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eval.txt      For Vim version 8.0.  Last change: 2017 Aug 11

                  VIM REFERENCE MANUAL    by Bram Moolenaar

Expression evaluation                   expression expr E15 eval

Using expressions is introduced in chapter 41 of the user manual usr_41.txt.

Note: Expression evaluation can be disabled at compile time.  If this has been
done, the features in this document are not available.  See +eval and

1.  Variables                   variables
    1.1 Variable types
    1.2 Function references             Funcref
    1.3 Lists                           Lists
    1.4 Dictionaries                    Dictionaries
    1.5 More about variables            more-variables
2.  Expression syntax           expression-syntax
3.  Internal variable           internal-variables
4.  Builtin Functions           functions
5.  Defining functions          user-functions
6.  Curly braces names          curly-braces-names
7.  Commands                    expression-commands
8.  Exception handling          exception-handling
9.  Examples                    eval-examples
10. No +eval feature            no-eval-feature
11. The sandbox                 eval-sandbox
12. Textlock                    textlock
13. Testing                     testing

{Vi does not have any of these commands}

1. Variables                                            variables

1.1 Variable types
There are nine types of variables:

Number          A 32 or 64 bit signed number.  expr-number Number
                64-bit Numbers are available only when compiled with the
                +num64 feature.
                Examples:  -123  0x10  0177  0b1011

Float           A floating point number. floating-point-format Float
                {only when compiled with the +float feature}
                Examples: 123.456  1.15e-6  -1.1e3

String          A NUL terminated string of 8-bit unsigned characters (bytes).
                expr-string Examples: "ab\txx\"--"  'x-z''a,c'

List            An ordered sequence of items List.
                Example: [1, 2, ['a', 'b']]

Dictionary      An associative, unordered array: Each entry has a key and a
                value. Dictionary
                Example: {'blue': "#0000ff", 'red': "#ff0000"}

Funcref         A reference to a function Funcref.
                Example: function("strlen")
                It can be bound to a dictionary and arguments, it then works
                like a Partial.
                Example: function("Callback", [arg], myDict)

Special         v:falsev:truev:none and v:null.  Special

Job             Used for a job, see job_start()Job Jobs

Channel         Used for a channel, see ch_open()Channel Channels

The Number and String types are converted automatically, depending on how they
are used.

Conversion from a Number to a String is by making the ASCII representation of
the Number.  Examples:
        Number 123      -->     String "123"
        Number 0        -->     String "0"
        Number -1       -->     String "-1"
Conversion from a String to a Number is done by converting the first digits to
a number.  Hexadecimal "0xf9", Octal "017", and Binary "0b10" numbers are
recognized.  If the String doesn't start with digits, the result is zero.
        String "456"    -->     Number 456
        String "6bar"   -->     Number 6
        String "foo"    -->     Number 0
        String "0xf1"   -->     Number 241
        String "0100"   -->     Number 64
        String "0b101"  -->     Number 5
        String "-8"     -->     Number -8
        String "+8"     -->     Number 0

To force conversion from String to Number, add zero to it:
        :echo "0100" + 0

To avoid a leading zero to cause octal conversion, or for using a different
base, use str2nr().

                                                        TRUE FALSE
For boolean operators Numbers are used.  Zero is FALSE, non-zero is TRUE.
You can also use v:false and v:true.  When TRUE is returned from a
function it is the Number one, FALSE is the number zero.

Note that in the command:
        :if "foo"
        :" NOT executed
"foo" is converted to 0, which means FALSE.  If the string starts with a
non-zero number it means TRUE:
        :if "8foo"
        :" executed
To test for a non-empty string, use empty():
        :if !empty("foo")

Function arguments often behave slightly different from TRUE: If the
argument is present and it evaluates to a non-zero Number, v:true or a
non-empty String, then the value is considered to be TRUE.
Note that " " and "0" are also non-empty strings, thus cause the mode to be
cleared.  A List, Dictionary or Float is not a Number or String, thus
evaluates to FALSE.

                E745 E728 E703 E729 E730 E731 E908 E910 E913
List, Dictionary, Funcref, Job and Channel types are not automatically

                                                        E805 E806 E808
When mixing Number and Float the Number is converted to Float.  Otherwise
there is no automatic conversion of Float.  You can use str2float() for String
to Float, printf() for Float to String and float2nr() for Float to Number.

                        E891 E892 E893 E894 E907 E911 E914
When expecting a Float a Number can also be used, but nothing else.

You will not get an error if you try to change the type of a variable.

1.2 Function references
                                        Funcref E695 E718
A Funcref variable is obtained with the function() function, the funcref()
function or created with the lambda expression expr-lambda.  It can be used
in an expression in the place of a function name, before the parenthesis
around the arguments, to invoke the function it refers to.  Example:

        :let Fn = function("MyFunc")
        :echo Fn()
                                                        E704 E705 E707
A Funcref variable must start with a capital, "s:", "w:", "t:" or "b:".  You
can use "g:" but the following name must still start with a capital.  You
cannot have both a Funcref variable and a function with the same name.

A special case is defining a function and directly assigning its Funcref to a
Dictionary entry.  Example:
        :function dict.init() dict
        :   let self.val = 0

The key of the Dictionary can start with a lower case letter.  The actual
function name is not used here.  Also see numbered-function.

A Funcref can also be used with the :call command:
        :call Fn()
        :call dict.init()

The name of the referenced function can be obtained with string().
        :let func = string(Fn)

You can use call() to invoke a Funcref and use a list variable for the
        :let r = call(Fn, mylist)

A Funcref optionally binds a Dictionary and/or arguments.  This is also called
a Partial.  This is created by passing the Dictionary and/or arguments to
function() or funcref().  When calling the function the Dictionary and/or
arguments will be passed to the function.  Example:

        let Cb = function('Callback', ['foo'], myDict)
        call Cb()

This will invoke the function as if using:
        call myDict.Callback('foo')

This is very useful when passing a function around, e.g. in the arguments of

Note that binding a function to a Dictionary also happens when the function is
a member of the Dictionary:

        let myDict.myFunction = MyFunction
        call myDict.myFunction()

Here MyFunction() will get myDict passed as "self".  This happens when the
"myFunction" member is accessed.  When making assigning "myFunction" to
otherDict and calling it, it will be bound to otherDict:

        let otherDict.myFunction = myDict.myFunction
        call otherDict.myFunction()

Now "self" will be "otherDict".  But when the dictionary was bound explicitly
this won't happen:

        let myDict.myFunction = function(MyFunction, myDict)
        let otherDict.myFunction = myDict.myFunction
        call otherDict.myFunction()

Here "self" will be "myDict", because it was bound explicitly.

1.3 Lists
                                                list List Lists E686
A List is an ordered sequence of items.  An item can be of any type.  Items
can be accessed by their index number.  Items can be added and removed at any
position in the sequence.

List creation
                                                        E696 E697
A List is created with a comma separated list of items in square brackets.
        :let mylist = [1, two, 3, "four"]
        :let emptylist = []

An item can be any expression.  Using a List for an item creates a
List of Lists:
        :let nestlist = [[11, 12], [21, 22], [31, 32]]

An extra comma after the last item is ignored.

