, what if you have ftp, not ssh/scp?  That's easy, too; try

        vim ftp://hostname/path/to/file

Want to make ftp simpler to use?  See if your ftp supports a file called
<.netrc> -- typically it goes in your home directory, has read/write
permissions for only the user to read (ie. not group, world, other, etc),
and has lines resembling

        machine HOSTNAME login USERID password "PASSWORD"
        machine HOSTNAME login USERID password "PASSWORD"
        default          login USERID password "PASSWORD"

Windows' ftp doesn't support .netrc; however, one may have in one's .vimrc: 

   let g:netrw_ftp_cmd= 'c:\Windows\System32\ftp -s:C:\Users\MyUserName\MACHINE'

Netrw will substitute the host's machine name for "MACHINE" from the URL it is
attempting to open, and so one may specify
for each site in a separate file: c:\Users\MyUserName\MachineName.

Now about browsing -- when you just want to look around before editing a
file.  For browsing on your current host, just "edit" a directory:

        vim .
        vim /home/userid/path

For browsing on a remote host, "edit" a directory (but make sure that
the directory name is followed by a "/"):

        vim scp://hostname/
        vim ftp://hostname/path/to/dir/

See netrw-browse for more!

There are more protocols supported by netrw than just scp and ftp, too: see the
next section, netrw-externapp, on how to use these external applications with
netrw and vim.

PREVENTING LOADING                                      netrw-noload

If you want to use plugins, but for some reason don't wish to use netrw, then
you need to avoid loading both the plugin and the autoload portions of netrw.
You may do so by placing the following two lines in your <.vimrc>:

        :let g:loaded_netrw       = 1
        :let g:loaded_netrwPlugin = 1

3. Netrw Reference                                      netrw-ref {{{1

   Netrw supports several protocols in addition to scp and ftp as mentioned
   in netrw-start.  These include dav, fetch, http,... well, just look
   at the list in netrw-externapp.  Each protocol is associated with a
   variable which holds the default command supporting that protocol.

EXTERNAL APPLICATIONS AND PROTOCOLS                     netrw-externapp {{{2

        Protocol  Variable             Default Value
        --------  ----------------     -------------
           dav:   g:netrw_dav_cmd      = "cadaver"    if cadaver is executable
           dav:   g:netrw_dav_cmd      = "curl -o"    elseif curl is available
         fetch:   g:netrw_fetch_cmd    = "fetch -o"   if fetch is available
           ftp:   g:netrw_ftp_cmd      = "ftp"
          http:   g:netrw_http_cmd     = "elinks"     if   elinks  is available
          http:   g:netrw_http_cmd     = "links"      elseif links is available
          http:   g:netrw_http_cmd     = "curl"       elseif curl  is available
          http:   g:netrw_http_cmd     = "wget"       elseif wget  is available
          http:   g:netrw_http_cmd     = "fetch"      elseif fetch is available
          http:   g:netrw_http_put_cmd = "curl -T"
           rcp:   g:netrw_rcp_cmd      = "rcp"
         rsync:   g:netrw_rsync_cmd    = "rsync"     (see g:netrw_rsync_sep)
           scp:   g:netrw_scp_cmd      = "scp -q"
          sftp:   g:netrw_sftp_cmd     = "sftp"
          file:   g:netrw_file_cmd     = "elinks" or "links"

        g:netrw_http_xcmd : the option string for http://... protocols are
        specified via this variable and may be independently overridden.  By
        default, the option arguments for the http-handling commands are:

                    elinks : "-source >"
                    links  : "-dump >"
                    curl   : "-L -o"
                    wget   : "-q -O"
                    fetch  : "-o"

        For example, if your system has elinks, and you'd rather see the
        page using an attempt at rendering the text, you may wish to have
                let g:netrw_http_xcmd= "-dump >"
        in your .vimrc.

        g:netrw_http_put_cmd: this option specifies both the executable and
        any needed options.  This command does a PUT operation to the url.

READING                                         netrw-read netrw-nread {{{2

        Generally, one may just use the URL notation with a normal editing
        command, such as

                :e ftp://[user@]machine/path

        Netrw also provides the Nread command:

        :Nread ?                                        give help
        :Nread "machine:path"                           uses rcp
        :Nread "machine path"                           uses ftp w/ <.netrc>
        :Nread "machine id password path"               uses ftp
        :Nread "dav://machine[:port]/path"              uses cadaver
        :Nread "fetch://[user@]machine/path"            uses fetch
        :Nread "ftp://[user@]machine[[:#]port]/path"    uses ftp w/ <.netrc>
        :Nread "http://[user@]machine/path"             uses http  uses wget
        :Nread "rcp://[user@]machine/path"              uses rcp
        :Nread "rsync://[user@]machine[:port]/path"     uses rsync
        :Nread "scp://[user@]machine[[:#]port]/path"    uses scp
        :Nread "sftp://[user@]machine/path"             uses sftp

WRITING                                 netrw-write netrw-nwrite {{{2

        One may just use the URL notation with a normal file writing
        command, such as

                :w ftp://[user@]machine/path

        Netrw also provides the Nwrite command:

        :Nwrite ?                                       give help
        :Nwrite "machine:path"                          uses rcp
        :Nwrite "machine path"                          uses ftp w/ <.netrc>
        :Nwrite "machine id password path"              uses ftp
        :Nwrite "dav://machine[:port]/path"             uses cadaver
        :Nwrite "ftp://[user@]machine[[:#]port]/path"   uses ftp w/ <.netrc>
        :Nwrite "rcp://[user@]machine/path"             uses rcp
        :Nwrite "rsync://[user@]machine[:port]/path"    uses rsync
        :Nwrite "scp://[user@]machine[[:#]port]/path"   uses scp
        :Nwrite "sftp://[user@]machine/path"            uses sftp
        http: not supported!

SOURCING                                        netrw-source {{{2

        One may just use the URL notation with the normal file sourcing
        command, such as

                :so ftp://[user@]machine/path

        Netrw also provides the Nsource command:

        :Nsource ?                                      give help
        :Nsource "dav://machine[:port]/path"            uses cadaver
        :Nsource "fetch://[user@]machine/path"          uses fetch
        :Nsource "ftp://[user@]machine[[:#]port]/path"  uses ftp w/ <.netrc>
        :Nsource "http://[user@]machine/path"           uses http  uses wget
        :Nsource "rcp://[user@]machine/path"            uses rcp
        :Nsource "rsync://[user@]machine[:port]/path"   uses rsync
        :Nsource "scp://[user@]machine[[:#]port]/path"  uses scp
        :Nsource "sftp://[user@]machine/path"           uses sftp

DIRECTORY LISTING               netrw-trailingslash netrw-dirlist {{{2

        One may browse a directory to get a listing by simply attempting to
        edit the directory:

                :e scp://[user]@hostname/path/
                :e ftp://[user]@hostname/path/

        For remote directory listings (ie. those using scp or ftp), that
        trailing "/" is necessary (the slash tells netrw to treat the argument
        as a directory to browse instead of as a file to download).

        The Nread command may also be used to accomplish this (again, that
        trailing slash is necessary):

                :Nread [protocol]://[user]@hostname/path/

                                        netrw-login netrw-password
CHANGING USERID AND PASSWORD            netrw-chgup netrw-userpass {{{2

        Attempts to use ftp will prompt you for a user-id and a password.
        These will be saved in global variables g:netrw_uid and
        s:netrw_passwd; subsequent use of ftp will re-use those two strings,
        thereby simplifying use of ftp.  However, if you need to use a
        different user id and/or password, you'll want to call NetUserPass()
        first.  To work around the need to enter passwords, check if your ftp
        supports a <.netrc> file in your home directory.  Also see
        netrw-passwd (and if you're using ssh/scp hoping to figure out how
        to not need to use passwords for scp, look at netrw-ssh-hack).

        :NetUserPass [uid [password]]           -- prompts as needed
        :call NetUserPass()                     -- prompts for uid and password
        :call NetUserPass("uid")                -- prompts for password
        :call NetUserPass("uid","password")     -- sets global uid and password

(Related topics: ftp netrw-userpass netrw-start)

NETRW VARIABLES AND SETTINGS                            netrw-variables {{{2
    (Also see:
    netrw-browser-var     : netrw browser option variables
    netrw-protocol        : file transfer protocol option variables
    netrw-settings        : additional file transfer options
    netrw-browser-options : these options affect browsing directories

Netrw provides a lot of variables which allow you to customize netrw to your
preferences.  One way to look at them is via the command :NetrwSettings (see
netrw-settings) which will display your current netrw settings.  Most such
settings are described below, in netrw-browser-options, and in

 b:netrw_lastfile     last file Network-read/written retained on a
                        per-buffer basis (supports plain :Nw )

 g:netrw_bufsettings  the settings that netrw buffers have
                        (default) noma nomod nonu nowrap ro nobl

 g:netrw_chgwin       specifies a window number where subsequent file edits
                        will take place.  (also see netrw-C)
                        (default) -1

 g:Netrw_funcref      specifies a function (or functions) to be called when
                        netrw edits a file.  The file is first edited, and
                        then the function reference (Funcref) is called.
                        This variable may also hold a List of Funcrefs.
                        (default) not defined.  (the capital in g:Netrw...
                        is required by its holding a function reference)

                            Example: place in .vimrc; affects all file opening
                            fun! MyFuncRef()
                            let g:Netrw_funcref= function("MyFuncRef")

 g:Netrw_UserMaps     specifies a function or List of functions which can
                        be used to set up user-specified maps and functionality.
                        See netrw-usermaps

 g:netrw_ftp             if it doesn't exist, use default ftp
                        =0 use default ftp                     (uid password)
                        =1 use alternate ftp method       (user uid password)
                           If you're having trouble with ftp, try changing the
                           value of this variable to see if the alternate ftp
                           method works for your setup.

 g:netrw_ftp_options     Chosen by default, these options are supposed to
                         turn interactive prompting off and to restrain ftp
                         from attempting auto-login upon initial connection.
                         However, it appears that not all ftp implementations
                         support this (ex. ncftp).
                        ="-i -n"

 g:netrw_ftpextracmd  default: doesn't exist
                        If this variable exists, then any string it contains
                        will be placed into the commands set to your ftp
                        client.  As an example:

 g:netrw_ftpmode      ="binary"                                   (default)

 g:netrw_ignorenetrc  =0 (default for linux, cygwin)
                        =1 If you have a <.netrc> file but it doesn't work and
                           you want it ignored, then set this variable as
                           shown. (default for Windows + cmd.exe)

 g:netrw_menu         =0 disable netrw's menu
                        =1 (default) netrw's menu enabled

 g:netrw_nogx         if this variable exists, then the "gx" map will not
                        be available (see netrw-gx)

 g:netrw_uid          (ftp) user-id,      retained on a per-vim-session basis
 s:netrw_passwd       (ftp) password,     retained on a per-vim-session basis

 g:netrw_preview      =0 (default) preview window shown in a horizontally
                           split window
                        =1 preview window shown in a vertically split window.
                           Also affects the "previous window" (see netrw-P)
                           in the same way.
                        The g:netrw_alto variable may be used to provide
                        additional splitting control:
                                g:netrw_preview g:netrw_alto result
                                         0             0     :aboveleft
                                         0             1     :belowright
                                         1             0     :topleft
                                         1             1     :botright
                        To control sizing, see g:netrw_winsize

 g:netrw_scpport      = "-P" : option to use to set port for scp
 g:netrw_sshport      = "-p" : option to use to set port for ssh

 g:netrw_sepchr       =\0xff
                        =\0x01 for enc == euc-jp (and perhaps it should be for
                           others, too, please let me know)
                           Separates priority codes from filenames internally.
                           See netrw-p12.

  g:netrw_silent      =0 : transfers done normally
                        =1 : transfers done silently

 g:netrw_use_errorwindow =2: messages from netrw will use a popup window
                             Move the mouse and pause to remove the popup window.
                             (default value if popup windows are available)
                         =1 : messages from netrw will use a separate one
                              line window.  This window provides reliable
                              delivery of messages.
                             (default value if popup windows are not available)
                         =0 : messages from netrw will use echoerr ;
                              messages don't always seem to show up this
                              way, but one doesn't have to quit the window.

 g:netrw_cygwin       =1 assume scp under windows is from cygwin. Also
                           permits network browsing to use ls with time and
                           size sorting (default if windows)
                        =0 assume Windows' scp accepts windows-style paths
                           Network browsing uses dir instead of ls
                           This option is ignored if you're using unix

 g:netrw_use_nt_rcp   =0 don't use the rcp of WinNT, Win2000 and WinXP
                        =1 use WinNT's rcp in binary mode         (default)

PATHS                                                   netrw-path {{{2

Paths to files are generally user-directory relative for most protocols.
It is possible that some protocol will make paths relative to some
associated directory, however.

        example:  vim scp://user@host/somefile
        example:  vim scp://user@host/subdir1/subdir2/somefile

where "somefile" is in the "user"'s home directory.  If you wish to get a
file using root-relative paths, use the full path:

        example:  vim scp://user@host//somefile
        example:  vim scp://user@host//subdir1/subdir2/somefile

4. Network-Oriented File Transfer                       netrw-xfer {{{1

Network-oriented file transfer under Vim is implemented by a vim script
(<netrw.vim>) using plugin techniques.  It currently supports both reading and
writing across networks using rcp, scp, ftp or ftp+<.netrc>, scp, fetch,
dav/cadaver, rsync, or sftp.

http is currently supported read-only via use of wget or fetch.

<netrw.vim> is a standard plugin which acts as glue between Vim and the
various file transfer programs.  It uses autocommand events (BufReadCmd,
FileReadCmd, BufWriteCmd) to intercept reads/writes with url-like filenames.

        ex. vim ftp://hostname/path/to/file

The characters preceding the colon specify the protocol to use; in the
example, it's ftp.  The <netrw.vim> script then formulates a command or a
series of commands (typically ftp) which it issues to an external program
(ftp, scp, etc) which does the actual file transfer/protocol.  Files are read
from/written to a temporary file (under Unix/Linux, /tmp/...) which the
<netrw.vim> script will clean up.

Now, a word about Jan Minář's "FTP User Name and Password Disclosure"; first,
ftp is not a secure protocol.  User names and passwords are transmitted "in
the clear" over the internet; any snooper tool can pick these up; this is not
a netrw thing, this is a ftp thing.  If you're concerned about this, please
try to use scp or sftp instead.

Netrw re-uses the user id and password during the same vim session and so long
as the remote hostname remains the same.

Jan seems to be a bit confused about how netrw handles ftp; normally multiple
commands are performed in a "ftp session", and he seems to feel that the
uid/password should only be retained over one ftp session.  However, netrw
does every ftp operation in a separate "ftp session"; so remembering the
uid/password for just one "ftp session" would be the same as not remembering
the uid/password at all.  IMHO this would rapidly grow tiresome as one
browsed remote directories, for example.

On the other hand, thanks go to Jan M. for pointing out the many
vulnerabilities that netrw (and vim itself) had had in handling "crafted"
filenames.  The shellescape() and fnameescape() functions were written in
response by Bram Moolenaar to handle these sort of problems, and netrw has
been modified to use them.  Still, my advice is, if the "filename" looks like
a vim command that you aren't comfortable with having executed, don't open it.

                                netrw-putty netrw-pscp netrw-psftp
One may modify any protocol's implementing external application by setting a
variable (ex. scp uses the variable g:netrw_scp_cmd, which is defaulted to
"scp -q").  As an example, consider using PuTTY:

        let g:netrw_scp_cmd = '"c:\Program Files\PuTTY\pscp.exe" -q -batch'
        let g:netrw_sftp_cmd= '"c:\Program Files\PuTTY\psftp.exe"'

(note: it has been reported that windows 7 with putty v0.6's "-batch" option
       doesn't work, so its best to leave it off for that system)

See netrw-p8 for more about putty, pscp, psftp, etc.

Ftp, an old protocol, seems to be blessed by numerous implementations.
Unfortunately, some implementations are noisy (ie., add junk to the end of the
file).  Thus, concerned users may decide to write a NetReadFixup() function
that will clean up after reading with their ftp.  Some Unix systems (ie.,
FreeBSD) provide a utility called "fetch" which uses the ftp protocol but is
not noisy and more convenient, actually, for <netrw.vim> to use.
Consequently, if "fetch" is available (ie. executable), it may be preferable
to use it for ftp://... based transfers.

For rcp, scp, sftp, and http, one may use network-oriented file transfers
transparently; ie.

        vim rcp://[user@]machine/path
        vim scp://[user@]machine/path

If your ftp supports <.netrc>, then it too can be transparently used
if the needed triad of machine name, user id, and password are present in
that file.  Your ftp must be able to use the <.netrc> file on its own, however.

        vim ftp://[user@]machine[[:#]portnumber]/path

Windows provides an ftp (typically c:\Windows\System32\ftp.exe) which uses
an option, -s:filename (filename can and probably should be a full path)
which contains ftp commands which will be automatically run whenever ftp
starts.  You may use this feature to enter a user and password for one site:
                                netrw-windows-netrc  netrw-windows-s
If g:netrw_ftp_cmd contains -s:[path/]MACHINE, then (on Windows machines
only) netrw will substitute the current machine name requested for ftp
connections for MACHINE.  Hence one can have multiple machine.ftp files
containing login and password for ftp.  Example:

    let g:netrw_ftp_cmd= 'c:\Windows\System32\ftp -s:C:\Users\Myself\MACHINE'

will use a file


Often, ftp will need to query the user for the userid and password.
The latter will be done "silently"; ie. asterisks will show up instead of
the actually-typed-in password.  Netrw will retain the userid and password
for subsequent read/writes from the most recent transfer so subsequent
transfers (read/write) to or from that machine will take place without
additional prompting.

  |  Reading                        | Writing                    |  Uses      |
  | DAV:                            |                            |            |
  |  dav://host/path                |                            | cadaver    |
  |  :Nread dav://host/path         | :Nwrite dav://host/path    | cadaver    |
  | DAV + SSL:                      |                            |            |
  |  davs://host/path               |                            | cadaver    |
  |  :Nread davs://host/path        | :Nwrite davs://host/path   | cadaver    |
  | FETCH:                          |                            |            |
  |  fetch://[user@]host/path       |                            |            |
  |  fetch://[user@]host:http/path  |  Not Available             | fetch      |
  |  :Nread fetch://[user@]host/path|                            |            |
  | FILE:                           |                            |            |
  |  file:///*                      | file:///*                  |            |
  |  file://localhost/*             | file://localhost/*         |            |
  | FTP:          (*3)              |              (*3)          |            |
  |  ftp://[user@]host/path         | ftp://[user@]host/path     | ftp  (*2)  |
  |  :Nread ftp://host/path         | :Nwrite ftp://host/path    | ftp+.netrc |
  |  :Nread host path               | :Nwrite host path          | ftp+.netrc |
  |  :Nread host uid pass path      | :Nwrite host uid pass path | ftp        |
  | HTTP: wget is executable: (*4)  |                            |            |
  |  http://[user@]host/path        |        Not Available       | wget       |
  | HTTP: fetch is executable (*4)  |                            |            |
  |  http://[user@]host/path        |        Not Available       | fetch      |
  | RCP:                            |                            |            |
  |  rcp://[user@]host/path         | rcp://[user@]host/path     | rcp        |
  | RSYNC:                          |                            |            |
  |  rsync://[user@]host/path       | rsync://[user@]host/path   | rsync      |
  |  :Nread rsync://host/path       | :Nwrite rsync://host/path  | rsync      |
  |  :Nread rcp://host/path         | :Nwrite rcp://host/path    | rcp        |
  | SCP:                            |                            |            |
  |  scp://[user@]host/path         | scp://[user@]host/path     | scp        |
  |  :Nread scp://host/path         | :Nwrite scp://host/path    | scp  (*1)  |
  | SFTP:                           |                            |            |
  |  sftp://[user@]host/path        | sftp://[user@]host/path    | sftp       |
  |  :Nread sftp://host/path        | :Nwrite sftp://host/path   | sftp  (*1) |

        (*1) For an absolute path use scp://machine//path.

        (*2) if <.netrc> is present, it is assumed that it will
        work with your ftp client.  Otherwise the script will
        prompt for user-id and password.

        (*3) for ftp, "machine" may be machine#port or machine:port
        if a different port is needed than the standard ftp port

        (*4) for http:..., if wget is available it will be used.  Otherwise,
        if fetch is available it will be used.

Both the :Nread and the :Nwrite ex-commands can accept multiple filenames.

NETRC                                                   netrw-netrc

The <.netrc> file, typically located in your home directory, contains lines
therein which map a hostname (machine name) to the user id and password you
prefer to use with it.

The typical syntax for lines in a <.netrc> file is given as shown below.
Ftp under Unix usually supports <.netrc>; ftp under Windows usually doesn't.

        machine {full machine name} login {user-id} password "{password}"
        default login {user-id} password "{password}"

Your ftp client must handle the use of <.netrc> on its own, but if the
<.netrc> file exists, an ftp transfer will not ask for the user-id or

        Since this file contains passwords, make very sure nobody else can
        read this file!  Most programs will refuse to use a .netrc that is
        readable for others.  Don't forget that the system administrator can
        still read the file!  Ie. for Linux/Unix: chmod 600 .netrc

Even though Windows' ftp clients typically do not support .netrc, netrw has
a work-around: see netrw-windows-s.

PASSWORD                                                netrw-passwd

The script attempts to get passwords for ftp invisibly using inputsecret(),
a built-in Vim function.  See netrw-userpass for how to change the password
after one has set it.

Unfortunately there doesn't appear to be a way for netrw to feed a password to
scp.  Thus every transfer via scp will require re-entry of the password.
However, netrw-ssh-hack can help with this problem.

5. Activation                                           netrw-activate {{{1

Network-oriented file transfers are available by default whenever Vim's
'nocompatible' mode is enabled.  Netrw's script files reside in your
system's plugin, autoload, and syntax directories; just the
plugin/netrwPlugin.vim script is sourced automatically whenever you bring up
vim.  The main script in autoload/netrw.vim is only loaded when you actually
use netrw.  I suggest that, at a minimum, you have at least the following in
your <.vimrc> customization file:

        set nocp
        if version >= 600
          filetype plugin indent on

By also including the following lines in your .vimrc, one may have netrw
immediately activate when using [g]vim without any filenames, showing the
current directory:

        " Augroup VimStartup:
        augroup VimStartup
          au VimEnter * if expand("%") == "" | e . | endif
        augroup END

6. Transparent Remote File Editing              netrw-transparent {{{1

Transparent file transfers occur whenever a regular file read or write
(invoked via an :autocmd for BufReadCmdBufWriteCmd, or SourceCmd
events) is made.  Thus one may read, write, or source  files across networks
just as easily as if they were local files!

        vim ftp://[user@]machine/path

See netrw-activate for more on how to encourage your vim to use plugins
such as netrw.

For password-free use of scp:, see netrw-ssh-hack.

7. Ex Commands                                          netrw-ex {{{1

The usual read/write commands are supported.  There are also a few
additional commands available.  Often you won't need to use Nwrite or
Nread as shown in netrw-transparent (ie. simply use
  :e URL
  :r URL
  :w URL
instead, as appropriate) -- see netrw-urls.  In the explanations
below, a {netfile} is a URL to a remote file.

                                                :Nwrite  :Nw
:[range]Nw[rite]        Write the specified lines to the current
                file as specified in b:netrw_lastfile.
                (related: netrw-nwrite)

:[range]Nw[rite] {netfile} [{netfile}]...
                Write the specified lines to the {netfile}.

                                                :Nread   :Nr
:Nr[ead]        Read the lines from the file specified in b:netrw_lastfile
                into the current buffer.  (related: netrw-nread)

:Nr[ead] {netfile} {netfile}...
                Read the {netfile} after the current line.

                                                :Nsource :Ns
:Ns[ource] {netfile}
                Source the {netfile}.
                To start up vim using a remote .vimrc, one may use
                the following (all on one line) (tnx to Antoine Mechelynck)
                vim -u NORC -N
                 --cmd "runtime plugin/netrwPlugin.vim"
                 --cmd "source scp://HOSTNAME/.vimrc"
                 (related: netrw-source)

:call NetUserPass()                             NetUserPass()
                If g:netrw_uid and s:netrw_passwd don't exist,
                this function will query the user for them.
                (related: netrw-userpass)

:call NetUserPass("userid")
                This call will set the g:netrw_uid and, if
                the password doesn't exist, will query the user for it.
                (related: netrw-userpass)

:call NetUserPass("userid","passwd")
                This call will set both the g:netrw_uid and s:netrw_passwd.
                The user-id and password are used by ftp transfers.  One may
                effectively remove the user-id and password by using empty
                strings (ie. "").
                (related: netrw-userpass)

:NetrwSettings  This command is described in netrw-settings -- used to
                display netrw settings and change netrw behavior.

8. Variables and Options                netrw-var netrw-settings {{{1

(also see: netrw-options netrw-variables netrw-protocol
           netrw-browser-settings netrw-browser-options )

The <netrw.vim> script provides several variables which act as options to
affect <netrw.vim>'s file transfer behavior.  These variables typically may be
set in the user's <.vimrc> file: (see also netrw-settings netrw-protocol)

                        Netrw Options
        Option                  Meaning
        --------------          -----------------------------------------------

        b:netrw_col             Holds current cursor position (during NetWrite)
        g:netrw_cygwin          =1 assume scp under windows is from cygwin
                                =0 assume scp under windows accepts windows
                                   style paths                (default/else)
        g:netrw_ftp             =0 use default ftp            (uid password)
        g:netrw_ftpmode         ="binary"                     (default)
                                ="ascii"                      (your choice)
        g:netrw_ignorenetrc     =1                            (default)
                                   if you have a <.netrc> file but you don't
                                   want it used, then set this variable.  Its
                                   mere existence is enough to cause <.netrc>
                                   to be ignored.
        b:netrw_lastfile        Holds latest method/machine/path.
        b:netrw_line            Holds current line number     (during NetWrite)
        g:netrw_silent          =0 transfers done normally
                                =1 transfers done silently
        g:netrw_uid             Holds current user-id for ftp.
        g:netrw_use_nt_rcp      =0 don't use WinNT/2K/XP's rcp (default)
                                =1 use WinNT/2K/XP's rcp, binary mode
The script will also make use of the following variables internally, albeit

                             Temporary Variables
        Variable                Meaning
        --------                ------------------------------------

        b:netrw_method          Index indicating rcp/ftp+.netrc/ftp
        w:netrw_method          (same as b:netrw_method)
        g:netrw_machine         Holds machine name parsed from input
        b:netrw_fname           Holds filename being accessed


Netrw supports a number of protocols.  These protocols are invoked using the
variables listed below, and may be modified by the user.

                           Protocol Control Options
    Option            Type        Setting         Meaning
    ---------         --------    --------------  ---------------------------
     netrw_ftp         variable    =doesn't exist  userid set by "user userid"
                                  =0              userid set by "user userid"
                                  =1              userid set by "userid"
    NetReadFixup      function    =doesn't exist  no change
                                  =exists         Allows user to have files
                                                  read via ftp automatically
                                                  transformed however they wish
                                                  by NetReadFixup()
    g:netrw_dav_cmd      var   ="cadaver"      if cadaver  is executable
    g:netrw_dav_cmd      var   ="curl -o"      elseif curl is executable
    g:netrw_fetch_cmd    var   ="fetch -o"     if fetch is available
    g:netrw_ftp_cmd      var   ="ftp"
    g:netrw_http_cmd     var   ="fetch -o"     if      fetch is available
    g:netrw_http_cmd     var   ="wget -O"      else if wget  is available
    g:netrw_http_put_cmd var   ="curl -T"
    g:netrw_list_cmd     var   ="ssh USEPORT HOSTNAME ls -Fa"
    g:netrw_rcp_cmd      var   ="rcp"
    g:netrw_rsync_cmd    var   ="rsync"
    g:netrw_rsync_sep    var   ="/"            used to separate the hostname
                                               from the file spec
    g:netrw_scp_cmd      var   ="scp -q"
    g:netrw_sftp_cmd     var   ="sftp"


The g:netrw_..._cmd options (g:netrw_ftp_cmd and g:netrw_sftp_cmd)
specify the external program to use handle the ftp protocol.  They may
include command line options (such as -p for passive mode). Example:

        let g:netrw_ftp_cmd= "ftp -p"

Browsing is supported by using the g:netrw_list_cmd; the substring
"HOSTNAME" will be changed via substitution with whatever the current request
is for a hostname.

Two options (g:netrw_ftp and netrw-fixup) both help with certain ftp's
that give trouble .  In order to best understand how to use these options if
ftp is giving you troubles, a bit of discussion is provided on how netrw does
ftp reads.

For ftp, netrw typically builds up lines of one of the following formats in a
temporary file:

  IF g:netrw_ftp !exists or is not 1     IF g:netrw_ftp exists and is 1
  ----------------------------------     ------------------------------

       open machine [port]                    open machine [port]
       user userid password                   userid password
       [g:netrw_ftpmode]                      password
       [g:netrw_ftpextracmd]                  [g:netrw_ftpmode]
       get filename tempfile                  [g:netrw_extracmd]
                                              get filename tempfile

The g:netrw_ftpmode and g:netrw_ftpextracmd are optional.

Netrw then executes the lines above by use of a filter:

        :%! {g:netrw_ftp_cmd} -i [-n]

        g:netrw_ftp_cmd is usually "ftp",
        -i tells ftp not to be interactive
        -n means don't use netrc and is used for Method #3 (ftp w/o <.netrc>)

If <.netrc> exists it will be used to avoid having to query the user for
userid and password.  The transferred file is put into a temporary file.
The temporary file is then read into the main editing session window that
requested it and the temporary file deleted.

If your ftp doesn't accept the "user" command and immediately just demands a
userid, then try putting "let netrw_ftp=1" in your <.vimrc>.

To handle the SSL certificate dialog for untrusted servers, one may pull
down the certificate and place it into /usr/ssl/cert.pem.  This operation
renders the server treatment as "trusted".

                                                netrw-fixup netreadfixup
If your ftp for whatever reason generates unwanted lines (such as AUTH
messages) you may write a NetReadFixup() function:

    function! NetReadFixup(method,line1,line2)
      " a:line1: first new line in current file
      " a:line2: last  new line in current file
      if     a:method == 1 "rcp
      elseif a:method == 2 "ftp + <.netrc>
      elseif a:method == 3 "ftp + machine,uid,password,filename
      elseif a:method == 4 "scp
      elseif a:method == 5 "http/wget
      elseif a:method == 6 "dav/cadaver
      elseif a:method == 7 "rsync
      elseif a:method == 8 "fetch
      elseif a:method == 9 "sftp
      else               " complain

The NetReadFixup() function will be called if it exists and thus allows you to
customize your reading process.

(Related topics: ftp netrw-userpass netrw-start)

9. Browsing             netrw-browsing netrw-browse netrw-help {{{1
                        netrw-browser  netrw-dir    netrw-list

INTRODUCTION TO BROWSING                        netrw-intro-browse {{{2
        (Quick References: netrw-quickmaps netrw-quickcoms)

Netrw supports the browsing of directories on your local system and on remote
hosts; browsing includes listing files and directories, entering directories,
editing files therein, deleting files/directories, making new directories,
moving (renaming) files and directories, copying files and directories, etc.
One may mark files and execute any system command on them!  The Netrw browser
generally implements the previous explorer's maps and commands for remote
directories, although details (such as pertinent global variable names)
necessarily differ.  To browse a directory, simply "edit" it!

        vim /your/directory/
        vim .
        vim c:\your\directory\

(Related topics: netrw-cr  netrw-o  netrw-p netrw-P netrw-t
                 netrw-mf  netrw-mx netrw-D netrw-R netrw-v )

The Netrw remote file and directory browser handles two protocols: ssh and
ftp.  The protocol in the url, if it is ftp, will cause netrw also to use ftp
in its remote browsing.  Specifying any other protocol will cause it to be
used for file transfers; but the ssh protocol will be used to do remote

To use Netrw's remote directory browser, simply attempt to read a "file" with
a trailing slash and it will be interpreted as a request to list a directory:

        vim [protocol]://[user@]hostname/path/

where [protocol] is typically scp or ftp.  As an example, try:


For local directories, the trailing slash is not required.  Again, because it's
easy to miss: to browse remote directories, the URL must terminate with a

If you'd like to avoid entering the password repeatedly for remote directory
listings with ssh or scp, see netrw-ssh-hack.  To avoid password entry with
ftp, see netrw-netrc (if your ftp supports it).

There are several things you can do to affect the browser's display of files:

        * To change the listing style, press the "i" key (netrw-i).
          Currently there are four styles: thin, long, wide, and tree.
          To make that change "permanent", see g:netrw_liststyle.

        * To hide files (don't want to see those xyz~ files anymore?) see

        * Press s to sort files by name, time, or size.

See netrw-browse-cmds for all the things you can do with netrw!

                        netrw-getftype netrw-filigree netrw-ftype
The getftype() function is used to append a bit of filigree to indicate
filetype to locally listed files:

        directory  : /
        executable : *
        fifo       : |
        links      : @
        sockets    : =

The filigree also affects the g:netrw_sort_sequence.

QUICK HELP                                              netrw-quickhelp {{{2
                       (Use ctrl-] to select a topic)
        Intro to Browsing...............................netrw-intro-browse
          Quick Reference: Maps.........................netrw-quickmap
          Quick Reference: Commands.....................netrw-browse-cmds
          Edit hiding list..............................netrw-ctrl-h
          Hiding Files or Directories...................netrw-a
          Hiding/Unhiding by suffix.....................netrw-mh
          Hiding  dot-files.............................netrw-gh
        Listing Style
          Select listing style (thin/long/wide/tree)....netrw-i
          Associated setting variable...................g:netrw_liststyle
          Shell command used to perform listing.........g:netrw_list_cmd
          Quick file info...............................netrw-qf
        Sorted by
          Select sorting style (name/time/size).........netrw-s
          Editing the sorting sequence..................netrw-S
          Sorting options...............................g:netrw_sort_options
          Associated setting variable...................g:netrw_sort_sequence
          Reverse sorting order.........................netrw-r

                                netrw-quickmap  netrw-quickmaps
QUICK REFERENCE: MAPS                           netrw-browse-maps {{{2

          ---                   -----------------                       ----
          Map                   Quick Explanation                       Link
          ---                   -----------------                       ----
         <F1>   Causes Netrw to issue help
         <cr>   Netrw will enter the directory or read the file      netrw-cr
         <del>  Netrw will attempt to remove the file/directory      netrw-del
         <c-h>  Edit file hiding list                                netrw-ctrl-h
         <c-l>  Causes Netrw to refresh the directory listing        netrw-ctrl-l
         <c-r>  Browse using a gvim server                           netrw-ctrl-r
         <c-tab> Shrink/expand a netrw/explore window                netrw-c-tab
           -    Makes Netrw go up one directory                      netrw--
           a    Cycles between normal display,                       netrw-a
                hiding (suppress display of files matching g:netrw_list_hide)
                and showing (display only files which match g:netrw_list_hide)
           cd   Make browsing directory the current directory        netrw-cd
           C    Setting the editing window                           netrw-C
           d    Make a directory                                     netrw-d
           D    Attempt to remove the file(s)/directory(ies)         netrw-D
           gb   Go to previous bookmarked directory                  netrw-gb
           gd   Force treatment as directory                         netrw-gd
           gf   Force treatment as file                              netrw-gf
           gh   Quick hide/unhide of dot-files                       netrw-gh
           gn   Make top of tree the directory below the cursor      netrw-gn
           gp   Change local-only file permissions                   netrw-gp
           i    Cycle between thin, long, wide, and tree listings    netrw-i
           I    Toggle the displaying of the banner                  netrw-I
           mb   Bookmark current directory                           netrw-mb
           mc   Copy marked files to marked-file target directory    netrw-mc
           md   Apply diff to marked files (up to 3)                 netrw-md
           me   Place marked files on arg list and edit them         netrw-me
           mf   Mark a file                                          netrw-mf
           mF   Unmark files                                         netrw-mF
           mg   Apply vimgrep to marked files                        netrw-mg
           mh   Toggle marked file suffices' presence on hiding list netrw-mh
           mm   Move marked files to marked-file target directory    netrw-mm
           mp   Print marked files                                   netrw-mp
           mr   Mark files using a shell-style regexp                netrw-mr
           mt   Current browsing directory becomes markfile target   netrw-mt
           mT   Apply ctags to marked files                          netrw-mT
           mu   Unmark all marked files                              netrw-mu
           mv   Apply arbitrary vim   command to marked files        netrw-mv
           mx   Apply arbitrary shell command to marked files        netrw-mx
           mX   Apply arbitrary shell command to marked files en blocnetrw-mX
           mz   Compress/decompress marked files                     netrw-mz
           o    Enter the file/directory under the cursor in a new   netrw-o
                browser window.  A horizontal split is used.
           O    Obtain a file specified by cursor                    netrw-O
           p    Preview the file                                     netrw-p
           P    Browse in the previously used window                 netrw-P
           qb   List bookmarked directories and history              netrw-qb
           qf   Display information on file                          netrw-qf
           qF   Mark files using a quickfix list                     netrw-qF
           qL   Mark files using a location-list                     netrw-qL
           r    Reverse sorting order                                netrw-r
           R    Rename the designated file(s)/directory(ies)         netrw-R
           s    Select sorting style: by name, time, or file size    netrw-s
           S    Specify suffix priority for name-sorting             netrw-S
           t    Enter the file/directory under the cursor in a new tabnetrw-t
           u    Change to recently-visited directory                 netrw-u
           U    Change to subsequently-visited directory             netrw-U
           v    Enter the file/directory under the cursor in a new   netrw-v
                browser window.  A vertical split is used.
           x    View file with an associated program                 netrw-x
           X    Execute filename under cursor via system()           netrw-X

           %    Open a new file in netrw's current directory         netrw-%

        netrw-mouse netrw-leftmouse netrw-middlemouse netrw-rightmouse
        <leftmouse>     (gvim only) selects word under mouse as if a <cr>
                        had been pressed (ie. edit file, change directory)
        <middlemouse>   (gvim only) same as P selecting word under mouse;
                        see netrw-P
        <rightmouse>    (gvim only) delete file/directory using word under
        <2-leftmouse>   (gvim only) when:
                         * in a netrw-selected file, AND
                         * g:netrw_retmap == 1       AND
                         * the user doesn't already have a <2-leftmouse>
                           mapping defined before netrw is autoloaded,
                        then a double clicked leftmouse button will return
                        to the netrw browser window.  See g:netrw_retmap.
        <s-leftmouse>   (gvim only) like mf, will mark files.  Dragging
                        the shifted leftmouse will mark multiple files.
                        (see netrw-mf)

        (to disable mouse buttons while browsing: g:netrw_mousemaps)

                                netrw-quickcom netrw-quickcoms
QUICK REFERENCE: COMMANDS       netrw-explore-cmds netrw-browse-cmds {{{2
     :Explore[!]  [dir] Explore directory of current file......netrw-explore
     :Hexplore[!] [dir] Horizontal Split & Explore.............netrw-explore
     :Lexplore[!] [dir] Left Explorer Toggle...................netrw-explore
     :Nexplore[!] [dir] Vertical Split & Explore...............netrw-explore
     :Pexplore[!] [dir] Vertical Split & Explore...............netrw-explore
     :Rexplore          Return to Explorer.....................netrw-explore
     :Sexplore[!] [dir] Split & Explore directory .............netrw-explore
     :Texplore[!] [dir] Tab & Explore..........................netrw-explore
     :Vexplore[!] [dir] Vertical Split & Explore...............netrw-explore

BANNER DISPLAY                                          netrw-I

One may toggle the displaying of the banner by pressing "I".