List index
                                                        list-index E684
An item in the List can be accessed by putting the index in square brackets
after the List.  Indexes are zero-based, thus the first item has index zero.
        :let item = mylist[0]           " get the first item: 1
        :let item = mylist[2]           " get the third item: 3

When the resulting item is a list this can be repeated:
        :let item = nestlist[0][1]      " get the first list, second item: 12

A negative index is counted from the end.  Index -1 refers to the last item in
the List, -2 to the last but one item, etc.
        :let last = mylist[-1]          " get the last item: "four"

To avoid an error for an invalid index use the get() function.  When an item
is not available it returns zero or the default value you specify:
        :echo get(mylist, idx)
        :echo get(mylist, idx, "NONE")

List concatenation

Two lists can be concatenated with the "+" operator:
        :let longlist = mylist + [5, 6]
        :let mylist += [7, 8]

To prepend or append an item turn the item into a list by putting [] around
it.  To change a list in-place see list-modification below.

A part of the List can be obtained by specifying the first and last index,
separated by a colon in square brackets:
        :let shortlist = mylist[2:-1]   " get List [3, "four"]

Omitting the first index is similar to zero.  Omitting the last index is
similar to -1.
        :let endlist = mylist[2:]       " from item 2 to the end: [3, "four"]
        :let shortlist = mylist[2:2]    " List with one item: [3]
        :let otherlist = mylist[:]      " make a copy of the List

If the first index is beyond the last item of the List or the second item is
before the first item, the result is an empty list.  There is no error

If the second index is equal to or greater than the length of the list the
length minus one is used:
        :let mylist = [0, 1, 2, 3]
        :echo mylist[2:8]               " result: [2, 3]

NOTE: mylist[s:e] means using the variable "s:e" as index.  Watch out for
using a single letter variable before the ":".  Insert a space when needed:
mylist[s : e].

List identity
When variable "aa" is a list and you assign it to another variable "bb", both
variables refer to the same list.  Thus changing the list "aa" will also
change "bb":
        :let aa = [1, 2, 3]
        :let bb = aa
        :call add(aa, 4)
        :echo bb
        [1, 2, 3, 4]

Making a copy of a list is done with the copy() function.  Using [:] also
works, as explained above.  This creates a shallow copy of the list: Changing
a list item in the list will also change the item in the copied list:
        :let aa = [[1, 'a'], 2, 3]
        :let bb = copy(aa)
        :call add(aa, 4)
        :let aa[0][1] = 'aaa'
        :echo aa
        [[1, aaa], 2, 3, 4]
        :echo bb
        [[1, aaa], 2, 3]

To make a completely independent list use deepcopy().  This also makes a
copy of the values in the list, recursively.  Up to a hundred levels deep.

The operator "is" can be used to check if two variables refer to the same
List.  "isnot" does the opposite.  In contrast "==" compares if two lists have
the same value.
        :let alist = [1, 2, 3]
        :let blist = [1, 2, 3]
        :echo alist is blist
        :echo alist == blist

Note about comparing lists: Two lists are considered equal if they have the
same length and all items compare equal, as with using "==".  There is one
exception: When comparing a number with a string they are considered
different.  There is no automatic type conversion, as with using "==" on
variables.  Example:
        echo 4 == "4"
        echo [4] == ["4"]

Thus comparing Lists is more strict than comparing numbers and strings.  You
can compare simple values this way too by putting them in a list:

        :let a = 5
        :let b = "5"
        :echo a == b
        :echo [a] == [b]

List unpack

To unpack the items in a list to individual variables, put the variables in
square brackets, like list items:
        :let [var1, var2] = mylist

When the number of variables does not match the number of items in the list
this produces an error.  To handle any extra items from the list append ";"
and a variable name:
        :let [var1, var2; rest] = mylist

This works like:
        :let var1 = mylist[0]
        :let var2 = mylist[1]
        :let rest = mylist[2:]

Except that there is no error if there are only two items.  "rest" will be an
empty list then.

List modification
To change a specific item of a list use :let this way:
        :let list[4] = "four"
        :let listlist[0][3] = item

To change part of a list you can specify the first and last item to be
modified.  The value must at least have the number of items in the range:
        :let list[3:5] = [3, 4, 5]

Adding and removing items from a list is done with functions.  Here are a few
        :call insert(list, 'a')         " prepend item 'a'
        :call insert(list, 'a', 3)      " insert item 'a' before list[3]
        :call add(list, "new")          " append String item
        :call add(list, [1, 2])         " append a List as one new item
        :call extend(list, [1, 2])      " extend the list with two more items
        :let i = remove(list, 3)        " remove item 3
        :unlet list[3]                  " idem
        :let l = remove(list, 3, -1)    " remove items 3 to last item
        :unlet list[3 : ]               " idem
        :call filter(list, 'v:val !~ "x"')  " remove items with an 'x'

Changing the order of items in a list:
        :call sort(list)                " sort a list alphabetically
        :call reverse(list)             " reverse the order of items
        :call uniq(sort(list))          " sort and remove duplicates

For loop

The :for loop executes commands for each item in a list.  A variable is set
to each item in the list in sequence.  Example:
        :for item in mylist
        :   call Doit(item)

This works like:
        :let index = 0
        :while index < len(mylist)
        :   let item = mylist[index]
        :   :call Doit(item)
        :   let index = index + 1

If all you want to do is modify each item in the list then the map()
function will be a simpler method than a for loop.

Just like the :let command, :for also accepts a list of variables.  This
requires the argument to be a list of lists.
        :for [lnum, col] in [[1, 3], [2, 8], [3, 0]]
        :   call Doit(lnum, col)

This works like a :let command is done for each list item.  Again, the types
must remain the same to avoid an error.

It is also possible to put remaining items in a List variable:
        :for [i, j; rest] in listlist
        :   call Doit(i, j)
        :   if !empty(rest)
        :      echo "remainder: " . string(rest)
        :   endif

List functions
Functions that are useful with a List:
        :let r = call(funcname, list)   " call a function with an argument list
        :if empty(list)                 " check if list is empty
        :let l = len(list)              " number of items in list
        :let big = max(list)            " maximum value in list
        :let small = min(list)          " minimum value in list
        :let xs = count(list, 'x')      " count nr of times 'x' appears in list
        :let i = index(list, 'x')       " index of first 'x' in list
        :let lines = getline(1, 10)     " get ten text lines from buffer
        :call append('$', lines)        " append text lines in buffer
        :let list = split("a b c")      " create list from items in a string
        :let string = join(list, ', ')  " create string from list items
        :let s = string(list)           " String representation of list
        :call map(list, '">> " . v:val')  " prepend ">> " to each item

Don't forget that a combination of features can make things simple.  For
example, to add up all the numbers in a list:
        :exe 'let sum = ' . join(nrlist, '+')

1.4 Dictionaries
                                        dict Dictionaries Dictionary
A Dictionary is an associative array: Each entry has a key and a value.  The
entry can be located with the key.  The entries are stored without a specific

Dictionary creation
                                                E720 E721 E722 E723
A Dictionary is created with a comma separated list of entries in curly
braces.  Each entry has a key and a value, separated by a colon.  Each key can
only appear once.  Examples:
        :let mydict = {1: 'one', 2: 'two', 3: 'three'}
        :let emptydict = {}
                                                        E713 E716 E717
A key is always a String.  You can use a Number, it will be converted to a
String automatically.  Thus the String '4' and the number 4 will find the same
entry.  Note that the String '04' and the Number 04 are different, since the
Number will be converted to the String '4'.  The empty string can be used as a

A value can be any expression.  Using a Dictionary for a value creates a
nested Dictionary:
        :let nestdict = {1: {11: 'a', 12: 'b'}, 2: {21: 'c'}}

An extra comma after the last entry is ignored.

Accessing entries

The normal way to access an entry is by putting the key in square brackets:
        :let val = mydict["one"]
        :let mydict["four"] = 4

You can add new entries to an existing Dictionary this way, unlike Lists.

For keys that consist entirely of letters, digits and underscore the following
form can be used expr-entry:
        :let val =
        :let mydict.four = 4

Since an entry can be any type, also a List and a Dictionary, the indexing and
key lookup can be repeated:
        :echo dict.key[idx].key

Dictionary to List conversion

You may want to loop over the entries in a dictionary.  For this you need to
turn the Dictionary into a List and pass it to :for.

Most often you want to loop over the keys, using the keys() function:
        :for key in keys(mydict)
        :   echo key . ': ' . mydict[key]

The List of keys is unsorted.  You may want to sort them first:
        :for key in sort(keys(mydict))

To loop over the values use the values() function: 
        :for v in values(mydict)
        :   echo "value: " . v

If you want both the key and the value use the items() function.  It returns
a List in which each item is a  List with two items, the key and the value:
        :for [key, value] in items(mydict)
        :   echo key . ': ' . value

Dictionary identity
Just like Lists you need to use copy() and deepcopy() to make a copy of a
Dictionary.  Otherwise, assignment results in referring to the same
        :let onedict = {'a': 1, 'b': 2}
        :let adict = onedict
        :let adict['a'] = 11
        :echo onedict['a']

Two Dictionaries compare equal if all the key-value pairs compare equal.  For
more info see list-identity.

Dictionary modification
To change an already existing entry of a Dictionary, or to add a new entry,
use :let this way:
        :let dict[4] = "four"
        :let dict['one'] = item

Removing an entry from a Dictionary is done with remove() or :unlet.
Three ways to remove the entry with key "aaa" from dict:
        :let i = remove(dict, 'aaa')
        :unlet dict['aaa']

Merging a Dictionary with another is done with extend():
        :call extend(adict, bdict)
This extends adict with all entries from bdict.  Duplicate keys cause entries
in adict to be overwritten.  An optional third argument can change this.
Note that the order of entries in a Dictionary is irrelevant, thus don't
expect ":echo adict" to show the items from bdict after the older entries in

Weeding out entries from a Dictionary can be done with filter():
        :call filter(dict, 'v:val =~ "x"')
This removes all entries from "dict" with a value not matching 'x'.

Dictionary function
                                Dictionary-function self E725 E862
When a function is defined with the "dict" attribute it can be used in a
special way with a dictionary.  Example:
        :function Mylen() dict
        :   return len(
        :let mydict = {'data': [0, 1, 2, 3], 'len': function("Mylen")}
        :echo mydict.len()

This is like a method in object oriented programming.  The entry in the
Dictionary is a Funcref.  The local variable "self" refers to the dictionary
the function was invoked from.

It is also possible to add a function without the "dict" attribute as a
Funcref to a Dictionary, but the "self" variable is not available then.

                                numbered-function anonymous-function
To avoid the extra name for the function it can be defined and directly
assigned to a Dictionary in this way:
        :let mydict = {'data': [0, 1, 2, 3]}
        :function mydict.len()
        :   return len(
        :echo mydict.len()

The function will then get a number and the value of dict.len is a Funcref
that references this function.  The function can only be used through a
Funcref.  It will automatically be deleted when there is no Funcref
remaining that refers to it.

It is not necessary to use the "dict" attribute for a numbered function.

If you get an error for a numbered function, you can find out what it is with
a trick.  Assuming the function is 42, the command is:
        :function {42}

Functions for Dictionaries
Functions that can be used with a Dictionary:
        :if has_key(dict, 'foo')        " TRUE if dict has entry with key "foo"
        :if empty(dict)                 " TRUE if dict is empty
        :let l = len(dict)              " number of items in dict
        :let big = max(dict)            " maximum value in dict
        :let small = min(dict)          " minimum value in dict
        :let xs = count(dict, 'x')      " count nr of times 'x' appears in dict
        :let s = string(dict)           " String representation of dict
        :call map(dict, '">> " . v:val')  " prepend ">> " to each item

1.5 More about variables
If you need to know the type of a variable or expression, use the type()

When the '!' flag is included in the 'viminfo' option, global variables that
start with an uppercase letter, and don't contain a lowercase letter, are
stored in the viminfo file viminfo-file.

When the 'sessionoptions' option contains "global", global variables that
start with an uppercase letter and contain at least one lowercase letter are
stored in the session file session-file.

variable name           can be stored where
my_var_6                not
My_Var_6                session file
MY_VAR_6                viminfo file

It's possible to form a variable name with curly braces, see

2. Expression syntax                                    expression-syntax

Expression syntax summary, from least to most significant:

expr1 expr2
        expr2 ? expr1 : expr1   if-then-else

expr2 expr3
        expr3 || expr3 ..       logical OR

expr3 expr4
        expr4 && expr4 ..       logical AND

expr4 expr5
        expr5 == expr5          equal
        expr5 != expr5          not equal
        expr5 >  expr5          greater than
        expr5 >= expr5          greater than or equal
        expr5 <  expr5          smaller than
        expr5 <= expr5          smaller than or equal
        expr5 =~ expr5          regexp matches
        expr5 !~ expr5          regexp doesn't match

        expr5 ==? expr5         equal, ignoring case
        expr5 ==# expr5         equal, match case
        etc.                    As above, append ? for ignoring case, # for
                                matching case

        expr5 is expr5          same List instance
        expr5 isnot expr5       different List instance

expr5 expr6
        expr6 +  expr6 ..       number addition or list concatenation
        expr6 -  expr6 ..       number subtraction
        expr6 .  expr6 ..       string concatenation

expr6 expr7
        expr7 *  expr7 ..       number multiplication
        expr7 /  expr7 ..       number division
        expr7 %  expr7 ..       number modulo

expr7 expr8
        ! expr7                 logical NOT
        - expr7                 unary minus
        + expr7                 unary plus

expr8 expr9
        expr8[expr1]            byte of a String or item of a List
        expr8[expr1 : expr1]    substring of a String or sublist of a List              entry in a Dictionary
        expr8(expr1, ...)       function call with Funcref variable

expr9 number                  number constant
        "string"                string constant, backslash is special
        'string'                string constant, ' is doubled
        [expr1, ...]            List
        {expr1: expr1, ...}     Dictionary
        &option                 option value
        (expr1)                 nested expression
        variable                internal variable
        va{ria}ble              internal variable with curly braces
        $VAR                    environment variable
        @r                      contents of register 'r'
        function(expr1, ...)    function call
        func{ti}on(expr1, ...)  function call with curly braces
        {args -> expr1}         lambda expression

".." indicates that the operations in this level can be concatenated.
        &nu || &list && &shell == "csh"

All expressions within one level are parsed from left to right.