Also See: g:netrw_banner

BOOKMARKING A DIRECTORY         netrw-mb netrw-bookmark netrw-bookmarks {{{2

One may easily "bookmark" the currently browsed directory by using


Bookmarks are retained in between sessions of vim in a file called .netrwbook
as a List, which is typically stored in the first directory on the user's
'runtimepath'; entries are kept in sorted order.

If there are marked files and/or directories, mb will add them to the bookmark

Additionally, one may use :NetrwMB to bookmark files or directories.

        :NetrwMB[!] [files/directories]

  No bang: enters files/directories into Netrw's bookmark system

   No argument and in netrw buffer:
     if there are marked files        : bookmark marked files
     otherwise                        : bookmark file/directory under cursor
   No argument and not in netrw buffer: bookmarks current open file
   Has arguments                      : glob()s each arg and bookmarks them

 With bang: deletes files/directories from Netrw's bookmark system

The :NetrwMB command is available outside of netrw buffers (once netrw has been
invoked in the session).

The file ".netrwbook" holds bookmarks when netrw (and vim) is not active.  By
default, its stored on the first directory on the user's 'runtimepath'.

Related Topics:
        netrw-gb how to return (go) to a bookmark
        netrw-mB how to delete bookmarks
        netrw-qb how to list bookmarks
        g:netrw_home controls where .netrwbook is kept

BROWSING                                        netrw-enter   netrw-cr {{{2

Browsing is simple: move the cursor onto a file or directory of interest.
Hitting the <cr> (the return key) will select the file or directory.
Directories will themselves be listed, and files will be opened using the
protocol given in the original read request.

  CAVEAT: There are four forms of listing (see netrw-i).  Netrw assumes that
  two or more spaces delimit filenames and directory names for the long and
  wide listing formats.  Thus, if your filename or directory name has two or
  more sequential spaces embedded in it, or any trailing spaces, then you'll
  need to use the "thin" format to select it.

The g:netrw_browse_split option, which is zero by default, may be used to
cause the opening of files to be done in a new window or tab instead of the
default.  When the option is one or two, the splitting will be taken
horizontally or vertically, respectively.  When the option is set to three, a
<cr> will cause the file to appear in a new tab.

When using the gui (gvim), one may select a file by pressing the <leftmouse>
button.  In addition, if

 * g:netrw_retmap == 1       AND   (its default value is 0)
 * in a netrw-selected file, AND
 * the user doesn't already have a <2-leftmouse> mapping defined before
   netrw is loaded

then a doubly-clicked leftmouse button will return to the netrw browser

Netrw attempts to speed up browsing, especially for remote browsing where one
may have to enter passwords, by keeping and re-using previously obtained
directory listing buffers.  The g:netrw_fastbrowse variable is used to
control this behavior; one may have slow browsing (no buffer re-use), medium
speed browsing (re-use directory buffer listings only for remote directories),
and fast browsing (re-use directory buffer listings as often as possible).
The price for such re-use is that when changes are made (such as new files
are introduced into a directory), the listing may become out-of-date.  One may
always refresh directory listing buffers by pressing ctrl-L (see

Squeezing the Current Tree-Listing Directory

When the tree listing style is enabled (see netrw-i) and one is using
gvim, then the <s-cr> mapping may be used to squeeze (close) the
directory currently containing the cursor.

Otherwise, one may remap a key combination of one's own choice to get
this effect:

    nmap <buffer> <silent> <nowait> YOURKEYCOMBO  <Plug>NetrwTreeSqueeze

Put this line in $HOME/ftplugin/netrw/netrw.vim; it needs to be generated
for netrw buffers only.

Related topics:
        netrw-ctrl-r  netrw-o       netrw-p
        netrw-P       netrw-t       netrw-v
Associated setting variables:
   g:netrw_browse_split       g:netrw_fastbrowse
   g:netrw_ftp_list_cmd       g:netrw_ftp_sizelist_cmd
   g:netrw_ftp_timelist_cmd   g:netrw_ssh_browse_reject
   g:netrw_ssh_cmd            g:netrw_use_noswf

BROWSING WITH A HORIZONTALLY SPLIT WINDOW       netrw-o netrw-horiz {{{2

Normally one enters a file or directory using the <cr>.  However, the "o" map
allows one to open a new window to hold the new directory listing or file.  A
horizontal split is used.  (for vertical splitting, see netrw-v)

Normally, the o key splits the window horizontally with the new window and
cursor at the top.

Associated setting variables: g:netrw_alto g:netrw_winsize

Related topics:
        netrw-ctrl-r  netrw-o       netrw-p
        netrw-P       netrw-t       netrw-v
Associated setting variables:
   g:netrw_alto    control above/below splitting
   g:netrw_winsize control initial sizing

BROWSING WITH A NEW TAB                         netrw-t {{{2

Normally one enters a file or directory using the <cr>.  The "t" map
allows one to open a new window holding the new directory listing or file in
a new tab.

If you'd like to have the new listing in a background tab, use gT.

Related topics:
        netrw-ctrl-r  netrw-o       netrw-p
        netrw-P       netrw-t       netrw-v
Associated setting variables:
   g:netrw_winsize control initial sizing

BROWSING WITH A VERTICALLY SPLIT WINDOW                 netrw-v {{{2

Normally one enters a file or directory using the <cr>.  However, the "v" map
allows one to open a new window to hold the new directory listing or file.  A
vertical split is used.  (for horizontal splitting, see netrw-o)

Normally, the v key splits the window vertically with the new window and
cursor at the left.

There is only one tree listing buffer; using "v" on a displayed subdirectory
will split the screen, but the same buffer will be shown twice.

Related topics:
        netrw-ctrl-r  netrw-o       netrw-p
        netrw-P       netrw-t       netrw-v
Associated setting variables:
   g:netrw_altv    control right/left splitting
   g:netrw_winsize control initial sizing

BROWSING USING A GVIM SERVER                    netrw-ctrl-r {{{2

One may keep a browsing gvim separate from the gvim being used to edit.
Use the <c-r> map on a file (not a directory) in the netrw browser, and it
will use a gvim server (see g:netrw_servername).  Subsequent use of <cr>
(see netrw-cr) will re-use that server for editing files.

Related topics:
        netrw-ctrl-r  netrw-o       netrw-p
        netrw-P       netrw-t       netrw-v
Associated setting variables:
        g:netrw_servername   : sets name of server
        g:netrw_browse_split : controls how <cr> will open files

CHANGE LISTING STYLE  (THIN LONG WIDE TREE)                     netrw-i {{{2

The "i" map cycles between the thin, long, wide, and tree listing formats.

The thin listing format gives just the files' and directories' names.

The long listing is either based on the "ls" command via ssh for remote
directories or displays the filename, file size (in bytes), and the time and
date of last modification for local directories.  With the long listing
format, netrw is not able to recognize filenames which have trailing spaces.
Use the thin listing format for such files.

The wide listing format uses two or more contiguous spaces to delineate
filenames; when using that format, netrw won't be able to recognize or use
filenames which have two or more contiguous spaces embedded in the name or any
trailing spaces.  The thin listing format will, however, work with such files.
The wide listing format is the most compact.

The tree listing format has a top directory followed by files and directories
preceded by one or more "|"s, which indicate the directory depth.  One may
open and close directories by pressing the <cr> key while atop the directory

One may make a preferred listing style your default; see g:netrw_liststyle.
As an example, by putting the following line in your .vimrc,
        let g:netrw_liststyle= 3
the tree style will become your default listing style.

One typical way to use the netrw tree display is to:

        vim .
        (use i until a tree display shows)
        navigate to a file
        v  (edit as desired in vertically split window)
        ctrl-w h  (to return to the netrw listing)
        P (edit newly selected file in the previous window)
        ctrl-w h  (to return to the netrw listing)
        P (edit newly selected file in the previous window)

Associated setting variables: g:netrw_liststyle g:netrw_maxfilenamelen
                              g:netrw_timefmt   g:netrw_list_cmd

CHANGE FILE PERMISSION                                          netrw-gp {{{2

"gp" will ask you for a new permission for the file named under the cursor.
Currently, this only works for local files.

Associated setting variables: g:netrw_chgperm

CHANGING TO A BOOKMARKED DIRECTORY                      netrw-gb  {{{2

To change directory back to a bookmarked directory, use


Any count may be used to reference any of the bookmarks.
Note that netrw-qb shows both bookmarks and history; to go
to a location stored in the history see netrw-u and netrw-U.

Related Topics:
        netrw-mB how to delete bookmarks
        netrw-mb how to make a bookmark
        netrw-qb how to list bookmarks

CHANGING TO A PREDECESSOR DIRECTORY             netrw-u netrw-updir {{{2

Every time you change to a new directory (new for the current session), netrw
will save the directory in a recently-visited directory history list (unless
g:netrw_dirhistmax is zero; by default, it holds ten entries).  With the "u"
map, one can change to an earlier directory (predecessor).  To do the
opposite, see netrw-U.

The "u" map also accepts counts to go back in the history several slots.  For
your convenience, qb (see netrw-qb) lists the history number which may be
used in that count.

See g:netrw_dirhistmax for how to control the quantity of history stack
slots.  The file ".netrwhist" holds history when netrw (and vim) is not
active.  By default, its stored on the first directory on the user's

Related Topics:
        netrw-U changing to a successor directory
        g:netrw_home controls where .netrwhist is kept

CHANGING TO A SUCCESSOR DIRECTORY               netrw-U netrw-downdir {{{2

With the "U" map, one can change to a later directory (successor).
This map is the opposite of the "u" map. (see netrw-u)  Use the
qb map to list both the bookmarks and history. (see netrw-qb)

The "U" map also accepts counts to go forward in the history several slots.

See g:netrw_dirhistmax for how to control the quantity of history stack

CHANGING TREE TOP                       netrw-ntree  :Ntree  netrw-gn {{{2

One may specify a new tree top for tree listings using

        :Ntree [dirname]

Without a "dirname", the current line is used (and any leading depth
information is elided).
With a "dirname", the specified directory name is used.

The "gn" map will take the word below the cursor and use that for
changing the top of the tree listing.

NETRW CLEAN                                     netrw-clean :NetrwClean {{{2

With :NetrwClean one may easily remove netrw from one's home directory;
more precisely, from the first directory on your 'runtimepath'.

With :NetrwClean!, netrw will attempt to remove netrw from all directories on
your 'runtimepath'.  Of course, you have to have write/delete permissions
correct to do this.

With either form of the command, netrw will first ask for confirmation
that the removal is in fact what you want to do.  If netrw doesn't have
permission to remove a file, it will issue an error message.

                                                (also see netrw_filehandler)

Certain files, such as html, gif, jpeg, (word/office) doc, etc, files, are
best seen with a special handler (ie. a tool provided with your computer's
operating system).  Netrw allows one to invoke such special handlers by:

        * when Exploring, hit the "x" key
        * when editing, hit gx with the cursor atop the special filename
          (latter not available if the g:netrw_nogx variable exists)

Netrw determines which special handler by the following method:

  * if g:netrw_browsex_viewer exists, then it will be used to attempt to
    view files.  Examples of useful settings (place into your <.vimrc>):

        :let g:netrw_browsex_viewer= "kfmclient exec"
        :let g:netrw_browsex_viewer= "xdg-open"

    If g:netrw_browsex_viewer == '-', then netrwFileHandlers#Invoke() will be
    used instead (see netrw_filehandler).

    If the viewer you wish to use does not support handling of a remote URL
    directory, set g:netrw_browsex_support_remote to 0.
  * for Windows 32 or 64, the URL and FileProtocolHandler dlls are used.
  * for Gnome (with gnome-open): gnome-open is used.
  * for KDE (with kfmclient)   : kfmclient is used
  * for Mac OS X               : open is used.
  * otherwise the netrwFileHandler plugin is used.

The file's suffix is used by these various approaches to determine an
appropriate application to use to "handle" these files.  Such things as
OpenOffice (*.sfx), visualization (*.jpg, *.gif, etc), and PostScript (*.ps,
*.eps) can be handled.

The gx mapping extends to all buffers; apply "gx" while atop a word and netrw
will apply a special handler to it (like "x" works when in a netrw buffer).
One may also use visual mode (see visual-start) to select the text that the
special handler will use.  Normally gx uses expand("<cfile>") to pick up the
text under the cursor; one may change what expand() uses via the
g:netrw_gx variable (options include "<cword>", "<cWORD>").  Note that
expand("<cfile>") depends on the 'isfname' setting.  Alternatively, one may
select the text to be used by gx by making a visual selection (see
visual-block) and then pressing gx.

Associated setting variables:
        g:netrw_gx    control how gx picks up the text under the cursor
        g:netrw_nogx  prevent gx map while editing
        g:netrw_suppress_gx_mesg controls gx's suppression of browser messages


When g:netrw_browsex_viewer exists and is "-", then netrw will attempt to
handle the special file with a vim function.  The "x" map applies a function
to a file, based on its extension.  Of course, the handler function must exist
for it to be called!

 Ex. mypgm.html   x -> NFH_html("scp://user@host/some/path/mypgm.html")

        Users may write their own netrw File Handler functions to
        support more suffixes with special handling.  See
        <autoload/netrwFileHandlers.vim> for examples on how to make
        file handler functions.   As an example:

        " NFH_suffix(filename)
        fun! NFH_suffix(filename) something special with filename..

These functions need to be defined in some file in your .vim/plugin
(vimfiles\plugin) directory.  Vim's function names may not have punctuation
characters (except for the underscore) in them.  To support suffices that
contain such characters, netrw will first convert the suffix using the
following table:

    @ -> AT       ! -> EXCLAMATION    % -> PERCENT
    : -> COLON    = -> EQUAL          ? -> QUESTION
    , -> COMMA    - -> MINUS          ; -> SEMICOLON
    $ -> DOLLAR   + -> PLUS           ~ -> TILDE

So, for example:

        file.rcs,v  ->  NFH_rcsCOMMAv()

If more such translations are necessary, please send me email:
with a request.  (remove the embedded NOSPAM first)

Associated setting variable: g:netrw_browsex_viewer

DELETING BOOKMARKS                                      netrw-mB {{{2

To delete a bookmark, use


If there are marked files, then mB will remove them from the
bookmark list.

Alternatively, one may use :NetrwMB! (see netrw-:NetrwMB).

        :NetrwMB! [files/directories]

Related Topics:
        netrw-gb how to return (go) to a bookmark
        netrw-mb how to make a bookmark
        netrw-qb how to list bookmarks

DELETING FILES OR DIRECTORIES   netrw-delete netrw-D netrw-del {{{2

If files have not been marked with netrw-mf:   (local marked file list)

    Deleting/removing files and directories involves moving the cursor to the
    file/directory to be deleted and pressing "D".  Directories must be empty
    first before they can be successfully removed.  If the directory is a
    softlink to a directory, then netrw will make two requests to remove the
    directory before succeeding.  Netrw will ask for confirmation before doing
    the removal(s).  You may select a range of lines with the "V" command
    (visual selection), and then pressing "D".

If files have been marked with netrw-mf:   (local marked file list)

    Marked files (and empty directories) will be deleted; again, you'll be
    asked to confirm the deletion before it actually takes place.

A further approach is to delete files which match a pattern.

    * use  :MF pattern  (see netrw-:MF); then press "D".

    * use mr (see netrw-mr) which will prompt you for pattern.
      This will cause the matching files to be marked.  Then,
      press "D".

Please note that only empty directories may be deleted with the "D" mapping.
Regular files are deleted with delete(), too.

The g:netrw_rm_cmdg:netrw_rmf_cmd, and g:netrw_rmdir_cmd variables are
used to control the attempts to remove remote files and directories.  The
g:netrw_rm_cmd is used with files, and its default value is:

        g:netrw_rm_cmd: ssh HOSTNAME rm

The g:netrw_rmdir_cmd variable is used to support the removal of directories.
Its default value is:

        g:netrw_rmdir_cmd: ssh HOSTNAME rmdir

If removing a directory fails with g:netrw_rmdir_cmd, netrw then will attempt
to remove it again using the g:netrw_rmf_cmd variable.  Its default value is:

        g:netrw_rmf_cmd: ssh HOSTNAME rm -f

Related topics: netrw-d
Associated setting variable: g:netrw_rm_cmd g:netrw_ssh_cmd

netrw-explore  netrw-hexplore netrw-nexplore netrw-pexplore
netrw-rexplore netrw-sexplore netrw-texplore netrw-vexplore netrw-lexplore

     :[N]Explore[!]  [dir]... Explore directory of current file      :Explore
     :[N]Hexplore[!] [dir]... Horizontal Split & Explore             :Hexplore
     :[N]Lexplore[!] [dir]... Left Explorer Toggle                   :Lexplore
     :[N]Sexplore[!] [dir]... Split&Explore current file's directory :Sexplore
     :[N]Vexplore[!] [dir]... Vertical   Split & Explore             :Vexplore
     :Texplore       [dir]... Tab & Explore                          :Texplore
     :Rexplore            ... Return to/from Explorer                :Rexplore

     Used with :Explore **/pattern : (also see netrw-starstar)
     :Nexplore............. go to next matching file                :Nexplore
     :Pexplore............. go to previous matching file            :Pexplore

:Explore  will open the local-directory browser on the current file's
          directory (or on directory [dir] if specified).  The window will be
          split only if the file has been modified and 'hidden' is not set,
          otherwise the browsing window will take over that window.  Normally
          the splitting is taken horizontally.
          Also see: netrw-:Rexplore
:Explore! is like :Explore, but will use vertical splitting.

:Hexplore  [dir] does an :Explore with :belowright horizontal splitting.
:Hexplore! [dir] does an :Explore with :aboveleft  horizontal splitting.

:[N]Lexplore [dir] toggles a full height Explorer window on the left hand side
          of the current tab.  It will open a netrw window on the current
          directory if [dir] is omitted; a :Lexplore [dir] will show the
          specified directory in the left-hand side browser display no matter
          from which window the command is issued.

          By default, :Lexplore will change an uninitialized g:netrw_chgwin
          to 2; edits will thus preferentially be made in window#2.

          The [N] specifies a g:netrw_winsize just for the new :Lexplore
          window. That means that
            if [N] < 0 : use N columns for the Lexplore window
            if [N] = 0 : a normal split is made
            if [N] > 0 : use N% of the current window will be used for the
                         new window

          Those who like this method often also like tree style displays;
          see g:netrw_liststyle.

:[N]Lexplore! [dir] is similar to :Lexplore, except that the full-height
          Explorer window will open on the right hand side and an
          uninitialized g:netrw_chgwin will be set to 1 (eg. edits will
          preferentially occur in the leftmost window).

          Also see: netrw-C           g:netrw_browse_split   g:netrw_wiw
                    netrw-p netrw-P   g:netrw_chgwin
                    netrw-c-tab       g:netrw_winsize

:[N]Sexplore will always split the window before invoking the local-directory
          browser.  As with Explore, the splitting is normally done
:[N]Sexplore! [dir] is like :Sexplore, but the splitting will be done vertically.

:Texplore  [dir] does a :tabnew before generating the browser window

:[N]Vexplore  [dir] does an :Explore with :leftabove  vertical splitting.
:[N]Vexplore! [dir] does an :Explore with :rightbelow vertical splitting.

The optional parameters are:

 [N]: This parameter will override g:netrw_winsize to specify the quantity of
      rows and/or columns the new explorer window should have.
      Otherwise, the g:netrw_winsize variable, if it has been specified by the
      user, is used to control the quantity of rows and/or columns new
      explorer windows should have.

 [dir]: By default, these explorer commands use the current file's directory.
        However, one may explicitly provide a directory (path) to use instead;

        :Explore /some/path

:Rexplore  This command is a little different from the other Explore commands
           as it doesn't necessarily open an Explorer window.

           Return to Explorer
           When one edits a file using netrw which can occur, for example,
           when pressing <cr> while the cursor is atop a filename in a netrw
           browser window, a :Rexplore issued while editing that file will
           return the display to that of the last netrw browser display in
           that window.

           Return from Explorer
           Conversely, when one is editing a directory, issuing a :Rexplore
           will return to editing the file that was last edited in that

           The <2-leftmouse> map (which is only available under gvim and
           cooperative terms) does the same as :Rexplore.

Also see: g:netrw_alto g:netrw_altv g:netrw_winsize

netrw-star netrw-starpat netrw-starstar netrw-starstarpat netrw-grep

When Explore, Sexplore, Hexplore, or Vexplore are used with one of the
following four patterns Explore generates a list of files which satisfy the
request for the local file system.  These exploration patterns will not work
with remote file browsing.

    */filepat   files in current directory which satisfy filepat
    **/filepat  files in current directory or below which satisfy the
                file pattern
    *//pattern  files in the current directory which contain the
                pattern (vimgrep is used)
    **//pattern files in the current directory or below which contain
                the pattern (vimgrep is used)
The cursor will be placed on the first file in the list.  One may then
continue to go to subsequent files on that list via :Nexplore or to
preceding files on that list with :Pexplore.  Explore will update the
directory and place the cursor appropriately.

A plain
will clear the explore list.

If your console or gui produces recognizable shift-up or shift-down sequences,
then you'll likely find using shift-downarrow and shift-uparrow convenient.
They're mapped by netrw as follows:

        <s-down>  == Nexplore, and
        <s-up>    == Pexplore.

As an example, consider

        :Explore */*.c

The status line will show, on the right hand side of the status line, a
message like "Match 3 of 20".

Associated setting variables:
        g:netrw_keepdir          g:netrw_browse_split
        g:netrw_fastbrowse       g:netrw_ftp_browse_reject
        g:netrw_ftp_list_cmd     g:netrw_ftp_sizelist_cmd
        g:netrw_ftp_timelist_cmd g:netrw_list_cmd

DISPLAYING INFORMATION ABOUT FILE                               netrw-qf {{{2

With the cursor atop a filename, pressing "qf" will reveal the file's size
and last modification timestamp.  Currently this capability is only available
for local files.

EDIT FILE OR DIRECTORY HIDING LIST      netrw-ctrl-h netrw-edithide {{{2

The "<ctrl-h>" map brings up a requestor allowing the user to change the
file/directory hiding list contained in g:netrw_list_hide.  The hiding list
consists of one or more patterns delimited by commas.  Files and/or
directories satisfying these patterns will either be hidden (ie. not shown) or
be the only ones displayed (see netrw-a).

The "gh" mapping (see netrw-gh) quickly alternates between the usual
hiding list and the hiding of files or directories that begin with ".".

As an example,
        let g:netrw_list_hide= '\(^\|\s\s\)\zs\.\S\+'
Effectively, this makes the effect of a netrw-gh command the initial setting.
What it means:

        \(^\|\s\s\)   : if the line begins with the following, -or-
                        two consecutive spaces are encountered
        \zs           : start the hiding match now
        \.            : if it now begins with a dot
        \S\+          : and is followed by one or more non-whitespace

Associated setting variables: g:netrw_hide g:netrw_list_hide
Associated topics: netrw-a netrw-gh netrw-mh

EDITING THE SORTING SEQUENCE            netrw-S netrw-sortsequence {{{2

When "Sorted by" is name, one may specify priority via the sorting sequence
(g:netrw_sort_sequence).  The sorting sequence typically prioritizes the
name-listing by suffix, although any pattern will do.  Patterns are delimited
by commas.  The default sorting sequence is (all one line):

For Unix:


The lone * is where all filenames not covered by one of the other patterns
will end up.  One may change the sorting sequence by modifying the
g:netrw_sort_sequence variable (either manually or in your <.vimrc>) or by
using the "S" map.

Related topics:               netrw-s               netrw-S
Associated setting variables: g:netrw_sort_sequence g:netrw_sort_options

EXECUTING FILE UNDER CURSOR VIA SYSTEM()                        netrw-X {{{2

Pressing X while the cursor is atop an executable file will yield a prompt
using the filename asking for any arguments.  Upon pressing a [return], netrw
will then call system() with that command and arguments.  The result will be
displayed by :echomsg, and so :messages will repeat display of the result.
Ansi escape sequences will be stripped out.

See cmdline-window for directions for more on how to edit the arguments.

FORCING TREATMENT AS A FILE OR DIRECTORY        netrw-gd netrw-gf {{{2

Remote symbolic links (ie. those listed via ssh or ftp) are problematic
in that it is difficult to tell whether they link to a file or to a

To force treatment as a file: use

To force treatment as a directory: use

GOING UP                                                        netrw-- {{{2

To go up a directory, press "-" or press the <cr> when atop the ../ directory
entry in the listing.

Netrw will use the command in g:netrw_list_cmd to perform the directory
listing operation after changing HOSTNAME to the host specified by the
user-prpvided url.  By default netrw provides the command as:

        ssh HOSTNAME ls -FLa

where the HOSTNAME becomes the [user@]hostname as requested by the attempt to
read.  Naturally, the user may override this command with whatever is
preferred.  The NetList function which implements remote browsing
expects that directories will be flagged by a trailing slash.

HIDING FILES OR DIRECTORIES                     netrw-a netrw-hiding {{{2

Netrw's browsing facility allows one to use the hiding list in one of three
ways: ignore it, hide files which match, and show only those files which

If no files have been marked via netrw-mf:

The "a" map allows the user to cycle through the three hiding modes.

The g:netrw_list_hide variable holds a comma delimited list of patterns
based on regular expressions (ex. ^.*\.obj$,^\.) which specify the hiding list.
(also see netrw-ctrl-h)  To set the hiding list, use the <c-h> map.  As an
example, to hide files which begin with a ".", one may use the <c-h> map to
set the hiding list to '^\..*' (or one may put let g:netrw_list_hide= '^\..*'
in one's <.vimrc>).  One may then use the "a" key to show all files, hide
matching files, or to show only the matching files.

        Example: \.[ch]$
                This hiding list command will hide/show all *.c and *.h files.

        Example: \.c$,\.h$
                This hiding list command will also hide/show all *.c and *.h

Don't forget to use the "a" map to select the mode (normal/hiding/show) you

If files have been marked using netrw-mf, then this command will:

  if showing all files or non-hidden files:
   modify the g:netrw_list_hide list by appending the marked files to it
   and showing only non-hidden files.

  else if showing hidden files only:
   modify the g:netrw_list_hide list by removing the marked files from it
   and showing only non-hidden files.

                                        netrw-gh netrw-hide
As a quick shortcut, one may press
to toggle between hiding files which begin with a period (dot) and not hiding

Associated setting variables: g:netrw_list_hide  g:netrw_hide
Associated topics: netrw-a netrw-ctrl-h netrw-mh

Netrw provides a helper function 'netrw_gitignore#Hide()' that, when used with
g:netrw_list_hide automatically hides all git-ignored files.

'netrw_gitignore#Hide' searches for patterns in the following files:

        global gitignore file: `git config --global core.excludesfile`
        system gitignore file: `git config --system core.excludesfile`

Files that do not exist, are ignored.
Git-ignore patterns are taken from existing files, and converted to patterns for
hiding files. For example, if you had '*.log' in your '.gitignore' file, it
would be converted to '.*\.log'.

To use this function, simply assign its output to g:netrw_list_hide option. 

        Example: let g:netrw_list_hide= netrw_gitignore#Hide()
                Git-ignored files are hidden in Netrw.

        Example: let g:netrw_list_hide= netrw_gitignore#Hide('my_gitignore_file')
                Function can take additional files with git-ignore patterns.

        Example: let g:netrw_list_hide= netrw_gitignore#Hide() .. '.*\.swp$'
                Combining 'netrw_gitignore#Hide' with custom patterns.

IMPROVING BROWSING                      netrw-listhack netrw-ssh-hack {{{2

Especially with the remote directory browser, constantly entering the password
is tedious.

For Linux/Unix systems, the book "Linux Server Hacks - 100 industrial strength
tips & tools" by Rob Flickenger (O'Reilly, ISBN 0-596-00461-3) gives a tip
for setting up no-password ssh and scp and discusses associated security
issues.  It used to be available at ,
but apparently that address is now being redirected to some "hackzine".
I'll attempt a summary based on that article and on a communication from
Ben Schmidt:

        1. Generate a public/private key pair on the local machine
           (ssh client):
                ssh-keygen -t rsa
                (saving the file in ~/.ssh/id_rsa as prompted)

        2. Just hit the <CR> when asked for passphrase (twice) for no
           passphrase.  If you do use a passphrase, you will also need to use
           ssh-agent so you only have to type the passphrase once per session.
           If you don't use a passphrase, simply logging onto your local
           computer or getting access to the keyfile in any way will suffice
           to access any ssh servers which have that key authorized for login.

        3. This creates two files:

        4. On the target machine (ssh server):
                mkdir -p .ssh
                chmod 0700 .ssh

        5. On your local machine (ssh client): (one line)
                ssh {serverhostname}
                  cat '>>' '~/.ssh/authorized_keys2' < ~/.ssh/

           or, for OpenSSH, (one line)
                ssh {serverhostname}
                  cat '>>' '~/.ssh/authorized_keys' < ~/.ssh/

You can test it out with
        ssh {serverhostname}
and you should be log onto the server machine without further need to type

If you decided to use a passphrase, do:
        ssh-agent $SHELL
        ssh {serverhostname}
You will be prompted for your key passphrase when you use ssh-add, but not
subsequently when you use ssh.  For use with vim, you can use
        ssh-agent vim
and, when next within vim, use
Alternatively, you can apply ssh-agent to the terminal you're planning on
running vim in:
        ssh-agent xterm &
and do ssh-add whenever you need.

For Windows, folks on the vim mailing list have mentioned that Pageant helps
with avoiding the constant need to enter the password.

Kingston Fung wrote about another way to avoid constantly needing to enter

    In order to avoid the need to type in the password for scp each time, you
    provide a hack in the docs to set up a non password ssh account. I found a
    better way to do that: I can use a regular ssh account which uses a
    password to access the material without the need to key-in the password
    each time. It's good for security and convenience. I tried ssh public key
    authorization + ssh-agent, implementing this, and it works!

    Ssh hints:

        Thomer Gil has provided a hint on how to speed up netrw+ssh:

        Alex Young has several hints on speeding ssh up:

LISTING BOOKMARKS AND HISTORY           netrw-qb netrw-listbookmark {{{2

Pressing "qb" (query bookmarks) will list both the bookmarked directories and
directory traversal history.

Related Topics:
        netrw-gb how to return (go) to a bookmark
        netrw-mb how to make a bookmark
        netrw-mB how to delete bookmarks
        netrw-u  change to a predecessor directory via the history stack
        netrw-U  change to a successor   directory via the history stack

MAKING A NEW DIRECTORY                                  netrw-d {{{2

With the "d" map one may make a new directory either remotely (which depends
on the global variable g:netrw_mkdir_cmd) or locally (which depends on the
global variable g:netrw_localmkdir).  Netrw will issue a request for the new
directory's name.  A bare <CR> at that point will abort the making of the
directory.  Attempts to make a local directory that already exists (as either
a file or a directory) will be detected, reported on, and ignored.

Related topics: netrw-D
Associated setting variables:   g:netrw_localmkdir   g:netrw_mkdir_cmd
                                g:netrw_remote_mkdir netrw-%


By default, g:netrw_keepdir is 1.  This setting means that the current
directory will not track the browsing directory. (done for backwards
compatibility with v6's file explorer).

Setting g:netrw_keepdir to 0 tells netrw to make vim's current directory
track netrw's browsing directory.

However, given the default setting for g:netrw_keepdir of 1 where netrw
maintains its own separate notion of the current directory, in order to make
the two directories the same, use the "cd" map (type cd).  That map will
set Vim's notion of the current directory to netrw's current browsing

netrw-cd : This map's name was changed from "c" to cd (see netrw-cd).
           This change was done to allow for netrw-cb and netrw-cB maps.

Associated setting variable: g:netrw_keepdir

MARKING FILES                                   netrw-:MF     netrw-mf {{{2
        (also see netrw-mr)

Netrw provides several ways to mark files:

        * One may mark files with the cursor atop a filename and
          then pressing "mf".

        * With gvim, in addition one may mark files with
          <s-leftmouse>. (see netrw-mouse)

        * One may use the :MF command, which takes a list of
          files (for local directories, the list may include
          wildcards -- see glob())

                :MF *.c

          (Note that :MF uses <f-args> to break the line
          at spaces)

        * Mark files using the argument-list (netrw-mA)

        * Mark files based upon a location-list (netrw-qL)

        * Mark files based upon the quickfix list (netrw-qF)

The following netrw maps make use of marked files:

    netrw-a   Hide marked files/directories
    netrw-D   Delete marked files/directories
    netrw-ma  Move marked files' names to arglist
    netrw-mA  Move arglist filenames to marked file list
    netrw-mb  Append marked files to bookmarks
    netrw-mB  Delete marked files from bookmarks
    netrw-mc  Copy marked files to target
    netrw-md  Apply vimdiff to marked files
    netrw-me  Edit marked files
    netrw-mF  Unmark marked files
    netrw-mg  Apply vimgrep to marked files
    netrw-mm  Move marked files to target
    netrw-mp  Print marked files
    netrw-ms  Netrw will source marked files
    netrw-mt  Set target for netrw-mm and netrw-mc
    netrw-mT  Generate tags using marked files
    netrw-mv  Apply vim command to marked files
    netrw-mx  Apply shell command to marked files
    netrw-mX  Apply shell command to marked files, en bloc
    netrw-mz  Compress/Decompress marked files
    netrw-O   Obtain marked files
    netrw-R   Rename marked files

One may unmark files one at a time the same way one marks them; ie. place
the cursor atop a marked file and press "mf".  This process also works
with <s-leftmouse> using gvim.  One may unmark all files by pressing
"mu" (see netrw-mu).

Marked files are highlighted using the "netrwMarkFile" highlighting group,
which by default is linked to "Identifier" (see Identifier under
group-name).  You may change the highlighting group by putting something

        highlight clear netrwMarkFile
        hi link netrwMarkFile ..whatever..

into $HOME/.vim/after/syntax/netrw.vim .

If the mouse is enabled and works with your vim, you may use <s-leftmouse> to
mark one or more files.  You may mark multiple files by dragging the shifted
leftmouse.  (see netrw-mouse)

                        markfilelist global_markfilelist local_markfilelist
All marked files are entered onto the global marked file list; there is only
one such list.  In addition, every netrw buffer also has its own buffer-local
marked file list; since netrw buffers are associated with specific
directories, this means that each directory has its own local marked file
list.  The various commands which operate on marked files use one or the other
of the marked file lists.

Known Problem: if one is using tree mode (g:netrw_liststyle) and several
directories have files with the same name,  then marking such a file will
result in all such files being highlighted as if they were all marked.  The
markfilelist, however, will only have the selected file in it.  This problem
is unlikely to be fixed.

UNMARKING FILES                                                 netrw-mF {{{2
        (also see netrw-mfnetrw-mu)

The "mF" command will unmark all files in the current buffer.  One may also use
mf (netrw-mf) on a specific, already marked, file to unmark just that file.

MARKING FILES BY LOCATION LIST                                  netrw-qL {{{2
        (also see netrw-mf)

One may convert location-lists into a marked file list using "qL".
You may then proceed with commands such as me (netrw-me) to edit them.

MARKING FILES BY QUICKFIX LIST                                  netrw-qF {{{2
        (also see netrw-mf)

One may convert quickfix-error-lists into a marked file list using "qF".
You may then proceed with commands such as me (netrw-me) to edit them.
Quickfix error lists are generated, for example, by calls to :vimgrep.

MARKING FILES BY REGULAR EXPRESSION                             netrw-mr {{{2
        (also see netrw-mf)

One may also mark files by pressing "mr"; netrw will then issue a prompt,
"Enter regexp: ".  You may then enter a shell-style regular expression such
as *.c$ (see glob()).  For remote systems, glob() doesn't work -- so netrw
converts "*" into ".*" (see regexp) and marks files based on that.  In the
future I may make it possible to use regexps instead of glob()-style
expressions (yet-another-option).

See cmdline-window for directions on more on how to edit the regular

MARKED FILES, ARBITRARY VIM COMMAND                             netrw-mv  {{{2
            (See netrw-mf and netrw-mr for how to mark files)
                      (uses the local marked-file list)

The "mv" map causes netrw to execute an arbitrary vim command on each file on
the local marked file list, individually:

        * 1split
        * sil! keepalt e file
        * run vim command
        * sil! keepalt wq!

A prompt, "Enter vim command: ", will be issued to elicit the vim command you
wish used.  See cmdline-window for directions for more on how to edit the

MARKED FILES, ARBITRARY SHELL COMMAND                           netrw-mx {{{2
            (See netrw-mf and netrw-mr for how to mark files)
                      (uses the local marked-file list)

Upon activation of the "mx" map, netrw will query the user for some (external)
command to be applied to all marked files.  All "%"s in the command will be
substituted with the name of each marked file in turn.  If no "%"s are in the
command, then the command will be followed by a space and a marked filename.

        (mark files)
        Enter command: cat

        The result is a series of shell commands:
        cat 'file1'
        cat 'file2'

            (See netrw-mf and netrw-mr for how to mark files)
                      (uses the global marked-file list)

Upon activation of the 'mX' map, netrw will query the user for some (external)
command to be applied to all marked files on the global marked file list.  The
"en bloc" means that one command will be executed on all the files at once:

        command files

This approach is useful, for example, to select files and make a tarball:

        (mark files)
        Enter command: tar cf mynewtarball.tar

The command that will be run with this example:

        tar cf mynewtarball.tar 'file1' 'file2' ...

MARKED FILES: ARGUMENT LIST                             netrw-ma netrw-mA
            (See netrw-mf and netrw-mr for how to mark files)
                      (uses the global marked-file list)

Using ma, one moves filenames from the marked file list to the argument list.
Using mA, one moves filenames from the argument list to the marked file list.