expr1                                                   expr1 E109

expr2 ? expr1 : expr1

The expression before the '?' is evaluated to a number.  If it evaluates to
TRUE, the result is the value of the expression between the '?' and ':',
otherwise the result is the value of the expression after the ':'.
        :echo lnum == 1 ? "top" : lnum

Since the first expression is an "expr2", it cannot contain another ?:.  The
other two expressions can, thus allow for recursive use of ?:.
        :echo lnum == 1 ? "top" : lnum == 1000 ? "last" : lnum

To keep this readable, using line-continuation is suggested:
        :echo lnum == 1
        :\      ? "top"
        :\      : lnum == 1000
        :\              ? "last"
        :\              : lnum

You should always put a space before the ':', otherwise it can be mistaken for
use in a variable such as "a:1".

expr2 and expr3                                         expr2 expr3

expr3 || expr3 ..       logical OR              expr-barbar
expr4 && expr4 ..       logical AND             expr-&&

The "||" and "&&" operators take one argument on each side.  The arguments
are (converted to) Numbers.  The result is:

    input                        output
n1      n2              n1 || n2        n1 && n2
FALSE TRUE          TRUE          FALSE
TRUE  FALSE         TRUE          FALSE
TRUE  TRUE          TRUE          TRUE

The operators can be concatenated, for example:

        &nu || &list && &shell == "csh"

Note that "&&" takes precedence over "||", so this has the meaning of:

        &nu || (&list && &shell == "csh")

Once the result is known, the expression "short-circuits", that is, further
arguments are not evaluated.  This is like what happens in C.  For example:

        let a = 1
        echo a || b

This is valid even if there is no variable called "b" because "a" is TRUE,
so the result must be TRUE.  Similarly below:

        echo exists("b") && b == "yes"

This is valid whether "b" has been defined or not.  The second clause will
only be evaluated if "b" has been defined.

expr4                                                   expr4

expr5 {cmp} expr5

Compare two expr5 expressions, resulting in a 0 if it evaluates to false, or 1
if it evaluates to true.

                        expr-==  expr-!=  expr->   expr->=
                        expr-<   expr-<=  expr-=~  expr-!~
                        expr-==# expr-!=# expr->#  expr->=#
                        expr-<#  expr-<=# expr-=~# expr-!~#
                        expr-==? expr-!=? expr->?  expr->=?
                        expr-<?  expr-<=? expr-=~? expr-!~?
                        expr-is expr-isnot expr-is# expr-isnot#
                        expr-is? expr-isnot?
                use 'ignorecase'    match case     ignore case
equal                   ==              ==#             ==?
not equal               !=              !=#             !=?
greater than            >               >#              >?
greater than or equal   >=              >=#             >=?
smaller than            <               <#              <?
smaller than or equal   <=              <=#             <=?
regexp matches          =~              =~#             =~?
regexp doesn't match    !~              !~#             !~?
same instance           is              is#             is?
different instance      isnot           isnot#          isnot?

"abc" ==# "Abc"   evaluates to 0
"abc" ==? "Abc"   evaluates to 1
"abc" == "Abc"    evaluates to 1 if 'ignorecase' is set, 0 otherwise

                                                        E691 E692
List can only be compared with a List and only "equal", "not equal" and
"is" can be used.  This compares the values of the list, recursively.
Ignoring case means case is ignored when comparing item values.

                                                        E735 E736
Dictionary can only be compared with a Dictionary and only "equal", "not
equal" and "is" can be used.  This compares the key/values of the Dictionary
recursively.  Ignoring case means case is ignored when comparing item values.

Funcref can only be compared with a Funcref and only "equal", "not
equal", "is" and "isnot" can be used.  Case is never ignored.  Whether
arguments or a Dictionary are bound (with a partial) matters.  The
Dictionaries must also be equal (or the same, in case of "is") and the
arguments must be equal (or the same).

To compare Funcrefs to see if they refer to the same function, ignoring bound
Dictionary and arguments, use get() to get the function name:
        if get(Part1, 'name') == get(Part2, 'name')
           " Part1 and Part2 refer to the same function

When using "is" or "isnot" with a List or a Dictionary this checks if the
expressions are referring to the same List or Dictionary instance.  A copy
of a List is different from the original List.  When using "is" without
List or a Dictionary it is equivalent to using "equal", using "isnot"
equivalent to using "not equal".  Except that a different type means the
values are different:
        echo 4 == '4'
        echo 4 is '4'
        echo 0 is []
"is#"/"isnot#" and "is?"/"isnot?" can be used to match and ignore case.

When comparing a String with a Number, the String is converted to a Number,
and the comparison is done on Numbers.  This means that:
        echo 0 == 'x'
because 'x' converted to a Number is zero.  However:
        echo [0] == ['x']
Inside a List or Dictionary this conversion is not used.

When comparing two Strings, this is done with strcmp() or stricmp().  This
results in the mathematical difference (comparing byte values), not
necessarily the alphabetical difference in the local language.

When using the operators with a trailing '#', or the short version and
'ignorecase' is off, the comparing is done with strcmp(): case matters.

When using the operators with a trailing '?', or the short version and
'ignorecase' is set, the comparing is done with stricmp(): case is ignored.

'smartcase' is not used.

The "=~" and "!~" operators match the lefthand argument with the righthand
argument, which is used as a pattern.  See pattern for what a pattern is.
This matching is always done like 'magic' was set and 'cpoptions' is empty, no
matter what the actual value of 'magic' or 'cpoptions' is.  This makes scripts
portable.  To avoid backslashes in the regexp pattern to be doubled, use a
single-quote string, see literal-string.
Since a string is considered to be a single line, a multi-line pattern
(containing \n, backslash-n) will not match.  However, a literal NL character
can be matched like an ordinary character.  Examples:
        "foo\nbar" =~ "\n"      evaluates to 1
        "foo\nbar" =~ "\\n"     evaluates to 0

expr5 and expr6                                         expr5 expr6
expr6 +  expr6 ..       Number addition or List concatenation expr-+
expr6 -  expr6 ..       Number subtraction                      expr--
expr6 .  expr6 ..       String concatenation                    expr-.

For Lists only "+" is possible and then both expr6 must be a list.  The
result is a new list with the two lists Concatenated.

expr7 *  expr7 ..       Number multiplication                   expr-star
expr7 /  expr7 ..       Number division                         expr-/
expr7 %  expr7 ..       Number modulo                           expr-%

For all, except ".", Strings are converted to Numbers.
For bitwise operators see and()or() and xor().

Note the difference between "+" and ".":
        "123" + "456" = 579
        "123" . "456" = "123456"

Since '.' has the same precedence as '+' and '-', you need to read:
        1 . 90 + 90.0
        (1 . 90) + 90.0
That works, since the String "190" is automatically converted to the Number
190, which can be added to the Float 90.0.  However:
        1 . 90 * 90.0
Should be read as:
        1 . (90 * 90.0)
Since '.' has lower precedence than '*'.  This does NOT work, since this
attempts to concatenate a Float and a String.

When dividing a Number by zero the result depends on the value:
          0 / 0  = -0x80000000  (like NaN for Float)
         >0 / 0  =  0x7fffffff  (like positive infinity)
         <0 / 0  = -0x7fffffff  (like negative infinity)
        (before Vim 7.2 it was always 0x7fffffff)

When 64-bit Number support is enabled:
          0 / 0  = -0x8000000000000000  (like NaN for Float)
         >0 / 0  =  0x7fffffffffffffff  (like positive infinity)
         <0 / 0  = -0x7fffffffffffffff  (like negative infinity)

When the righthand side of '%' is zero, the result is 0.

None of these work for Funcrefs.

. and % do not work for Float. E804

expr7                                                   expr7
! expr7                 logical NOT             expr-!
- expr7                 unary minus             expr-unary--
+ expr7                 unary plus              expr-unary-+

For '!' TRUE becomes FALSEFALSE becomes TRUE (one).
For '-' the sign of the number is changed.
For '+' the number is unchanged.

A String will be converted to a Number first.

These three can be repeated and mixed.  Examples:
        !-1         == 0
        !!8         == 1
        --9         == 9

expr8                                                   expr8
expr8[expr1]            item of String or List        expr-[] E111
                                                        E909 subscript
If expr8 is a Number or String this results in a String that contains the
expr1'th single byte from expr8.  expr8 is used as a String, expr1 as a
Number.  This doesn't recognize multi-byte encodings, see byteidx() for
an alternative, or use split() to turn the string into a list of characters.

Index zero gives the first byte.  This is like it works in C.  Careful:
text column numbers start with one!  Example, to get the byte under the
        :let c = getline(".")[col(".") - 1]

If the length of the String is less than the index, the result is an empty
String.  A negative index always results in an empty string (reason: backward
compatibility).  Use [-1:] to get the last byte.

If expr8 is a List then it results the item at index expr1.  See list-index
for possible index values.  If the index is out of range this results in an
error.  Example:
        :let item = mylist[-1]          " get last item

Generally, if a List index is equal to or higher than the length of the
List, or more negative than the length of the List, this results in an

expr8[expr1a : expr1b]  substring or sublist            expr-[:]

If expr8 is a Number or String this results in the substring with the bytes
from expr1a to and including expr1b.  expr8 is used as a String, expr1a and
expr1b are used as a Number.  This doesn't recognize multi-byte encodings, see
byteidx() for computing the indexes.

If expr1a is omitted zero is used.  If expr1b is omitted the length of the
string minus one is used.

A negative number can be used to measure from the end of the string.  -1 is
the last character, -2 the last but one, etc.

If an index goes out of range for the string characters are omitted.  If
expr1b is smaller than expr1a the result is an empty string.

        :let c = name[-1:]              " last byte of a string
        :let c = name[-2:-2]            " last but one byte of a string
        :let s = line(".")[4:]          " from the fifth byte to the end
        :let s = s[:-3]                 " remove last two bytes

If expr8 is a List this results in a new List with the items indicated by
the indexes expr1a and expr1b.  This works like with a String, as explained
just above. Also see sublist below.  Examples:
        :let l = mylist[:3]             " first four items
        :let l = mylist[4:4]            " List with one item
        :let l = mylist[:]              " shallow copy of a List

Using expr8[expr1] or expr8[expr1a : expr1b] on a Funcref results in an

Watch out for confusion between a namespace and a variable followed by a colon
for a sublist:
        mylist[n:]     " uses variable n
        mylist[s:]     " uses namespace s:, error!              entry in a Dictionary         expr-entry

If expr8 is a Dictionary and it is followed by a dot, then the following
name will be used as a key in the Dictionary.  This is just like:

The name must consist of alphanumeric characters, just like a variable name,
but it may start with a number.  Curly braces cannot be used.

There must not be white space before or after the dot.

        :let dict = {"one": 1, 2: "two"}
        :echo dict .2

Note that the dot is also used for String concatenation.  To avoid confusion
always put spaces around the dot for String concatenation.

expr8(expr1, ...)       Funcref function call

When expr8 is a Funcref type variable, invoke the function it refers to.

number                  number constant                 expr-number 
                                hex-number octal-number binary-number

Decimal, Hexadecimal (starting with 0x or 0X), Binary (starting with 0b or 0B)
and Octal (starting with 0).

Floating point numbers can be written in two forms:


{N} and {M} are numbers.  Both {N} and {M} must be present and can only
contain digits.
[-+] means there is an optional plus or minus sign.
{exp} is the exponent, power of 10.
Only a decimal point is accepted, not a comma.  No matter what the current
locale is.
{only when compiled with the +float feature}


These are INVALID:
        3.              empty {M}
        1e40            missing .{M}

                                                        float-pi float-e
A few useful values to copy&paste:
        :let pi = 3.14159265359
        :let e  = 2.71828182846

Before floating point was introduced, the text "123.456" was interpreted as
the two numbers "123" and "456", both converted to a string and concatenated,
resulting in the string "123456".  Since this was considered pointless, and we
could not find it intentionally being used in Vim scripts, this backwards
incompatibility was accepted in favor of being able to use the normal notation
for floating point numbers.

The precision and range of floating points numbers depends on what "double"
means in the library Vim was compiled with.  There is no way to change this at

The default for displaying a Float is to use 6 decimal places, like using
printf("%g", f).  You can select something else when using the printf()
function.  Example:
        :echo printf('%.15e', atan(1))

string                                  string String expr-string E114
"string"                string constant         expr-quote

Note that double quotes are used.

A string constant accepts these special characters:
\...    three-digit octal number (e.g., "\316")
\..     two-digit octal number (must be followed by non-digit)
\.      one-digit octal number (must be followed by non-digit)
\x..    byte specified with two hex numbers (e.g., "\x1f")
\x.     byte specified with one hex number (must be followed by non-hex char)
\X..    same as \x..
\X.     same as \x.
\u....  character specified with up to 4 hex numbers, stored according to the
        current value of 'encoding' (e.g., "\u02a4")
\U....  same as \u but allows up to 8 hex numbers.
\b      backspace <BS>
\e      escape <Esc>
\f      formfeed <FF>
\n      newline <NL>
\r      return <CR>
\t      tab <Tab>
\\      backslash
\"      double quote
\<xxx>  Special key named "xxx".  e.g. "\<C-W>" for CTRL-W.  This is for use
        in mappings, the 0x80 byte is escaped.
        To use the double quote character it must be escaped: "<M-\">".
        Don't use <Char-xxxx> to get a utf-8 character, use \uxxxx as
        mentioned above.

Note that "\xff" is stored as the byte 255, which may be invalid in some
encodings.  Use "\u00ff" to store character 255 according to the current value
of 'encoding'.

Note that "\000" and "\x00" force the end of the string.

literal-string                                          literal-string E115
'string'                string constant                 expr-'

Note that single quotes are used.

This string is taken as it is.  No backslashes are removed or have a special
meaning.  The only exception is that two quotes stand for one quote.