See Also: netrw-cb netrw-cB netrw-qF argument-list :args

MARKED FILES: BUFFER LIST                               netrw-cb netrw-cB
            (See netrw-mf and netrw-mr for how to mark files)
                      (uses the global marked-file list)

Using cb, one moves  filenames from the marked file list to the buffer list.
Using cB, one copies filenames from the buffer list to the marked file list.

See Also: netrw-ma netrw-mA netrw-qF buffer-list :buffers

            (See netrw-mf and netrw-mr for how to mark files)
                      (uses the local marked file list)

If any marked files are compressed,   then "mz" will decompress them.
If any marked files are decompressed, then "mz" will compress them
using the command specified by g:netrw_compress; by default,
that's "gzip".

For decompression, netrw uses a Dictionary of suffices and their
associated decompressing utilities; see g:netrw_decompress.

Remember that one can mark multiple files by regular expression
(see netrw-mr); this is particularly useful to facilitate compressing and
decompressing a large number of files.

Associated setting variables: g:netrw_compress g:netrw_decompress

MARKED FILES: COPYING                                           netrw-mc {{{2
            (See netrw-mf and netrw-mr for how to mark files)
                      (Uses the global marked file list)

Select a target directory with mt (netrw-mt).  Then change directory,
select file(s) (see netrw-mf), and press "mc".  The copy is done
from the current window (where one does the mf) to the target.

If one does not have a target directory set with netrw-mt, then netrw
will query you for a directory to copy to.

One may also copy directories and their contents (local only) to a target

Associated setting variables:
        g:netrw_localcopycmd          g:netrw_localcopycmdopt
        g:netrw_localcopydircmd       g:netrw_localcopydircmdopt

MARKED FILES: DIFF                                              netrw-md {{{2
            (See netrw-mf and netrw-mr for how to mark files)
                      (uses the global marked file list)

Use vimdiff to visualize difference between selected files (two or
three may be selected for this).  Uses the global marked file list.

MARKED FILES: EDITING                                           netrw-me {{{2
            (See netrw-mf and netrw-mr for how to mark files)
                      (uses the global marked file list)

The "me" command will place the marked files on the arglist and commence
editing them.  One may return the to explorer window with :Rexplore.
(use :n and :p to edit next and previous files in the arglist)

MARKED FILES: GREP                                              netrw-mg {{{2
            (See netrw-mf and netrw-mr for how to mark files)
                      (uses the global marked file list)

The "mg" command will apply :vimgrep to the marked files.
The command will ask for the requested pattern; one may then enter:

        ! /pattern/[g][j]

With /pattern/, editing will start with the first item on the quickfix list
that vimgrep sets up (see :copen:cnext:cprevious:cclose).  The :vimgrep
command is in use, so without 'g' each line is added to quickfix list only
once; with 'g' every match is included.

With /pattern/j, "mg" will winnow the current marked file list to just those
marked files also possessing the specified pattern.  Thus, one may use

        mr ...file-pattern...
        mg /pattern/j

to have a marked file list satisfying the file-pattern but also restricted to
files containing some desired pattern.

MARKED FILES: HIDING AND UNHIDING BY SUFFIX                     netrw-mh {{{2
            (See netrw-mf and netrw-mr for how to mark files)
                      (uses the local marked file list)

The "mh" command extracts the suffices of the marked files and toggles their
presence on the hiding list.  Please note that marking the same suffix
this way multiple times will result in the suffix's presence being toggled
for each file (so an even quantity of marked files having the same suffix
is the same as not having bothered to select them at all).

Related topics: netrw-a g:netrw_list_hide

MARKED FILES: MOVING                                            netrw-mm {{{2
            (See netrw-mf and netrw-mr for how to mark files)
                      (uses the global marked file list)

        WARNING: moving files is more dangerous than copying them.
        A file being moved is first copied and then deleted; if the
        copy operation fails and the delete succeeds, you will lose
        the file.  Either try things out with unimportant files
        first or do the copy and then delete yourself using mc and D.
        Use at your own risk!

Select a target directory with mt (netrw-mt).  Then change directory,
select file(s) (see netrw-mf), and press "mm".  The move is done
from the current window (where one does the mf) to the target.

Associated setting variable: g:netrw_localmovecmd g:netrw_ssh_cmd

MARKED FILES: PRINTING                                          netrw-mp {{{2
            (See netrw-mf and netrw-mr for how to mark files)
                      (uses the local marked file list)

When "mp" is used, netrw will apply the :hardcopy command to marked files.
What netrw does is open each file in a one-line window, execute hardcopy, then
close the one-line window.

MARKED FILES: SOURCING                                          netrw-ms {{{2
            (See netrw-mf and netrw-mr for how to mark files)
                      (uses the local marked file list)

With "ms", netrw will source the marked files (using vim's :source command)

MARKED FILES: SETTING THE TARGET DIRECTORY                      netrw-mt {{{2
     (See netrw-mf and netrw-mr for how to mark files)

Set the marked file copy/move-to target (see netrw-mc and netrw-mm):

  * If the cursor is atop a file name, then the netrw window's currently
    displayed directory is used for the copy/move-to target.

  * Also, if the cursor is in the banner, then the netrw window's currently
    displayed directory is used for the copy/move-to target.
    Unless the target already is the current directory.  In which case,
    typing "mf" clears the target.

  * However, if the cursor is atop a directory name, then that directory is
    used for the copy/move-to target

  * One may use the :MT [directory] command to set the target   netrw-:MT
    This command uses <q-args>, so spaces in the directory name are
    permitted without escaping.

  * With mouse-enabled vim or with gvim, one may select a target by using

There is only one copy/move-to target at a time in a vim session; ie. the
target is a script variable (see s:var) and is shared between all netrw
windows (in an instance of vim).

When using menus and gvim, netrw provides a "Targets" entry which allows one
to pick a target from the list of bookmarks and history.

Related topics:
      Marking Files......................................netrw-mf
      Marking Files by Regular Expression................netrw-mr
      Marked Files: Target Directory Using Bookmarks.....netrw-Tb
      Marked Files: Target Directory Using History.......netrw-Th

MARKED FILES: TAGGING                                           netrw-mT {{{2
            (See netrw-mf and netrw-mr for how to mark files)
                      (uses the global marked file list)

The "mT" mapping will apply the command in g:netrw_ctags (by default, it is
"ctags") to marked files.  For remote browsing, in order to create a tags file
netrw will use ssh (see g:netrw_ssh_cmd), and so ssh must be available for
this to work on remote systems.  For your local system, see ctags on how to
get a version.  I myself use hdrtags, currently available at , and have

        let g:netrw_ctags= "hdrtag"

in my <.vimrc>.

When a remote set of files are tagged, the resulting tags file is "obtained";
ie. a copy is transferred to the local system's directory.  The now local tags
file is then modified so that one may use it through the network.  The
modification made concerns the names of the files in the tags; each filename is
preceded by the netrw-compatible URL used to obtain it.  When one subsequently
uses one of the go to tag actions (tags), the URL will be used by netrw to
edit the desired file and go to the tag.

Associated setting variables: g:netrw_ctags g:netrw_ssh_cmd


Sets the marked file copy/move-to target.

The netrw-qb map will give you a list of bookmarks (and history).
One may choose one of the bookmarks to become your marked file
target by using [count]Tb (default count: 1).

Related topics:
      Copying files to target............................netrw-mc
      Listing Bookmarks and History......................netrw-qb
      Marked Files: Setting The Target Directory.........netrw-mt
      Marked Files: Target Directory Using History.......netrw-Th
      Marking Files......................................netrw-mf
      Marking Files by Regular Expression................netrw-mr
      Moving files to target.............................netrw-mm


Sets the marked file copy/move-to target.

The netrw-qb map will give you a list of history (and bookmarks).
One may choose one of the history entries to become your marked file
target by using [count]Th (default count: 0; ie. the current directory).

Related topics:
      Copying files to target............................netrw-mc
      Listing Bookmarks and History......................netrw-qb
      Marked Files: Setting The Target Directory.........netrw-mt
      Marked Files: Target Directory Using Bookmarks.....netrw-Tb
      Marking Files......................................netrw-mf
      Marking Files by Regular Expression................netrw-mr
      Moving files to target.............................netrw-mm

MARKED FILES: UNMARKING                                         netrw-mu {{{2
     (See netrw-mfnetrw-mF)

The "mu" mapping will unmark all currently marked files.  This command differs
from "mF" as the latter only unmarks files in the current directory whereas
"mu" will unmark global and all buffer-local marked files.
(see netrw-mF)

NETRW BROWSER VARIABLES         netrw-browser-options netrw-browser-var {{{2

(if you're interested in the netrw file transfer settings, see netrw-options
 and netrw-protocol)

The <netrw.vim> browser provides settings in the form of variables which
you may modify; by placing these settings in your <.vimrc>, you may customize
your browsing preferences.  (see also: netrw-settings)

   ---                          -----------
   Var                          Explanation
   ---                          -----------
   g:netrw_altfile            some like CTRL-^ to return to the last
                                edited file.  Choose that by setting this
                                parameter to 1.
                                Others like CTRL-^ to return to the
                                netrw browsing buffer.  Choose that by setting
                                this parameter to 0.
                                 default: =0

  g:netrw_alto                change from above splitting to below splitting
                                by setting this variable (see netrw-o)
                                 default: =&sb           (see 'sb')

  g:netrw_altv                change from left splitting to right splitting
                                by setting this variable (see netrw-v)
                                 default: =&spr          (see 'spr')

  g:netrw_banner              enable/suppress the banner
                                =0: suppress the banner
                                =1: banner is enabled (default)

  g:netrw_bannerbackslash     if this variable exists and is not zero, the
                                banner will be displayed with backslashes
                                rather than forward slashes.

  g:netrw_browse_split        when browsing, <cr> will open the file by:
                                =0: re-using the same window  (default)
                                =1: horizontally splitting the window first
                                =2: vertically   splitting the window first
                                =3: open file in new tab
                                =4: act like "P" (ie. open previous window)
                                    Note that g:netrw_preview may be used
                                    to get vertical splitting instead of
                                    horizontal splitting.
                                    Given a List such as this, a remote server
                                    named by the "servername" will be used for
                                    editing.  It will also use the specified tab
                                    and window numbers to perform editing
                                    (see clientservernetrw-ctrl-r)
                                This option does not affect the production of
                                :Lexplore windows.

                                Related topics:
                                    g:netrw_alto      g:netrw_altv
                                    netrw-C           netrw-cr

  g:netrw_browsex_viewer      specify user's preference for a viewer:
                                        "kfmclient exec"
                                is used, then netrwFileHandler() will look for
                                a script/function to handle the given
                                extension.  (see netrw_filehandler).

                                specify if the specified viewer supports a
                                remote URL.  (see netrw-handler).

  g:netrw_chgperm             Unix/Linux: "chmod PERM FILENAME"
                                Windows:    "cacls FILENAME /e /p PERM"
                                Used to change access permission for a file.

  g:netrw_clipboard           =1
                                By default, netrw will attempt to insure that
                                the clipboard's values will remain unchanged.
                                However, some users report that they have
                                speed problems with this; consequently, this
                                option, when set to zero,  lets such users
                                prevent netrw from saving and restoring the
                                clipboard (the latter is done only as needed).
                                That means that if the clipboard is changed
                                (inadvertently) by normal netrw operation that
                                it will not be restored to its prior state.

  g:netrw_compress            ="gzip"
                                Will compress marked files with this

  g:Netrw_corehandler         Allows one to specify something additional
                                to do when handling <core> files via netrw's
                                browser's "x" command (see netrw-x).  If
                                present, g:Netrw_corehandler specifies
                                either one or more function references
                                (see Funcref).  (the capital g:Netrw...
                                is required its holding a function reference)

  g:netrw_ctags               ="ctags"
                                The default external program used to create

  g:netrw_cursor              = 2 (default)
                                This option controls the use of the
                                'cursorline' (cul) and 'cursorcolumn'
                                (cuc) settings by netrw:

                                Value   Thin-Long-Tree      Wide
                                 =0      u-cul u-cuc      u-cul u-cuc
                                 =1      u-cul u-cuc        cul u-cuc
                                 =2        cul u-cuc        cul u-cuc
                                 =3        cul u-cuc        cul   cuc
                                 =4        cul   cuc        cul   cuc
                                 =5      U-cul U-cuc      U-cul U-cuc
                                 =6      U-cul U-cuc        cul U-cuc
                                 =7        cul U-cuc        cul U-cuc
                                 =8        cul U-cuc        cul   cuc

                                  u-cul : user's 'cursorline'   initial setting used
                                  u-cuc : user's 'cursorcolumn' initial setting used
                                  U-cul : user's 'cursorline'   current setting used
                                  U-cuc : user's 'cursorcolumn' current setting used
                                  cul   : 'cursorline'   will be locally set
                                  cuc   : 'cursorcolumn' will be locally set

                                  The "initial setting" means the values of
                                  the 'cuc' and 'cul' settings in effect when
                                  netrw last saw g:netrw_cursor >= 5 or when
                                  netrw was initially run.

  g:netrw_decompress          = { ".gz"  : "gunzip" ,
                                    ".bz2" : "bunzip2" ,
                                    ".zip" : "unzip" ,
                                    ".tar" : "tar -xf"}
                                  A dictionary mapping suffices to
                                  decompression programs.

  g:netrw_dirhistmax            =10: controls maximum quantity of past
                                     history.  May be zero to suppress
                                     (related: netrw-qb netrw-u netrw-U)

  g:netrw_dynamic_maxfilenamelen =32: enables dynamic determination of
                                    g:netrw_maxfilenamelen, which affects
                                    local file long listing.

  g:netrw_errorlvl            =0: error levels greater than or equal to
                                    this are permitted to be displayed
                                    0: notes
                                    1: warnings
                                    2: errors

  g:netrw_fastbrowse          =0: slow speed directory browsing;
                                    never re-uses directory listings;
                                    always obtains directory listings.
                                =1: medium speed directory browsing;
                                    re-use directory listings only
                                    when remote directory browsing.
                                    (default value)
                                =2: fast directory browsing;
                                    only obtains directory listings when the
                                    directory hasn't been seen before
                                    (or netrw-ctrl-l is used).

                                Fast browsing retains old directory listing
                                buffers so that they don't need to be
                                re-acquired.  This feature is especially
                                important for remote browsing.  However, if
                                a file is introduced or deleted into or from
                                such directories, the old directory buffer
                                becomes out-of-date.  One may always refresh
                                such a directory listing with netrw-ctrl-l.
                                This option gives the user the choice of
                                trading off accuracy (ie. up-to-date listing)
                                versus speed.

  g:netrw_ffkeep              (default: doesn't exist)
                                If this variable exists and is zero, then
                                netrw will not do a save and restore for

  g:netrw_fname_escape        =' ?&;%'
                                Used on filenames before remote reading/writing

  g:netrw_ftp_browse_reject   ftp can produce a number of errors and warnings
                                that can show up as "directories" and "files"
                                in the listing.  This pattern is used to
                                remove such embedded messages.  By default its
                                value is:
                                 ^KERBEROS_V\d rejected\|
                                 ^Security extensions not\|
                                 No such file\|
                                 : connect to address [0-9a-fA-F:]*
                                 : No route to host$'

  g:netrw_ftp_list_cmd        options for passing along to ftp for directory
                                listing.  Defaults:
                                 unix or g:netrw_cygwin set: : "ls -lF"
                                 otherwise                     "dir"

  g:netrw_ftp_sizelist_cmd    options for passing along to ftp for directory
                                listing, sorted by size of file.
                                 unix or g:netrw_cygwin set: : "ls -slF"
                                 otherwise                     "dir"

  g:netrw_ftp_timelist_cmd    options for passing along to ftp for directory
                                listing, sorted by time of last modification.
                                 unix or g:netrw_cygwin set: : "ls -tlF"
                                 otherwise                     "dir"

  g:netrw_glob_escape         ='[]*?`{~$'  (unix)
                                ='[]*?`{$'  (windows
                                These characters in directory names are
                                escaped before applying glob()

  g:netrw_gx                  ="<cfile>"
                                This option controls how gx (netrw-gx) picks
                                up the text under the cursor.  See expand()
                                for possibilities.

  g:netrw_hide                Controlled by the "a" map (see netrw-a)
                                =0 : show all
                                =1 : show not-hidden files
                                =2 : show hidden files only
                                 default: =1

  g:netrw_home                The home directory for where bookmarks and
                                history are saved (as .netrwbook and
                                Netrw uses expand()on the string.
                                 default: the first directory on the

  g:netrw_keepdir             =1 (default) keep current directory immune from
                                   the browsing directory.
                                =0 keep the current directory the same as the
                                   browsing directory.
                                The current browsing directory is contained in
                                b:netrw_curdir (also see netrw-cd)

  g:netrw_keepj               ="keepj" (default) netrw attempts to keep the
                                         :jumps table unaffected.
                                =""      netrw will not use :keepjumps with
                                         exceptions only for the
                                         saving/restoration of position.

  g:netrw_list_cmd            command for listing remote directories
                                 default: (if ssh is executable)
                                          "ssh HOSTNAME ls -FLa"

  g:netrw_list_cmd_options    If this variable exists, then its contents are
                                appended to the g:netrw_list_cmd.  For
                                example, use "2>/dev/null" to get rid of banner
                                messages on unix systems.

  g:netrw_liststyle           Set the default listing style:
                                = 0: thin listing (one file per line)
                                = 1: long listing (one file per line with time
                                     stamp information and file size)
                                = 2: wide listing (multiple files in columns)
                                = 3: tree style listing

  g:netrw_list_hide           comma-separated pattern list for hiding files
                                Patterns are regular expressions (see regexp)
                                There's some special support for git-ignore
                                files: you may add the output from the helper
                                function 'netrw_gitignore#Hide() automatically
                                hiding all gitignored files.
                                For more details see netrw-gitignore.

                                 let g:netrw_list_hide= '.*\.swp$'
                                 let g:netrw_list_hide= netrw_gitignore#Hide() .. '.*\.swp$'
                                default: ""

  g:netrw_localcopycmd        ="cp"           Linux/Unix/MacOS/Cygwin
                                =expand("$COMSPEC")             Windows
                                Copies marked files (netrw-mf) to target
                                directory (netrw-mtnetrw-mc)

  g:netrw_localcopycmdopt     =''             Linux/Unix/MacOS/Cygwin
                                =' \c copy'                     Windows
                                Options for the g:netrw_localcopycmd

  g:netrw_localcopydircmd     ="cp"           Linux/Unix/MacOS/Cygwin
                                =expand("$COMSPEC")             Windows
                                Copies directories to target directory.

  g:netrw_localcopydircmdopt  =" -R"          Linux/Unix/MacOS/Cygwin
                                =" /c xcopy /e /c /h/ /i /k"    Windows
                                Options for g:netrw_localcopydircmd

  g:netrw_localmkdir          ="mkdir"        Linux/Unix/MacOS/Cygwin
                                =expand("$COMSPEC")             Windows
                                command for making a local directory

  g:netrw_localmkdiropt       =""             Linux/Unix/MacOS/Cygwin
                                =" /c mkdir"                    Windows
                                Options for g:netrw_localmkdir

  g:netrw_localmovecmd        ="mv"           Linux/Unix/MacOS/Cygwin
                                =expand("$COMSPEC")             Windows
                                Moves marked files (netrw-mf) to target
                                directory (netrw-mtnetrw-mm)

  g:netrw_localmovecmdopt     =""             Linux/Unix/MacOS/Cygwin
                                =" /c move"                     Windows
                                Options for g:netrw_localmovecmd

  g:netrw_maxfilenamelen      =32 by default, selected so as to make long
                                    listings fit on 80 column displays.
                                If your screen is wider, and you have file
                                or directory names longer than 32 bytes,
                                you may set this option to keep listings

  g:netrw_mkdir_cmd           command for making a remote directory
                                via ssh  (also see g:netrw_remote_mkdir)
                                 default: "ssh USEPORT HOSTNAME mkdir"

  g:netrw_mousemaps             =1 (default) enables mouse buttons while
                                   browsing to:
                                     leftmouse       : open file/directory
                                     shift-leftmouse : mark file
                                     middlemouse     : same as P
                                     rightmouse      : remove file/directory
                                =0: disables mouse maps

  g:netrw_nobeval             doesn't exist (default)
                                If this variable exists, then balloon
                                evaluation will be suppressed
                                (see 'ballooneval')

 g:netrw_sizestyle            not defined: actual bytes (default)
                                ="b" : actual bytes       (default)
                                ="h" : human-readable (ex. 5k, 4m, 3g)
                                       uses 1000 base
                                ="H" : human-readable (ex. 5K, 4M, 3G)
                                       uses 1024 base
                                The long listing (netrw-i) and query-file
                                maps (netrw-qf) will display file size
                                using the specified style.

  g:netrw_usetab              if this variable exists and is non-zero, then
                                the <tab> map supporting shrinking/expanding a
                                Lexplore or netrw window will be enabled.
                                (see netrw-c-tab)

  g:netrw_remote_mkdir        command for making a remote directory
                                via ftp  (also see g:netrw_mkdir_cmd)
                                 default: "mkdir"

  g:netrw_retmap              if it exists and is set to one, then:
                                 * if in a netrw-selected file, AND
                                 * no normal-mode <2-leftmouse> mapping exists,
                                then the <2-leftmouse> will be mapped for easy
                                return to the netrw browser window.
                                 example: click once to select and open a file,
                                          double-click to return.