Single quoted strings are useful for patterns, so that backslashes do not need
to be doubled.  These two commands are equivalent:
        if a =~ "\\s*"
        if a =~ '\s*'

option                                          expr-option E112 E113
&option                 option value, local value if possible
&g:option               global option value
&l:option               local option value

        echo "tabstop is " . &tabstop
        if &insertmode

Any option name can be used here.  See options.  When using the local value
and there is no buffer-local or window-local value, the global value is used

register                                                expr-register @r
@r                      contents of register 'r'

The result is the contents of the named register, as a single string.
Newlines are inserted where required.  To get the contents of the unnamed
register use @" or @@.  See registers for an explanation of the available

When using the '=' register you get the expression itself, not what it
evaluates to.  Use eval() to evaluate it.

nesting                                                 expr-nesting E110
(expr1)                 nested expression

environment variable                                    expr-env
$VAR                    environment variable

The String value of any environment variable.  When it is not defined, the
result is an empty string.
Note that there is a difference between using $VAR directly and using
expand("$VAR").  Using it directly will only expand environment variables that
are known inside the current Vim session.  Using expand() will first try using
the environment variables known inside the current Vim session.  If that
fails, a shell will be used to expand the variable.  This can be slow, but it
does expand all variables that the shell knows about.  Example:
        :echo $shell
        :echo expand("$shell")
The first one probably doesn't echo anything, the second echoes the $shell
variable (if your shell supports it).

internal variable                                       expr-variable
variable                internal variable
See below internal-variables.

function call           expr-function E116 E118 E119 E120
function(expr1, ...)    function call
See below functions.

lambda expression                               expr-lambda lambda
{args -> expr1}         lambda expression

A lambda expression creates a new unnamed function which returns the result of
evaluating expr1.  Lambda expressions differ from user-functions in
the following ways:

1. The body of the lambda expression is an expr1 and not a sequence of Ex
2. The prefix "a:" should not be used for arguments.  E.g.:
        :let F = {arg1, arg2 -> arg1 - arg2}
        :echo F(5, 2)

The arguments are optional.  Example:
        :let F = {-> 'error function'}
        :echo F()
        error function
Lambda expressions can access outer scope variables and arguments.  This is
often called a closure.  Example where "i" and "a:arg" are used in a lambda
while they exist in the function scope.  They remain valid even after the
function returns:
        :function Foo(arg)
        :  let i = 3
        :  return {x -> x + i - a:arg}
        :let Bar = Foo(4)
        :echo Bar(6)

See also :func-closure.  Lambda and closure support can be checked with:
        if has('lambda')

Examples for using a lambda expression with sort()map() and filter():
        :echo map([1, 2, 3], {idx, val -> val + 1})
        [2, 3, 4]
        :echo sort([3,7,2,1,4], {a, b -> a - b})
        [1, 2, 3, 4, 7]

The lambda expression is also useful for Channel, Job and timer:
        :let timer = timer_start(500,
                        \ {-> execute("echo 'Handler called'", "")},
                        \ {'repeat': 3})
        Handler called
        Handler called
        Handler called

Note how execute() is used to execute an Ex command.  That's ugly though.

Lambda expressions have internal names like '<lambda>42'.  If you get an error
for a lambda expression, you can find what it is with the following command:
        :function {'<lambda>42'}
See also: numbered-function

3. Internal variable                            internal-variables E461

An internal variable name can be made up of letters, digits and '_'.  But it
cannot start with a digit.  It's also possible to use curly braces, see

An internal variable is created with the ":let" command :let.
An internal variable is explicitly destroyed with the ":unlet" command
Using a name that is not an internal variable or refers to a variable that has
been destroyed results in an error.

There are several name spaces for variables.  Which one is to be used is
specified by what is prepended:

                (nothing) In a function: local to a function; otherwise: global
buffer-variable    b:   Local to the current buffer.
window-variable    w:   Local to the current window.
tabpage-variable   t:   Local to the current tab page.
global-variable    g:   Global.
local-variable     l:   Local to a function.
script-variable    s:   Local to a :source'ed Vim script.
function-argument  a:   Function argument (only inside a function).
vim-variable       v:   Global, predefined by Vim.

The scope name by itself can be used as a Dictionary.  For example, to
delete all script-local variables:
        :for k in keys(s:)
        :    unlet s:[k]

                                                buffer-variable b:var b:
A variable name that is preceded with "b:" is local to the current buffer.
Thus you can have several "b:foo" variables, one for each buffer.
This kind of variable is deleted when the buffer is wiped out or deleted with

One local buffer variable is predefined:
                                        b:changedtick changetick
b:changedtick   The total number of changes to the current buffer.  It is
                incremented for each change.  An undo command is also a change
                in this case.  This can be used to perform an action only when
                the buffer has changed.  Example:
                    :if my_changedtick != b:changedtick
                    :   let my_changedtick = b:changedtick
                    :   call My_Update()
                You cannot change or delete the b:changedtick variable.

                                                window-variable w:var w:
A variable name that is preceded with "w:" is local to the current window.  It
is deleted when the window is closed.

                                                tabpage-variable t:var t:
A variable name that is preceded with "t:" is local to the current tab page,
It is deleted when the tab page is closed. {not available when compiled
without the +windows feature}

                                                global-variable g:var g:
Inside functions global variables are accessed with "g:".  Omitting this will
access a variable local to a function.  But "g:" can also be used in any other
place if you like.

                                                local-variable l:var l:
Inside functions local variables are accessed without prepending anything.
But you can also prepend "l:" if you like.  However, without prepending "l:"
you may run into reserved variable names.  For example "count".  By itself it
refers to "v:count".  Using "l:count" you can have a local variable with the
same name.

                                                script-variable s:var
In a Vim script variables starting with "s:" can be used.  They cannot be
accessed from outside of the scripts, thus are local to the script.

They can be used in:
- commands executed while the script is sourced
- functions defined in the script
- autocommands defined in the script
- functions and autocommands defined in functions and autocommands which were
  defined in the script (recursively)
- user defined commands defined in the script
Thus not in:
- other scripts sourced from this one
- mappings
- menus
- etc.

Script variables can be used to avoid conflicts with global variable names.
Take this example:

        let s:counter = 0
        function MyCounter()
          let s:counter = s:counter + 1
          echo s:counter
        command Tick call MyCounter()

You can now invoke "Tick" from any script, and the "s:counter" variable in
that script will not be changed, only the "s:counter" in the script where
"Tick" was defined is used.

Another example that does the same:

        let s:counter = 0
        command Tick let s:counter = s:counter + 1 | echo s:counter

When calling a function and invoking a user-defined command, the context for
script variables is set to the script where the function or command was

The script variables are also available when a function is defined inside a
function that is defined in a script.  Example:

        let s:counter = 0
        function StartCounting(incr)
          if a:incr
            function MyCounter()
              let s:counter = s:counter + 1
            function MyCounter()
              let s:counter = s:counter - 1

This defines the MyCounter() function either for counting up or counting down
when calling StartCounting().  It doesn't matter from where StartCounting() is
called, the s:counter variable will be accessible in MyCounter().

When the same script is sourced again it will use the same script variables.
They will remain valid as long as Vim is running.  This can be used to
maintain a counter:

        if !exists("s:counter")
          let s:counter = 1
          echo "script executed for the first time"
          let s:counter = s:counter + 1
          echo "script executed " . s:counter . " times now"

Note that this means that filetype plugins don't get a different set of script
variables for each buffer.  Use local buffer variables instead b:var.

Predefined Vim variables:                       vim-variable v:var v:

                                        v:beval_col beval_col-variable
v:beval_col     The number of the column, over which the mouse pointer is.
                This is the byte index in the v:beval_lnum line.
                Only valid while evaluating the 'balloonexpr' option.

                                        v:beval_bufnr beval_bufnr-variable
v:beval_bufnr   The number of the buffer, over which the mouse pointer is. Only
                valid while evaluating the 'balloonexpr' option.