                                Note that one may instead choose to:
                                 * let g:netrw_retmap= 1, AND
                                 * nmap <silent> YourChoice <Plug>NetrwReturn
                                and have another mapping instead of
                                <2-leftmouse> to invoke the return.

                                You may also use the :Rexplore command to do
                                the same thing.

                                  default: =0

  g:netrw_rm_cmd              command for removing remote files
                                 default: "ssh USEPORT HOSTNAME rm"

  g:netrw_rmdir_cmd           command for removing remote directories
                                 default: "ssh USEPORT HOSTNAME rmdir"

  g:netrw_rmf_cmd             command for removing remote softlinks
                                 default: "ssh USEPORT HOSTNAME rm -f"

  g:netrw_servername          use this variable to provide a name for
                                netrw-ctrl-r to use for its server.
                                 default: "NETRWSERVER"

  g:netrw_sort_by             sort by "name", "time", "size", or
                                 default: "name"

  g:netrw_sort_direction      sorting direction: "normal" or "reverse"
                                 default: "normal"

  g:netrw_sort_options        sorting is done using :sort; this
                                variable's value is appended to the
                                sort command.  Thus one may ignore case,
                                for example, with the following in your
                                        let g:netrw_sort_options="i"
                                 default: ""

  g:netrw_sort_sequence       when sorting by name, first sort by the
                                comma-separated pattern sequence.  Note that
                                any filigree added to indicate filetypes
                                should be accounted for in your pattern.
                                 default: '[\/]$,*,\.bak$,\.o$,\.h$,

  g:netrw_special_syntax      If true, then certain files will be shown
                                using special syntax in the browser:

                                        netrwBak     : *.bak
                                        netrwCompress: *.gz *.bz2 *.Z *.zip
                                        netrwCoreDump: core.\d\+
                                        netrwData    : *.dat
                                        netrwDoc     : *.doc,*.txt,*.pdf,
                                        netrwHdr     : *.h
                                        netrwLex     : *.l *.lex
                                        netrwLib     : *.a *.so *.lib *.dll
                                        netrwMakefile: [mM]akefile *.mak
                                        netrwObj     : *.o *.obj
                                        netrwPix     : *.bmp,*.fit,*.fits,*.gif,
                                        netrwTags    : tags ANmenu ANtags
                                        netrwTilde   : *
                                        netrwTmp     : tmp* *tmp
                                        netrwYacc    : *.y

                                In addition, those groups mentioned in
                                'suffixes' are also added to the special
                                file highlighting group.
                                 These syntax highlighting groups are linked
                                to netrwGray or Folded by default
                                (see hl-Folded), but one may put lines like
                                        hi link netrwCompress Visual
                                into one's <.vimrc> to use one's own
                                preferences.  Alternatively, one may
                                put such specifications into
                                 The netrwGray highlighting is set up by
                                netrw when
                                        * netrwGray has not been previously
                                        * the gui is running
                                 As an example, I myself use a dark-background
                                colorscheme with the following in

 hi netrwCompress term=NONE cterm=NONE gui=NONE ctermfg=10 guifg=green  ctermbg=0 guibg=black
 hi netrwData     term=NONE cterm=NONE gui=NONE ctermfg=9 guifg=blue ctermbg=0 guibg=black
 hi netrwHdr      term=NONE cterm=NONE,italic gui=NONE guifg=SeaGreen1
 hi netrwLex      term=NONE cterm=NONE,italic gui=NONE guifg=SeaGreen1
 hi netrwYacc     term=NONE cterm=NONE,italic gui=NONE guifg=SeaGreen1
 hi netrwLib      term=NONE cterm=NONE gui=NONE ctermfg=14 guifg=yellow
 hi netrwObj      term=NONE cterm=NONE gui=NONE ctermfg=12 guifg=red
 hi netrwTilde    term=NONE cterm=NONE gui=NONE ctermfg=12 guifg=red
 hi netrwTmp      term=NONE cterm=NONE gui=NONE ctermfg=12 guifg=red
 hi netrwTags     term=NONE cterm=NONE gui=NONE ctermfg=12 guifg=red
 hi netrwDoc      term=NONE cterm=NONE gui=NONE ctermfg=220 ctermbg=27 guifg=yellow2 guibg=Blue3
 hi netrwSymLink  term=NONE cterm=NONE gui=NONE ctermfg=220 ctermbg=27 guifg=grey60

  g:netrw_ssh_browse_reject   ssh can sometimes produce unwanted lines,
                                messages, banners, and whatnot that one doesn't
                                want masquerading as "directories" and "files".
                                Use this pattern to remove such embedded
                                messages.  By default its value is:

  g:netrw_ssh_cmd             One may specify an executable command
                                to use instead of ssh for remote actions
                                such as listing, file removal, etc.
                                 default: ssh

 g:netrw_suppress_gx_mesg     =1 : browsers sometimes produce messages
                                which are normally unwanted intermixed
                                with the page.
                                However, when using links, for example,
                                those messages are what the browser produces.
                                By setting this option to 0, netrw will not
                                suppress browser messages.

  g:netrw_tmpfile_escape      =' &;'
                                escape() is applied to all temporary files
                                to escape these characters.

  g:netrw_timefmt             specify format string to vim's strftime().
                                The default, "%c", is "the preferred date
                                and time representation for the current
                                locale" according to my manpage entry for
                                strftime(); however, not all are satisfied
                                with it.  Some alternatives:
                                 "%a %d %b %Y %T",
                                 " %a %Y-%m-%d  %I-%M-%S %p"
                                 default: "%c"

  g:netrw_use_noswf           netrw normally avoids writing swapfiles
                                for browser buffers.  However, under some
                                systems this apparently is causing nasty
                                ml_get errors to appear; if you're getting
                                ml_get errors, try putting
                                  let g:netrw_use_noswf= 0
                                in your .vimrc.
                                  default: 1

  g:netrw_winsize             specify initial size of new windows made with
                                "o" (see netrw-o), "v" (see netrw-v),
                                :Hexplore or :Vexplore.  The g:netrw_winsize
                                is an integer describing the percentage of the
                                current netrw buffer's window to be used for
                                the new window.
                                 If g:netrw_winsize is less than zero, then
                                the absolute value of g:netrw_winsize will be
                                used to specify the quantity of lines or
                                columns for the new window.
                                 If g:netrw_winsize is zero, then a normal
                                split will be made (ie. 'equalalways' will
                                take effect, for example).
                                 default: 50  (for 50%)

  g:netrw_wiw                 =1 specifies the minimum window width to use
                                when shrinking a netrw/Lexplore window
                                (see netrw-c-tab).

  g:netrw_xstrlen             Controls how netrw computes string lengths,
                                including multi-byte characters' string
                                length. (thanks to N Weibull, T Mechelynck)
                                =0: uses Vim's built-in strlen()
                                =1: number of codepoints (Latin a + combining
                                    circumflex is two codepoints)  (DEFAULT)
                                =2: number of spacing codepoints (Latin a +
                                    combining circumflex is one spacing
                                    codepoint; a hard tab is one; wide and
                                    narrow CJK are one each; etc.)
                                =3: virtual length (counting tabs as anything
                                    between 1 and 'tabstop', wide CJK as 2
                                    rather than 1, Arabic alif as zero when
                                    immediately preceded by lam, one
                                    otherwise, etc)

  g:NetrwTopLvlMenu           This variable specifies the top level
                                menu name; by default, it's "Netrw.".  If
                                you wish to change this, do so in your


Netrw has been designed to handle user options by saving them, setting the
options to something that's compatible with netrw's needs, and then restoring
them.  However, the autochdir option:
        :set acd
is problematic.  Autochdir sets the current directory to that containing the
file you edit; this apparently also applies to directories.  In other words,
autochdir sets the current directory to that containing the "file" (even if
that "file" is itself a directory).

NETRW SETTINGS WINDOW                           netrw-settings-window {{{2

With the NetrwSettings.vim plugin,
will bring up a window with the many variables that netrw uses for its
settings.  You may change any of their values; when you save the file, the
settings therein will be used.  One may also press "?" on any of the lines for
help on what each of the variables do.

(also see: netrw-browser-var netrw-protocol netrw-variables)

OBTAINING A FILE                                        netrw-obtain netrw-O {{{2

If there are no marked files:

    When browsing a remote directory, one may obtain a file under the cursor
    (ie.  get a copy on your local machine, but not edit it) by pressing the O

If there are marked files:

    The marked files will be obtained (ie. a copy will be transferred to your
    local machine, but not set up for editing).

Only ftp and scp are supported for this operation (but since these two are
available for browsing, that shouldn't be a problem).  The status bar will
then show, on its right hand side, a message like "Obtaining filename".  The
statusline will be restored after the transfer is complete.

Netrw can also "obtain" a file using the local browser.  Netrw's display
of a directory is not necessarily the same as Vim's "current directory",
unless g:netrw_keepdir is set to 0 in the user's <.vimrc>.  One may select
a file using the local browser (by putting the cursor on it) and pressing
"O" will then "obtain" the file; ie. copy it to Vim's current directory.

Related topics:
 * To see what the current directory is, use :pwd
 * To make the currently browsed directory the current directory, see
 * To automatically make the currently browsed directory the current
   directory, see g:netrw_keepdir.

                                        netrw-newfile netrw-createfile

To open a new file in netrw's current directory, press "%".  This map
will query the user for a new filename; an empty file by that name will
be placed in the netrw's current directory (ie. b:netrw_curdir).

If Lexplore (netrw-:Lexplore) is in use, the new file will be generated
in the g:netrw_chgwin window.

Related topics:               netrw-d

PREVIEW WINDOW                          netrw-p netrw-preview {{{2

One may use a preview window by using the "p" key when the cursor is atop the
desired filename to be previewed.  The display will then split to show both
the browser (where the cursor will remain) and the file (see :pedit).  By
default, the split will be taken horizontally; one may use vertical splitting
if one has set g:netrw_preview first.

An interesting set of netrw settings is:

        let g:netrw_preview   = 1
        let g:netrw_liststyle = 3
        let g:netrw_winsize   = 30

These will:

        1. Make vertical splitting the default for previewing files
        2. Make the default listing style "tree"
        3. When a vertical preview window is opened, the directory listing
           will use only 30% of the columns available; the rest of the window
           is used for the preview window.

        Related: if you like this idea, you may also find :Lexplore
                 (netrw-:Lexplore) or g:netrw_chgwin of interest

Also see: g:netrw_chgwin netrw-P 'previewwindow' CTRL-W_z :pclose

PREVIOUS WINDOW                                 netrw-P netrw-prvwin {{{2

To edit a file or directory under the cursor in the previously used (last
accessed) window (see :he CTRL-W_p), press a "P".  If there's only one
window, then the one window will be horizontally split (by default).

If there's more than one window, the previous window will be re-used on
the selected file/directory.  If the previous window's associated buffer
has been modified, and there's only one window with that buffer, then
the user will be asked if s/he wishes to save the buffer first (yes,
no, or cancel).

Related Actions netrw-cr netrw-o netrw-t netrw-v
Associated setting variables:
   g:netrw_alto    control above/below splitting
   g:netrw_altv    control right/left splitting
   g:netrw_preview control horizontal vs vertical splitting
   g:netrw_winsize control initial sizing

Also see: g:netrw_chgwin netrw-p

REFRESHING THE LISTING          netrw-refresh netrw-ctrl-l netrw-ctrl_l {{{2

To refresh either a local or remote directory listing, press ctrl-l (<c-l>) or
hit the <cr> when atop the ./ directory entry in the listing.  One may also
refresh a local directory by using ":e .".

REVERSING SORTING ORDER         netrw-r netrw-reverse {{{2

One may toggle between normal and reverse sorting order by pressing the
"r" key.

Related topics:              netrw-s
Associated setting variable: g:netrw_sort_direction

RENAMING FILES OR DIRECTORIES   netrw-move netrw-rename netrw-R {{{2

If there are no marked files: (see netrw-mf)

    Renaming files and directories involves moving the cursor to the
    file/directory to be moved (renamed) and pressing "R".  You will then be
    queried for what you want the file/directory to be renamed to.  You may
    select a range of lines with the "V" command (visual selection), and then
    press "R"; you will be queried for each file as to what you want it
    renamed to.

If there are marked files:  (see netrw-mf)

    Marked files will be renamed (moved).  You will be queried as above in
    order to specify where you want the file/directory to be moved.

    If you answer a renaming query with a "s/frompattern/topattern/", then
    subsequent files on the marked file list will be renamed by taking each
    name, applying that substitute, and renaming each file to the result.
    As an example :

        mr  [query: reply with *.c]
        R   [query: reply with s/^\(.*\)\.c$/\1.cpp/]

    This example will mark all *.c files and then rename them to *.cpp
    files.  Netrw will protect you from overwriting local files without
    confirmation, but not remote ones.

    The ctrl-X character has special meaning for renaming files:

        <c-x>      : a single ctrl-x tells netrw to ignore the portion of the response
                     lying between the last '/' and the ctrl-x.

        <c-x><c-x> : a pair of contiguous ctrl-x's tells netrw to ignore any
                     portion of the string preceding the double ctrl-x's.


    Note that moving files is a dangerous operation; copies are safer.  That's
    because a "move" for remote files is actually a copy + delete -- and if
    the copy fails and the delete succeeds you may lose the file.
    Use at your own risk.

The g:netrw_rename_cmd variable is used to implement remote renaming.  By
default its value is:

        ssh HOSTNAME mv

One may rename a block of files and directories by selecting them with
V (linewise-visual) when using thin style.

See cmdline-editing for more on how to edit the command line; in particular,
you'll find <ctrl-f> (initiates cmdline window editing) and <ctrl-c> (uses the
command line under the cursor) useful in conjunction with the R command.

SELECTING SORTING STYLE                 netrw-s netrw-sort {{{2

One may select the sorting style by name, time, or (file) size.  The "s" map
allows one to circulate amongst the three choices; the directory listing will
automatically be refreshed to reflect the selected style.

Related topics:               netrw-r netrw-S
Associated setting variables: g:netrw_sort_by g:netrw_sort_sequence

SETTING EDITING WINDOW          netrw-editwindow netrw-C netrw-:NetrwC {{{2

One may select a netrw window for editing with the "C" mapping, using the
:NetrwC [win#] command, or by setting g:netrw_chgwin to the selected window
number.  Subsequent selection of a file to edit (netrw-cr) will use that

        * C : by itself, will select the current window holding a netrw buffer
          for subsequent editing via netrw-cr.  The C mapping is only available
          while in netrw buffers.

        * [count]C : the count will be used as the window number to be used
          for subsequent editing via netrw-cr.

        * :NetrwC will set g:netrw_chgwin to the current window

        * :NetrwC win#  will set g:netrw_chgwin to the specified window

        let g:netrw_chgwin= -1
will restore the default editing behavior
(ie. subsequent editing will use the current window).

Related topics:                 netrw-cr g:netrw_browse_split
Associated setting variables:   g:netrw_chgwin


The <c-tab> key will toggle a netrw or :Lexplore window's width,
but only if g:netrw_usetab exists and is non-zero (and, of course,
only if your terminal supports differentiating <c-tab> from a plain

  * If the current window is a netrw window, toggle its width
    (between g:netrw_wiw and its original width)

  * Else if there is a :Lexplore window in the current tab, toggle
    its width

  * Else bring up a :Lexplore window

If g:netrw_usetab exists and is zero, or if there is a pre-existing mapping
for <c-tab>, then the <c-tab> will not be mapped.  One may map something other
than a <c-tab>, too: (but you'll still need to have had g:netrw_usetab set).

        nmap <unique> (whatever)        <Plug>NetrwShrink

Related topics:                 :Lexplore
Associated setting variable:    g:netrw_usetab

USER SPECIFIED MAPS                                     netrw-usermaps {{{1

One may make customized user maps.  Specify a variable, g:Netrw_UserMaps,
to hold a List of lists of keymap strings and function names:


When netrw is setting up maps for a netrw buffer, if g:Netrw_UserMaps
exists, then the internal function netrw#UserMaps(islocal) is called.
This function goes through all the entries in the g:Netrw_UserMaps list:

        * sets up maps:
                nno <buffer> <silent> KEYMAP-SEQUENCE
                :call s:UserMaps(islocal,"ExampleUserMapFunc")
        * refreshes if result from that function call is the string
        * if the result string is not "", then that string will be
          executed (:exe result)
        * if the result is a List, then the above two actions on results
          will be taken for every string in the result List

The user function is passed one argument; it resembles

        fun! ExampleUserMapFunc(islocal)

where a:islocal is 1 if its a local-directory system call or 0 when
remote-directory system call.

                                netrw-call  netrw-expose  netrw-modify
Use netrw#Expose("varname")          to access netrw-internal (script-local)
Use netrw#Modify("varname",newvalue) to change netrw-internal variables.
Use netrw#Call("funcname"[,args])    to call a netrw-internal function with
                                     specified arguments.

Example: Get a copy of netrw's marked file list:

        let netrwmarkfilelist= netrw#Expose("netrwmarkfilelist")

Example: Modify the value of netrw's marked file list:

        call netrw#Modify("netrwmarkfilelist",[])

Example: Clear netrw's marked file list via a mapping on gu
    " ExampleUserMap: {{{2
    fun! ExampleUserMap(islocal)
      call netrw#Modify("netrwmarkfilelist",[])
      call netrw#Modify('netrwmarkfilemtch_{bufnr("%")}',"")
      let retval= ["refresh"]
      return retval
    let g:Netrw_UserMaps= [["gu","ExampleUserMap"]]

10. Problems and Fixes                                  netrw-problems {{{1

        (This section is likely to grow as I get feedback)
        (also see netrw-debug)
        P1. I use Windows, and my network browsing with ftp doesn't sort by {{{2
            time or size!  -or-  The remote system is a Windows server; why
            don't I get sorts by time or size?