                                        v:beval_lnum beval_lnum-variable
v:beval_lnum    The number of the line, over which the mouse pointer is. Only
                valid while evaluating the 'balloonexpr' option.

                                        v:beval_text beval_text-variable
v:beval_text    The text under or after the mouse pointer.  Usually a word as
                it is useful for debugging a C program.  'iskeyword' applies,
                but a dot and "->" before the position is included.  When on a
                ']' the text before it is used, including the matching '[' and
                word before it.  When on a Visual area within one line the
                highlighted text is used.
                Only valid while evaluating the 'balloonexpr' option.

                                        v:beval_winnr beval_winnr-variable
v:beval_winnr   The number of the window, over which the mouse pointer is. Only
                valid while evaluating the 'balloonexpr' option.  The first
                window has number zero (unlike most other places where a
                window gets a number).

                                        v:beval_winid beval_winid-variable
v:beval_winid   The window-ID of the window, over which the mouse pointer
                is.  Otherwise like v:beval_winnr.

                                        v:char char-variable
v:char          Argument for evaluating 'formatexpr' and used for the typed
                character when using <expr> in an abbreviation :map-<expr>.
                It is also used by the InsertCharPre and InsertEnter events.

                        v:charconvert_from charconvert_from-variable
                The name of the character encoding of a file to be converted.
                Only valid while evaluating the 'charconvert' option.

                        v:charconvert_to charconvert_to-variable
                The name of the character encoding of a file after conversion.
                Only valid while evaluating the 'charconvert' option.

                                        v:cmdarg cmdarg-variable
v:cmdarg        This variable is used for two purposes:
                1. The extra arguments given to a file read/write command.
                   Currently these are "++enc=" and "++ff=".  This variable is
                   set before an autocommand event for a file read/write
                   command is triggered.  There is a leading space to make it
                   possible to append this variable directly after the
                   read/write command.  Note: The "+cmd" argument isn't
                   included here, because it will be executed anyway.
                2. When printing a PostScript file with ":hardcopy" this is
                   the argument for the ":hardcopy" command.  This can be used
                   in 'printexpr'.

                                        v:cmdbang cmdbang-variable
v:cmdbang       Set like v:cmdarg for a file read/write command.  When a "!"
                was used the value is 1, otherwise it is 0.  Note that this
                can only be used in autocommands.  For user commands <bang>
                can be used.

                                v:completed_item completed_item-variable
                Dictionary containing the complete-items for the most
                recently completed word after CompleteDone.  The
                Dictionary is empty if the completion failed.

                                        v:count count-variable
v:count         The count given for the last Normal mode command.  Can be used
                to get the count before a mapping.  Read-only.  Example:
        :map _x :<C-U>echo "the count is " . v:count<CR>
                Note: The <C-U> is required to remove the line range that you
                get when typing ':' after a count.
                When there are two counts, as in "3d2w", they are multiplied,
                just like what happens in the command, "d6w" for the example.
                Also used for evaluating the 'formatexpr' option.
                "count" also works, for backwards compatibility.

                                        v:count1 count1-variable
v:count1        Just like "v:count", but defaults to one when no count is

                                                v:ctype ctype-variable
v:ctype         The current locale setting for characters of the runtime
                environment.  This allows Vim scripts to be aware of the
                current locale encoding.  Technical: it's the value of
                LC_CTYPE.  When not using a locale the value is "C".
                This variable can not be set directly, use the :language
                See multi-lang.

                                        v:dying dying-variable
v:dying         Normally zero.  When a deadly signal is caught it's set to
                one.  When multiple signals are caught the number increases.
                Can be used in an autocommand to check if Vim didn't
                terminate normally. {only works on Unix}
        :au VimLeave * if v:dying | echo "\nAAAAaaaarrrggghhhh!!!\n" | endif
                Note: if another deadly signal is caught when v:dying is one,
                VimLeave autocommands will not be executed.

                                        v:errmsg errmsg-variable
v:errmsg        Last given error message.  It's allowed to set this variable.
        :let v:errmsg = ""
        :silent! next
        :if v:errmsg != ""
        :  ... handle error
                "errmsg" also works, for backwards compatibility.

                                        v:errors errors-variable
v:errors        Errors found by assert functions, such as assert_true().
                This is a list of strings.
                The assert functions append an item when an assert fails.
                To remove old results make it empty:
        :let v:errors = []
                If v:errors is set to anything but a list it is made an empty
                list by the assert function.

                                        v:exception exception-variable
v:exception     The value of the exception most recently caught and not
                finished.  See also v:throwpoint and throw-variables.
        :  throw "oops"
        :catch /.*/
        :  echo "caught" v:exception
                Output: "caught oops".

                                        v:false false-variable
v:false         A Number with value zero. Used to put "false" in JSON.  See
                When used as a string this evaluates to "v:false".
                        echo v:false
                That is so that eval() can parse the string back to the same
                value.  Read-only.

                                        v:fcs_reason fcs_reason-variable
v:fcs_reason    The reason why the FileChangedShell event was triggered.
                Can be used in an autocommand to decide what to do and/or what
                to set v:fcs_choice to.  Possible values:
                        deleted         file no longer exists
                        conflict        file contents, mode or timestamp was
                                        changed and buffer is modified
                        changed         file contents has changed
                        mode            mode of file changed
                        time            only file timestamp changed

                                        v:fcs_choice fcs_choice-variable
v:fcs_choice    What should happen after a FileChangedShell event was
                triggered.  Can be used in an autocommand to tell Vim what to
                do with the affected buffer:
                        reload          Reload the buffer (does not work if
                                        the file was deleted).
                        ask             Ask the user what to do, as if there
                                        was no autocommand.  Except that when
                                        only the timestamp changed nothing
                                        will happen.
                        <empty>         Nothing, the autocommand should do
                                        everything that needs to be done.
                The default is empty.  If another (invalid) value is used then
                Vim behaves like it is empty, there is no warning message.

                                        v:fname_in fname_in-variable
v:fname_in      The name of the input file.  Valid while evaluating:
                        option          used for
                        'charconvert'   file to be converted
                        'diffexpr'      original file
                        'patchexpr'     original file
                        'printexpr'     file to be printed
                And set to the swap file name for SwapExists.

                                        v:fname_out fname_out-variable
v:fname_out     The name of the output file.  Only valid while
                        option          used for
                        'charconvert'   resulting converted file (*)
                        'diffexpr'      output of diff
                        'patchexpr'     resulting patched file
                (*) When doing conversion for a write command (e.g., ":w
                file") it will be equal to v:fname_in.  When doing conversion
                for a read command (e.g., ":e file") it will be a temporary
                file and different from v:fname_in.

                                        v:fname_new fname_new-variable
v:fname_new     The name of the new version of the file.  Only valid while
                evaluating 'diffexpr'.

                                        v:fname_diff fname_diff-variable
v:fname_diff    The name of the diff (patch) file.  Only valid while
                evaluating 'patchexpr'.