                Windows' ftp has a minimal support for ls (ie. it doesn't
                accept sorting options).  It doesn't support the -F which
                gives an explanatory character (ABC/ for "ABC is a directory").
                Netrw then uses "dir" to get both its thin and long listings.
                If you think your ftp does support a full-up ls, put the
                following into your <.vimrc>:

                        let g:netrw_ftp_list_cmd    = "ls -lF"
                        let g:netrw_ftp_timelist_cmd= "ls -tlF"
                        let g:netrw_ftp_sizelist_cmd= "ls -slF"

                Alternatively, if you have cygwin on your Windows box, put
                into your <.vimrc>:

                        let g:netrw_cygwin= 1

                This problem also occurs when the remote system is Windows.
                In this situation, the various g:netrw_ftp_[time|size]list_cmds
                are as shown above, but the remote system will not correctly
                modify its listing behavior.

        P2. I tried rcp://user@host/ (or protocol other than ftp) and netrw {{{2
            used ssh!  That wasn't what I asked for...

                Netrw has two methods for browsing remote directories: ssh
                and ftp.  Unless you specify ftp specifically, ssh is used.
                When it comes time to do download a file (not just a directory
                listing), netrw will use the given protocol to do so.

        P3. I would like long listings to be the default.                   {{{2

                Put the following statement into your .vimrc:

                        let g:netrw_liststyle= 1

                Check out netrw-browser-var for more customizations that
                you can set.

        P4. My times come up oddly in local browsing                        {{{2

                Does your system's strftime() accept the "%c" to yield dates
                such as "Sun Apr 27 11:49:23 1997"?  If not, do a
                "man strftime" and find out what option should be used.  Then
                put it into your .vimrc:

                        let g:netrw_timefmt= "%X"  (where X is the option)

        P5. I want my current directory to track my browsing.               {{{2
            How do I do that?

            Put the following line in your .vimrc:

                let g:netrw_keepdir= 0

        P6. I use Chinese (or other non-ascii) characters in my filenames,  {{{2
            and netrw (Explore, Sexplore, Hexplore, etc) doesn't display them!

                (taken from an answer provided by Wu Yongwei on the vim
                mailing list)
                I now see the problem. Your code page is not 936, right? Vim
                seems only able to open files with names that are valid in the
                current code page, as are many other applications that do not
                use the Unicode version of Windows APIs. This is an OS-related
                issue. You should not have such problems when the system
                locale uses UTF-8, such as modern Linux distros.

                ( is one more reason to recommend that people use utf-8!)

        P7. I'm getting "ssh is not executable on your system" -- what do I {{{2

                (Dudley Fox) Most people I know use putty for windows ssh.  It
                is a free ssh/telnet application. You can read more about it


                (Marlin Unruh) This program also works for me. It's a single
                executable, so he/she can copy it into the Windows\System32
                folder and create a shortcut to it.

                (Dudley Fox) You might also wish to consider plink, as it
                sounds most similar to what you are looking for. plink is an
                application in the putty suite.


                (Vissale Neang) Maybe you can try OpenSSH for windows, which
                can be obtained from:


                It doesn't need the full Cygwin package.

                (Antoine Mechelynck) For individual Unix-like programs needed
                for work in a native-Windows environment, I recommend getting
                them from the GnuWin32 project on sourceforge if it has them:


                Unlike Cygwin, which sets up a Unix-like virtual machine on
                top of Windows, GnuWin32 is a rewrite of Unix utilities with
                Windows system calls, and its programs works quite well in the
                cmd.exe "Dos box".

                (dave) Download WinSCP and use that to connect to the server.
                In Preferences > Editors, set gvim as your editor:

                        - Click "Add..."
                        - Set External Editor (adjust path as needed, include
                          the quotes and !.! at the end):
                            "c:\Program Files\Vim\vim82\gvim.exe" !.!
                        - Check that the filetype in the box below is
                          {asterisk}.{asterisk} (all files), or whatever types
                          you want (cec: change {asterisk} to * ; I had to
                          write it that way because otherwise the helptags
                          system thinks it's a tag)
                        - Make sure it's at the top of the listbox (click it,
                          then click "Up" if it's not)
                If using the Norton Commander style, you just have to hit <F4>
                to edit a file in a local copy of gvim.

                (Vit Gottwald) How to generate public/private key and save
                public key it on server:
                        (8.3 Getting ready for public key authentication)

                How to use a private key with 'pscp':
                        (5.2.4 Using public key authentication with PSCP)

                (Ben Schmidt) I find the ssh included with cwRsync is
                brilliant, and install cwRsync or cwRsyncServer on most
                Windows systems I come across these days. I guess COPSSH,
                packed by the same person, is probably even better for use as
                just ssh on Windows, and probably includes sftp, etc. which I
                suspect the cwRsync doesn't, though it might

                (cec) To make proper use of these suggestions above, you will
                need to modify the following user-settable variables in your

                g:netrw_ssh_cmd g:netrw_list_cmd  g:netrw_mkdir_cmd
                g:netrw_rm_cmd  g:netrw_rmdir_cmd g:netrw_rmf_cmd

                The first one (g:netrw_ssh_cmd) is the most important; most
                of the others will use the string in g:netrw_ssh_cmd by

                                                netrw-p8 netrw-ml_get
        P8. I'm browsing, changing directory, and bang!  ml_get errors      {{{2
            appear and I have to kill vim.  Any way around this?

                Normally netrw attempts to avoid writing swapfiles for
                its temporary directory buffers.  However, on some systems
                this attempt appears to be causing ml_get errors to
                appear.  Please try setting g:netrw_use_noswf to 0
                in your <.vimrc>:
                        let g:netrw_use_noswf= 0

        P9. I'm being pestered with "[something] is a directory" and       {{{2
             "Press ENTER or type command to continue" prompts...

                The "[something] is a directory" prompt is issued by Vim,
                not by netrw, and there appears to be no way to work around
                it.  Coupled with the default cmdheight of 1, this message
                causes the "Press ENTER..." prompt.  So:  read hit-enter;
                I also suggest that you set your 'cmdheight' to 2 (or more) in
                your <.vimrc> file.

        P10. I want to have two windows; a thin one on the left and my      {{{2
             editing window on the right.  How may I accomplish this?

             You probably want netrw running as in a side window.  If so, you
             will likely find that ":[N]Lexplore" does what you want.  The
             optional "[N]" allows you to select the quantity of columns you
             wish the :Lexplorer window to start with (see g:netrw_winsize
             for how this parameter works).

             Previous solution:

                * Put the following line in your <.vimrc>:
                        let g:netrw_altv = 1
                * Edit the current directory:  :e .
                * Select some file, press v
                * Resize the windows as you wish (see CTRL-W_< and
                  CTRL-W_>).  If you're using gvim, you can drag
                  the separating bar with your mouse.
                * When you want a new file, use  ctrl-w h  to go back to the
                  netrw browser, select a file, then press P  (see CTRL-W_h
                  and netrw-P).  If you're using gvim, you can press
                  <leftmouse> in the browser window and then press the
                  <middlemouse> to select the file.

        P11. My directory isn't sorting correctly, or unwanted letters are  {{{2
             appearing in the listed filenames, or things aren't lining
             up properly in the wide listing, ...

             This may be due to an encoding problem.  I myself usually use
             utf-8, but really only use ascii (ie. bytes from 32-126).
             Multibyte encodings use two (or more) bytes per character.
             You may need to change g:netrw_sepchr and/or g:netrw_xstrlen.

        P12. I'm a Windows + putty + ssh user, and when I attempt to        {{{2
             browse, the directories are missing trailing "/"s so netrw treats
             them as file transfers instead of as attempts to browse
             subdirectories.  How may I fix this?

             (mikeyao) If you want to use vim via ssh and putty under Windows,
             try combining the use of pscp/psftp with plink.  pscp/psftp will
             be used to connect and plink will be used to execute commands on
             the server, for example: list files and directory using 'ls'.

             These are the settings I use to do this:

            " list files, it's the key setting, if you haven't set,
            " you will get a blank buffer
            let g:netrw_list_cmd = "plink HOSTNAME ls -Fa"
            " if you haven't add putty directory in system path, you should
            " specify scp/sftp command.  For examples:
            "let g:netrw_sftp_cmd = "d:\\dev\\putty\\PSFTP.exe"
            "let g:netrw_scp_cmd = "d:\\dev\\putty\\PSCP.exe"

        P13. I would like to speed up writes using Nwrite and scp/ssh       {{{2
             style connections.  How?  (Thomer M. Gil)

             Try using ssh's ControlMaster and ControlPath (see the ssh_config
             man page) to share multiple ssh connections over a single network
             connection. That cuts out the cryptographic handshake on each
             file write, sometimes speeding it up by an order of magnitude.
             (included by permission)

             Add the following to your ~/.ssh/config:

                 # you change "*" to the hostname you care about
                 Host *
                   ControlMaster auto
                   ControlPath /tmp/%r@%h:%p

             Then create an ssh connection to the host and leave it running:

                 ssh -N

             Now remotely open a file with Vim's Netrw and enjoy the

                vim scp://

        P14. How may I use a double-click instead of netrw's usual single   {{{2
             click to open a file or directory?  (Ben Fritz)

             First, disable netrw's mapping with
                    let g:netrw_mousemaps= 0
             and then create a netrw buffer only mapping in
                    nmap <buffer> <2-leftmouse> <CR>
             Note that setting g:netrw_mousemaps to zero will turn off
             all netrw's mouse mappings, not just the <leftmouse> one.
             (see g:netrw_mousemaps)

        P15. When editing remote files (ex. :e ftp://hostname/path/file),   {{{2
             under Windows I get an E303 message complaining that its unable
             to open a swap file.

             (romainl) It looks like you are starting Vim from a protected
             directory.  Start netrw from your $HOME or other writable

        P16. Netrw is closing buffers on its own.                           {{{2
             What steps will reproduce the problem?
                1. :Explore, navigate directories, open a file
                2. :Explore, open another file
                3. Buffer opened in step 1 will be closed. o
            What is the expected output? What do you see instead?
                I expect both buffers to exist, but only the last one does.

           (Lance) Problem is caused by "set autochdir" in .vimrc.
           (drchip) I am able to duplicate this problem with 'acd' set.
                    It appears that the buffers are not exactly closed;
                    a ":ls!" will show them (although ":ls" does not).

        P17. How to locally edit a file that's only available via           {{{2
             another server accessible via ssh?
             "Using Vim to Remotely Edit A File on ServerB Only
              Accessible From ServerA"

        P18. How do I get numbering on in directory listings?               {{{2
                With g:netrw_bufsettings, you can control netrw's buffer
                settings; try putting
                  let g:netrw_bufsettings="noma nomod nu nobl nowrap ro nornu"
                in your .vimrc.  If you'd like to have relative numbering
                instead, try
                  let g:netrw_bufsettings="noma nomod nonu nobl nowrap ro rnu"

        P19. How may I have gvim start up showing a directory listing?      {{{2
                Try putting the following code snippet into your .vimrc:
                    augroup VimStartup
                      au VimEnter * if expand("%") == "" && argc() == 0 &&
                      \ (v:servername =~ 'GVIM\d*' || v:servername == "")
                      \ | e . | endif
                    augroup END
                You may use Lexplore instead of "e" if you're so inclined.
                This snippet assumes that you have client-server enabled
                (ie. a "huge" vim version).

        P20. I've made a directory (or file) with an accented character,    {{{2
                but netrw isn't letting me enter that directory/read that file:

                Its likely that the shell or o/s is using a different encoding
                than you have vim (netrw) using.  A patch to vim supporting
                "systemencoding" may address this issue in the future; for
                now, just have netrw use the proper encoding.  For example:

                        au FileType netrw set enc=latin1

        P21. I get an error message when I try to copy or move a file:      {{{2

                **error** (netrw) tried using g:netrw_localcopycmd<cp>; it doesn't work!

             What's wrong?

             Netrw uses several system level commands to do things (see


            You may need to adjust the default commands for one or more of
            these commands by setting them properly in your .vimrc.  Another
            source of difficulty is that these commands use vim's local
            directory, which may not be the same as the browsing directory
            shown by netrw (see g:netrw_keepdir).

11. Debugging Netrw Itself                              netrw-debug {{{1

Step 1: check that the problem you've encountered hasn't already been resolved
by obtaining a copy of the latest (often developmental) netrw at:

The <netrw.vim> script is typically installed on systems as something like:

                (see output of :echo &rtp)

which is loaded automatically at startup (assuming :set nocp).  If you
installed a new netrw, then it will be located at


Step 2: assuming that you've installed the latest version of netrw,
check that your problem is really due to netrw.  Create a file
called netrw.vimrc with the following contents:

        set nocp
        so $HOME/.vim/plugin/netrwPlugin.vim

Then run netrw as follows:

        vim -u netrw.vimrc --noplugins -i NONE [some path here]

Perform whatever netrw commands you need to, and check that the problem is
still present.  This procedure sidesteps any issues due to personal .vimrc
settings, .viminfo file, and other plugins.  If the problem does not appear,
then you need to determine which setting in your .vimrc is causing the
conflict with netrw or which plugin(s) is/are involved.

Step 3: If the problem still is present, then get a debugging trace from

        1. Get the <Decho.vim> script, available as:


          Decho.vim is provided as a "vimball"; see vimball-intro.  You
          should edit the Decho.vba.gz file and source it in:

                vim Decho.vba.gz
                :so %

        2. To turn on debug tracing in netrw, then edit the <netrw.vim>
           file by typing:

                vim netrw.vim

           To restore to normal non-debugging behavior, re-edit <netrw.vim>
           and type

                vim netrw.vim

           This command, provided by <Decho.vim>, will comment out all
           Decho-debugging statements (Dfunc(), Dret(), Decho(), Dredir()).

        3. Then bring up vim and attempt to evoke the problem by doing a
           transfer or doing some browsing.  A set of messages should appear
           concerning the steps that <netrw.vim> took in attempting to
           read/write your file over the network in a separate tab or
           server vim window.

           Change the netrw.vimrc file to include the Decho plugin:

                set nocp
                so $HOME/.vim/plugin/Decho.vim
                so $HOME/.vim/plugin/netrwPlugin.vim

           You should continue to run vim with

                vim -u netrw.vimrc --noplugins -i NONE [some path here]

           to avoid entanglements with options and other plugins.

           To save the file: under linux, the output will be in a separate
           remote server window; in it, just save the file with

                :w! DBG

           Under a vim that doesn't support clientserver, your debugging
           output will appear in another tab:

                :set bt=
                :w! DBG

           Furthermore, it'd be helpful if you would type

                :Dsep <command>

           where <command> is the command you're about to type next,
           thereby making it easier to associate which part of the
           debugging trace is due to which command.

           Please send that information to <netrw.vim>'s maintainer along
           with the o/s you're using and the vim version that you're using
           (see :version)  (remove the embedded NOSPAM first)


12. History                                             netrw-history {{{1

        v172:   Sep 02, 2021    * (Bram Moolenaar) Changed "l:go" to "go"
                                * (Bram Moolenaar) no need for "b" in
                                  netrw-safe guioptions
                Nov 15, 2021    * removed netrw_localrm and netrw_localrmdir
                Aug 18, 2022    * (Miguel Barro) improving compatability with
        v171:   Oct 09, 2020    * included code in s:NetrwOptionsSafe()
                                  to allow 'bh' to be set to delete when
                                  rather than hide when g:netrw_fastbrowse
                                  was zero.
                                * Installed g:netrw_clipboard setting
                                * Installed option bypass for 'guioptions'
                                  a/A settings
                                * Changed popup_beval() to popup_atcursor()
                                  in netrw#ErrorMsg (lacygoill). Apparently
                                  popup_beval doesn't reliably close the
                                  popup when the mouse is moved.
                                * VimEnter() now using win_execute to examine
                                  buffers for an attempt to open a directory.
                                  Avoids issues with popups/terminal from
                                  command line. (lacygoill)
                Jun 28, 2021    * (zeertzjq) provided a patch for use of
                                  xmap,xno instead of vmap,vno in
                                  netrwPlugin.vim. Avoids entanglement with
                                  select mode.
                Jul 14, 2021    * Fixed problem addressed by tst976; opening
                                  a file using tree mode, going up a
                                  directory, and opening a file there was
                                  opening the file in the wrong directory.
                Jul 28, 2021    * (Ingo Karkat) provided a patch fixing an
                                  E488 error with netrwPlugin.vim
                                  (occurred for vim versions < 8.02)
        v170:   Mar 11, 2020    * (reported by Reiner Herrmann) netrw+tree
                                  would not hide with the ^\..* pattern
                                * (Marcin Szamotulski) NetrwOptionRestore
                                  did not restore options correctly that
                                  had a single quote in the option string.
                Apr 13, 2020    * implemented error handling via popup
                                  windows (see popup_beval())
                Apr 30, 2020    * (reported by Manatsu Takahashi) while
                                  using Lexplore, a modified file could
                                  be overwritten.  Sol'n: will not overwrite,
                                  but will emit an E37 (although one cannot
                                  add an ! to override)
                Jun 07, 2020    * (reported by Jo Totland) repeatedly invoking
                                  :Lexplore and quitting it left unused
                                  hidden buffers.  Netrw will now set netrw
                                  buffers created by :Lexplore to 'bh'=wipe.
        v169:   Dec 20, 2019    * (reported by amkarthik) that netrw's x
                                  (netrw-x) would throw an error when
                                  attempting to open a local directory.
        v168:   Dec 12, 2019    * scp timeout error message not reported,
                                  hopefully now fixed (Shane Xb Qian)
        v167:   Nov 29, 2019    * netrw does a save&restore on @* and @+.
                                  That causes problems with the clipboard.
                                  Now restores occurs only if @* or @+ have
                                  been changed.
                                * netrw will change @* or @+ less often.
                                  Never if I happen to have caught all the
                                  operations that modify the unnamed
                                  register (which also writes @*).
                                * Modified hiding behavior so that "s"
                                  will not ignore hiding.
        v166:   Nov 06, 2019    * Removed a space from a nmap for "-"
                                * Numerous debugging statement changes
        v163:   Dec 05, 2017    * (Cristi Balan) reported that a setting ('sel')
                                  was left changed
                                * (Holger Mitschke) reported a problem with
                                  saving and restoring history.  Fixed.
                                * Hopefully I fixed a nasty bug that caused a
                                  file rename to wipe out a buffer that it
                                  should not have wiped out.
                                * (Holger Mitschke) amended this help file
                                  with additional g:netrw_special_syntax
                                * Prioritized wget over curl for
        v162:   Sep 19, 2016    * (haya14busa) pointed out two syntax errors
                                  with a patch; these are now fixed.
                Oct 26, 2016    * I started using mate-terminal and found that
                                  x and gx (netrw-x and netrw-gx) were no
                                  longer working.  Fixed (using atril when
                                  $DESKTOP_SESSION is "mate").
                Nov 04, 2016    * (Martin Vuille) pointed out that @+ was
                                  being restored with keepregstar rather than
                Nov 09, 2016    * Broke apart the command from the options,
                                  mostly for Windows.  Introduced new netrw
                                  settings: g:netrw_localcopycmdopt
                Nov 21, 2016    * (mattn) provided a patch for preview; swapped
                                  winwidth() with winheight()
                Nov 22, 2016    * (glacambre) reported that files containing
                                  spaces weren't being obtained properly via
                                  scp.  Fix: apparently using single quotes
                                  such as with 'file name' wasn't enough; the
                                  spaces inside the quotes also had to be
                                  escaped (ie. 'file\ name').
                                * Also fixed obtain (netrw-O) to be able to
                                  obtain files with spaces in their names
                Dec 20, 2016    * (xc1427) Reported that using "I" (netrw-I)
                                  when atop "Hiding" in the banner also caused
                                  the active-banner hiding control to occur
                Jan 03, 2017    * (Enno Nagel) reported that attempting to
                                  apply netrw to a directory that was without
                                  read permission caused a syntax error.
                Jan 13, 2017    * (Ingo Karkat) provided a patch which makes
                                  using netrw#Call() better.  Now returns
                                  value of internal routines return, for example.
                Jan 13, 2017    * (Ingo Karkat) changed netrw#FileUrlRead to
                                  use :edit instead of :read.  I also
                                  changed the routine name to netrw#FileUrlEdit.
                Jan 16, 2017    * (Sayem) reported a problem where :Lexplore
                                  could generate a new listing buffer and
                                  window instead of toggling the netrw display.
                                  Unfortunately, the directions for eliciting
                                  the problem weren't complete, so I may or
                                  may not have fixed that issue.
                Feb 06, 2017    * Implemented cb and cB.  Changed "c" to "cd".
                                  (see netrw-cbnetrw-cB, and netrw-cd)
                Mar 21, 2017    * previously, netrw would specify (safe) settings
                                  even when the setting was already safe for
                                  netrw.  Netrw now attempts to leave such
                                  already-netrw-safe settings alone.
                                  (affects s:NetrwOptionRestore() and
                                  s:NetrwSafeOptions(); also introduced
                Jun 26, 2017    * (Christian Brabandt) provided a patch to
                                  allow curl to follow redirects (ie. -L
                Jun 26, 2017    * (Callum Howard) reported a problem with
                                  :Lexpore not removing the Lexplore window
                                  after a change-directory
                Aug 30, 2017    * (Ingo Karkat) one cannot switch to the
                                  previously edited file (e.g. with CTRL-^)
                                  after editing a file:// URL.  Patch to
                                  have a "keepalt" included.
                Oct 17, 2017    * (Adam Faryna) reported that gn (netrw-gn)
                                  did not work on directories in the current
        v157:   Apr 20, 2016    * (Nicola) had set up a "nmap <expr> ..." with
                                  a function that returned a 0 while silently
                                  invoking a shell command.  The shell command
                                  activated a ShellCmdPost event which in turn
                                  called s:LocalBrowseRefresh().  That looks
                                  over all netrw buffers for changes needing
                                  refreshes.  However, inside a :map-<expr>,
                                  tab and window changes are disallowed.  Fixed.
                                  (affects netrw's s:LocalBrowseRefresh())
                                * g:netrw_localrmdir not used any more, but
                                  the relevant patch that causes delete() to
                                  take over was #1107 (not #1109).
                                * expand() is now used on g:netrw_home;
                                  consequently, g:netrw_home may now use
                                  environment variables
                                * s:NetrwLeftmouse and s:NetrwCLeftmouse will
                                  return without doing anything if invoked
                                  when inside a non-netrw window
                Jun 15, 2016    * gx now calls netrw#GX() which returns
                                  the word under the cursor.  The new
                                  wrinkle: if one is in a netrw buffer,
                                  then netrw's s:NetrwGetWord().
                Jun 22, 2016    * Netrw was executing all its associated
                                  Filetype commands silently; I'm going
                                  to try doing that "noisily" and see if
                                  folks have a problem with that.
                Aug 12, 2016    * Changed order of tool selection for
                                  handling http://... viewing.
                                  (Nikolay Aleksandrovich Pavlov)
                Aug 21, 2016    * Included hiding/showing/all for tree
                                * Fixed refresh (^L) for tree listings
        v156:   Feb 18, 2016    * Changed =~ to =~# where appropriate
                Feb 23, 2016    * s:ComposePath(base,subdir) now uses
                                  fnameescape() on the base portion
                Mar 01, 2016    * (gt_macki) reported where :Explore would
                                  make file unlisted. Fixed (tst943)
                Apr 04, 2016    * (reported by John Little) netrw normally
                                  suppresses browser messages, but sometimes
                                  those "messages" are what is wanted.
                                  See g:netrw_suppress_gx_mesg
                Apr 06, 2016    * (reported by Carlos Pita) deleting a remote
                                  file was giving an error message.  Fixed.
                Apr 08, 2016    * (Charles Cooper) had a problem with an
                                  undefined b:netrw_curdir.  He also provided
                                  a fix.
                Apr 20, 2016    * Changed s:NetrwGetBuffer(); now uses
                                  dictionaries.  Also fixed the "No Name"
                                  buffer problem.
        v155:   Oct 29, 2015    * (Timur Fayzrakhmanov) reported that netrw's
                                  mapping of ctrl-l was not allowing refresh of
                                  other windows when it was done in a netrw
                Nov 05, 2015    * Improved s:TreeSqueezeDir() to use search()
                                  instead of a loop
                                * NetrwBrowse() will return line to
                                  w:netrw_bannercnt if cursor ended up in
                Nov 16, 2015    * Added a <Plug>NetrwTreeSqueeze (netrw-s-cr)
                Nov 17, 2015    * Commented out imaps -- perhaps someone can
                                  tell me how they're useful and should be
                Nov 20, 2015    * Added netrw-ma and netrw-mA support
                Nov 20, 2015    * gx (netrw-gx) on a URL downloaded the
                                  file in addition to simply bringing up the
                                  URL in a browser.  Fixed.
                Nov 23, 2015    * Added g:netrw_sizestyle support
                Nov 27, 2015    * Inserted a lot of <c-u>s into various netrw
                Jan 05, 2016    * netrw-qL implemented to mark files based
                                  upon location-lists; similar to netrw-qF.
                Jan 19, 2016    * using - call delete(directoryname,"d") -
                                  instead of using g:netrw_localrmdir if
                                  v7.4 + patch#1107 is available
                Jan 28, 2016    * changed to using winsaveview() and
                Jan 28, 2016    * s:NetrwTreePath() now does a save and
                                  restore of view
                Feb 08, 2016    * Fixed a tree-listing problem with remote
        v154:   Feb 26, 2015    * (Yuri Kanivetsky) reported a situation where
                                  a file was not treated properly as a file
                                  due to g:netrw_keepdir == 1
                Mar 25, 2015    * (requested by Ben Friz) one may now sort by
                Mar 28, 2015    * (requested by Matt Brooks) netrw has a lot
                                  of buffer-local mappings; however, some
                                  plugins (such as vim-surround) set up
                                  conflicting mappings that cause vim to wait.
                                  The "<nowait>" modifier has been included
                                  with most of netrw's mappings to avoid that
                Jun 26, 2015    * netrw-gn mapping implemted
                                * :Ntree NotADir resulted in having
                                  the tree listing expand in the error messages
                                  window.  Fixed.
                Jun 29, 2015    * Attempting to delete a file remotely caused
                                  an error with "keepsol" mentioned; fixed.
                Jul 08, 2015    * Several changes to keep the :jumps table
                                  correct when working with
                                  g:netrw_fastbrowse set to 2
                                * wide listing with accented characters fixed
                                  (using %-S instead of %-s with a printf()
                Jul 13, 2015    * (Daniel Hahler) CheckIfKde() could be true
                                  but kfmclient not installed.  Changed order
                                  in netrw#BrowseX(): checks if kde and
                                  kfmclient, then will use xdg-open on a unix
                                  system (if xdg-open is executable)
                Aug 11, 2015    * (McDonnell) tree listing mode wouldn't
                                  select a file in a open subdirectory.
                                * (McDonnell) when multiple subdirectories
                                  were concurrently open in tree listing
                                  mode, a ctrl-L wouldn't refresh properly.
                                * The netrw:target menu showed duplicate
                Oct 13, 2015    * (mattn) provided an exception to handle
                                  windows with shellslash set but no shell
                Oct 23, 2015    * if g:netrw_usetab and <c-tab> now used
                                  to control whether NetrwShrink is used
                                  (see netrw-c-tab)
        v153:   May 13, 2014    * added another g:netrw_ffkeep usage {{{2
                May 14, 2014    * changed s:PerformListing() so that it
                                  always sets ft=netrw for netrw buffers
                                  (ie. even when syntax highlighting is
                                  off, not available, etc)
                May 16, 2014    * introduced the netrw-ctrl-r functionality
                May 17, 2014    * introduced the netrw-:NetrwMB functionality
                                * mb and mB (netrw-mbnetrw-mB) will
                                  add/remove marked files from bookmark list
                May 20, 2014    * (Enno Nagel) reported that :Lex <dirname>
                                  wasn't working.  Fixed.
                May 26, 2014    * restored test to prevent leftmouse window
                                  resizing from causing refresh.
                                  (see s:NetrwLeftmouse())
                                * fixed problem where a refresh caused cursor
                                  to go just under the banner instead of
                                  staying put
                May 28, 2014    * (László Bimba) provided a patch for opening
                                  the :Lexplore window 100% high, optionally
                                  on the right, and will work with remote
                May 29, 2014    * implemented :NetrwC  (see netrw-:NetrwC)
                Jun 01, 2014    * Removed some "silent"s from commands used
                                  to implemented scp://... and pscp://...
                                  directory listing.  Permits request for
                                  password to appear.
                Jun 05, 2014    * (Enno Nagel) reported that user maps "/"
                                  caused problems with "b" and "w", which
                                  are mapped (for wide listings only) to
                                  skip over files rather than just words.
                Jun 10, 2014    * g:netrw_gx introduced to allow users to
                                  override default "<cfile>" with the gx
                                  (netrw-gx) map
                Jun 11, 2014    * gx (netrw-gx), with 'autowrite' set,
                                  will write modified files.  s:NetrwBrowseX()
                                  will now save, turn off, and restore the
                                  'autowrite' setting.
                Jun 13, 2014    * added visual map for gx use
                Jun 15, 2014    * (Enno Nagel) reported that with having hls
                                  set and wide listing style in use, that the
                                  b and w maps caused unwanted highlighting.
                Jul 05, 2014    * netrw-mv and netrw-mX commands included
                Jul 09, 2014    * g:netrw_keepj included, allowing optional
                Jul 09, 2014    * fixing bugs due to previous update
                Jul 21, 2014    * (Bruno Sutic) provided an updated
                Jul 30, 2014    * (Yavuz Yetim) reported that editing two
                                  remote files of the same name caused the
                                  second instance to have a "temporary"
                                  name.  Fixed: now they use the same buffer.
                Sep 18, 2014    * (Yasuhiro Matsumoto) provided a patch which
                                  allows scp and windows local paths to work.
                Oct 07, 2014    * gx (see netrw-gx) when atop a directory,
                                  will now do gf instead
                Nov 06, 2014    * For cygwin: cygstart will be available for
                                  netrw#BrowseX() to use if its executable.
                Nov 07, 2014    * Began support for file://... urls.  Will use
                                  g:netrw_file_cmd (typically elinks or links)
                Dec 02, 2014    * began work on having mc (netrw-mc) copy
                                  directories.  Works for linux machines,
                                  cygwin+vim, but not for windows+gvim.
                Dec 02, 2014    * in tree mode, netrw was not opening
                                  directories via symbolic links.
                Dec 02, 2014    * added resolved link information to
                                  thin and tree modes
                Dec 30, 2014    * (issue#231) :ls was not showing
                                  remote-file buffers reliably.  Fixed.
        v152:   Apr 08, 2014    * uses the 'noswapfile' option (requires {{{2
                                  vim 7.4 with patch 213)
                                * (Enno Nagel) turn 'rnu' off in netrw
                                * (Quinn Strahl) suggested that netrw
                                  allow regular window splitting to occur,
                                  thereby allowing 'equalalways' to take
                                * (qingtian zhao) normally, netrw will
                                  save and restore the 'fileformat';
                                  however, sometimes that isn't wanted
                Apr 14, 2014    * whenever netrw marks a buffer as ro,
                                  it will also mark it as nomod.
                Apr 16, 2014    * sftp protocol now supported by
                                  netrw#Obtain(); this means that one
                                  may use "mc" to copy a remote file
                                  to a local file using sftp, and that
                                  the netrw-O command can obtain remote
                                  files via sftp.
                                * added [count]C support (see netrw-C)
                Apr 18, 2014    * when g:netrw_chgwin is one more than
                                  the last window, then vertically split
                                  the last window and use it as the
                                  chgwin window.
                May 09, 2014    * SavePosn was "saving filename under cursor"
                                  from a non-netrw window when using :Rex.
        v151:   Jan 22, 2014    * extended :Rexplore to return to buffer {{{2
                                  prior to Explore or editing a directory
                                * (Ken Takata) netrw gave error when
                                  clipboard was disabled.  Sol'n: Placed
                                  several if has("clipboard") tests in.
                                * Fixed ftp://X@Y@Z// problem; X@Y now
                                  part of user id, and only Z is part of
                                * (A Loumiotis) reported that completion
                                  using a directory name containing spaces
                                  did not work.  Fixed with a retry in
                                  netrw#Explore() which removes the
                                  backslashes vim inserted.
                Feb 26, 2014    * :Rexplore now records the current file
                                   using w:netrw_rexfile when returning via
                Mar 08, 2014    * (David Kotchan) provided some patches
                                  allowing netrw to work properly with
                                  windows shares.
                                * Multiple one-liner help messages available
                                  by pressing <cr> while atop the "Quick
                                  Help" line
                                * worked on ShellCmdPost, FocusGained event
                                * :Lexplore path: will be used to update
                                  a left-side netrw browsing directory.
                Mar 12, 2014    * netrw-s-cr: use <s-cr>  to close
                                  tree directory implemented
                Mar 13, 2014    * (Tony Mechylynck) reported that using
                                  the browser with ftp on a directory,
                                  and selecting a gzipped txt file, that
                                  an E19 occurred (which was issued by
                                  gzip.vim).  Fixed.
                Mar 14, 2014    * Implemented :MF and :MT (see netrw-:MF
                                  and netrw-:MT, respectively)
                Mar 17, 2014    * :Ntree [dir] wasn't working properly; fixed
                Mar 18, 2014    * Changed all uses of set to setl
                Mar 18, 2014    * Commented the netrw_btkeep line in
                                  s:NetrwOptionSave(); the effect is that
                                  netrw buffers will remain as 'bt'=nofile.
                                  This should prevent swapfiles being created
                                  for netrw buffers.
                Mar 20, 2014    * Changed all uses of lcd to use s:NetrwLcd()
                                  instead.  Consistent error handling results
                                  and it also handles Window's shares
                                * Fixed netrw-d command when applied with ftp
                                * https: support included for netrw#NetRead()
        v150:   Jul 12, 2013    * removed a "keepalt" to allow ":e #" to {{{2
                                  return to the netrw directory listing
                Jul 13, 2013    * (Jonas Diemer) suggested changing
                                  a <cWORD> to <cfile>.
                Jul 21, 2013    * (Yuri Kanivetsky) reported that netrw's
                                  use of mkdir did not produce directories
                                  following the user's umask.
                Aug 27, 2013    * introduced g:netrw_altfile option
                Sep 05, 2013    * s:Strlen() now uses strdisplaywidth()
                                  when available, by default
                Sep 12, 2013    * (Selyano Baldo) reported that netrw wasn't
                                  opening some directories properly from the
                                  command line.
                Nov 09, 2013    * :Lexplore introduced
                                * (Ondrej Platek) reported an issue with
                                  netrw's trees (P15).  Fixed.
                                * (Jorge Solis) reported that "t" in
                                  tree mode caused netrw to forget its
                                  line position.
                Dec 05, 2013    * Added <s-leftmouse> file marking
                                  (see netrw-mf)
                Dec 05, 2013    * (Yasuhiro Matsumoto) Explore should use
                                  strlen() instead s:Strlen() when handling
                                  multibyte chars with strpart()
                                  (ie. strpart() is byte oriented, not
                                  display-width oriented).
                Dec 09, 2013    * (Ken Takata) Provided a patch; File sizes
                                  and a portion of timestamps were wrongly
                                  highlighted with the directory color when
                                  setting :let g:netrw_liststyle=1 on Windows.
                                * (Paul Domaskis) noted that sometimes
                                  cursorline was activating in non-netrw
                                  windows.  All but one setting of cursorline
                                  was done via setl; there was one that was
                                  overlooked.  Fixed.
                Dec 24, 2013    * (esquifit) asked that netrw allow the
                                  /cygdrive prefix be a user-alterable
                Jan 02, 2014    * Fixed a problem with netrw-based ballon
                                  evaluation (ie. netrw#NetrwBaloonHelp()
                                  not having been loaded error messages)
                Jan 03, 2014    * Fixed a problem with tree listings
                                * New command installed: :Ntree
                Jan 06, 2014    * (Ivan Brennan) reported a problem with
                                  netrw-P.  Fixed.
                Jan 06, 2014    * Fixed a problem with netrw-P when the
                                  modified file was to be abandoned.
                Jan 15, 2014    * (Matteo Cavalleri) reported that when the
                                  banner is suppressed and tree listing is
                                  used, a blank line was left at the top of
                                  the display.  Fixed.
                Jan 20, 2014    * (Gideon Go) reported that, in tree listing
                                  style, with a previous window open, that
                                  the wrong directory was being used to open
                                  a file.  Fixed. (P21)
        v149:   Apr 18, 2013    * in wide listing format, now have maps for {{{2
                                  w and b to move to next/previous file
                Apr 26, 2013    * one may now copy files in the same
                                  directory; netrw will issue requests for
                                  what names the files should be copied under
                Apr 29, 2013    * Trying Benzinger's problem again.  Seems
                                  that commenting out the BufEnter and
                                  installing VimEnter (only) works.  Weird
                                  problem!  (tree listing, vim -O Dir1 Dir2)
                May 01, 2013    * :Explore ftp://... wasn't working.  Fixed.
                May 02, 2013    * introduced g:netrw_bannerbackslash as
                                  requested by Paul Domaskis.
                Jul 03, 2013    * Explore now avoids splitting when a buffer
                                  will be hidden.
        v148:   Apr 16, 2013    * changed Netrw's Style menu to allow direct {{{2
                                  choice of listing style, hiding style, and
                                  sorting style

13. Todo                                                netrw-todo {{{1

07/29/09 : banner       :g:netrw_banner can be used to suppress the
           suppression    banner.  This feature is new and experimental,
                          so its in the process of being debugged.
09/04/09 : "gp"         : See if it can be made to work for remote systems.
                        : See if it can be made to work with marked files.

14. Credits                                             netrw-credits {{{1

        Vim editor      by Bram Moolenaar (Thanks, Bram!)
        dav             support by C Campbell
        fetch           support by Bram Moolenaar and C Campbell
        ftp             support by C Campbell <NcampObell@SdrPchip.AorgM-NOSPAM>
        http            support by Bram Moolenaar <>
        rsync           support by C Campbell (suggested by Erik Warendorph)
        scp             support by raf <>
        sftp            support by C Campbell

        inputsecret(), BufReadCmd, BufWriteCmd contributed by C Campbell

        Jérôme Augé             -- also using new buffer method with ftp+.netrc
        Bram Moolenaar          -- obviously vim itself, :e and v:cmdarg use,
        Yasuhiro Matsumoto      -- pointing out undo+0r problem and a solution
        Erik Warendorph         -- for several suggestions (g:netrw_..._cmd
                                   variables, rsync etc)
        Doug Claar              -- modifications to test for success with ftp

Modelines: {{{1