                                        v:folddashes folddashes-variable
v:folddashes    Used for 'foldtext': dashes representing foldlevel of a closed
                Read-only in the sandboxfold-foldtext

                                        v:foldlevel foldlevel-variable
v:foldlevel     Used for 'foldtext': foldlevel of closed fold.
                Read-only in the sandboxfold-foldtext

                                        v:foldend foldend-variable
v:foldend       Used for 'foldtext': last line of closed fold.
                Read-only in the sandboxfold-foldtext

                                        v:foldstart foldstart-variable
v:foldstart     Used for 'foldtext': first line of closed fold.
                Read-only in the sandboxfold-foldtext

                                        v:hlsearch hlsearch-variable
v:hlsearch      Variable that indicates whether search highlighting is on. 
                Setting it makes sense only if 'hlsearch' is enabled which
                requires +extra_search. Setting this variable to zero acts
                like the :nohlsearch command, setting it to one acts like
                        let &hlsearch = &hlsearch
                Note that the value is restored when returning from a
                function. function-search-undo.

                                        v:insertmode insertmode-variable
v:insertmode    Used for the InsertEnter and InsertChange autocommand
                events.  Values:
                        i       Insert mode
                        r       Replace mode
                        v       Virtual Replace mode

                                                v:key key-variable
v:key           Key of the current item of a Dictionary.  Only valid while
                evaluating the expression used with map() and filter().

                                                v:lang lang-variable
v:lang          The current locale setting for messages of the runtime
                environment.  This allows Vim scripts to be aware of the
                current language.  Technical: it's the value of LC_MESSAGES.
                The value is system dependent.
                This variable can not be set directly, use the :language
                It can be different from v:ctype when messages are desired
                in a different language than what is used for character
                encoding.  See multi-lang.

                                                v:lc_time lc_time-variable
v:lc_time       The current locale setting for time messages of the runtime
                environment.  This allows Vim scripts to be aware of the
                current language.  Technical: it's the value of LC_TIME.
                This variable can not be set directly, use the :language
                command.  See multi-lang.

                                                v:lnum lnum-variable
v:lnum          Line number for the 'foldexpr' fold-expr'formatexpr' and
                'indentexpr' expressions, tab page number for 'guitablabel'
                and 'guitabtooltip'.  Only valid while one of these
                expressions is being evaluated.  Read-only when in the

                                        v:mouse_win mouse_win-variable
v:mouse_win     Window number for a mouse click obtained with getchar().
                First window has number 1, like with winnr().  The value is
                zero when there was no mouse button click.

                                        v:mouse_winid mouse_winid-variable
v:mouse_winid   Window ID for a mouse click obtained with getchar().
                The value is zero when there was no mouse button click.

                                        v:mouse_lnum mouse_lnum-variable
v:mouse_lnum    Line number for a mouse click obtained with getchar().
                This is the text line number, not the screen line number.  The
                value is zero when there was no mouse button click.

                                        v:mouse_col mouse_col-variable
v:mouse_col     Column number for a mouse click obtained with getchar().
                This is the screen column number, like with virtcol().  The
                value is zero when there was no mouse button click.

                                        v:none none-variable
v:none          An empty String. Used to put an empty item in JSON.  See
                When used as a number this evaluates to zero.
                When used as a string this evaluates to "v:none".
                        echo v:none
                That is so that eval() can parse the string back to the same
                value.  Read-only.

                                        v:null null-variable
v:null          An empty String. Used to put "null" in JSON.  See
                When used as a number this evaluates to zero.
                When used as a string this evaluates to "v:null".
                        echo v:null
                That is so that eval() can parse the string back to the same
                value.  Read-only.

                                        v:oldfiles oldfiles-variable
v:oldfiles      List of file names that is loaded from the viminfo file on
                startup.  These are the files that Vim remembers marks for.
                The length of the List is limited by the ' argument of the
                'viminfo' option (default is 100).
                When the viminfo file is not used the List is empty.
                Also see :oldfiles and c_#<.
                The List can be modified, but this has no effect on what is
                stored in the viminfo file later.  If you use values other
                than String this will cause trouble.
                {only when compiled with the +viminfo feature}

v:option_new    New value of the option. Valid while executing an OptionSet
v:option_old    Old value of the option. Valid while executing an OptionSet
v:option_type   Scope of the set command. Valid while executing an
                OptionSet autocommand. Can be either "global" or "local"
                                        v:operator operator-variable
v:operator      The last operator given in Normal mode.  This is a single
                character except for commands starting with <g> or <z>,
                in which case it is two characters.  Best used alongside
                v:prevcount and v:register.  Useful if you want to cancel
                Operator-pending mode and then use the operator, e.g.:
                        :omap O <Esc>:call MyMotion(v:operator)<CR>
                The value remains set until another operator is entered, thus
                don't expect it to be empty.
                v:operator is not set for :delete:yank or other Ex

                                        v:prevcount prevcount-variable
v:prevcount     The count given for the last but one Normal mode command.
                This is the v:count value of the previous command.  Useful if
                you want to cancel Visual or Operator-pending mode and then
                use the count, e.g.:
                        :vmap % <Esc>:call MyFilter(v:prevcount)<CR>

                                        v:profiling profiling-variable
v:profiling     Normally zero.  Set to one after using ":profile start".
                See profiling.

                                        v:progname progname-variable
v:progname      Contains the name (with path removed) with which Vim was
                invoked.  Allows you to do special initialisations for view,
                evim etc., or any other name you might symlink to Vim.

                                        v:progpath progpath-variable
v:progpath      Contains the command with which Vim was invoked, including the
                path.  Useful if you want to message a Vim server using a
                To get the full path use:
                        echo exepath(v:progpath)
                If the path is relative it will be expanded to the full path,
                so that it still works after :cd. Thus starting "./vim"
                results in "/home/user/path/to/vim/src/vim".
                On MS-Windows the executable may be called "vim.exe", but the
                ".exe" is not added to v:progpath.

                                        v:register register-variable
v:register      The name of the register in effect for the current normal mode
                command (regardless of whether that command actually used a
                register).  Or for the currently executing normal mode mapping
                (use this in custom commands that take a register).
                If none is supplied it is the default register '"', unless
                'clipboard' contains "unnamed" or "unnamedplus", then it is
                '*' or '+'.
                Also see getreg() and setreg()

                                        v:scrollstart scrollstart-variable
v:scrollstart   String describing the script or function that caused the
                screen to scroll up.  It's only set when it is empty, thus the
                first reason is remembered.  It is set to "Unknown" for a
                typed command.
                This can be used to find out why your script causes the
                hit-enter prompt.

                                        v:servername servername-variable
v:servername    The resulting registered client-server-name if any.

v:searchforward                 v:searchforward searchforward-variable
                Search direction:  1 after a forward search, 0 after a
                backward search.  It is reset to forward when directly setting
                the last search pattern, see quote/.
                Note that the value is restored when returning from a
                function. function-search-undo.

                                        v:shell_error shell_error-variable
v:shell_error   Result of the last shell command.  When non-zero, the last
                shell command had an error.  When zero, there was no problem.
                This only works when the shell returns the error code to Vim.
                The value -1 is often used when the command could not be
                executed.  Read-only.
        :!mv foo bar
        :if v:shell_error
        :  echo 'could not rename "foo" to "bar"!'
                "shell_error" also works, for backwards compatibility.

                                        v:statusmsg statusmsg-variable
v:statusmsg     Last given status message.  It's allowed to set this variable.

                                        v:swapname swapname-variable
v:swapname      Only valid when executing SwapExists autocommands: Name of
                the swap file found.  Read-only.

                                        v:swapchoice swapchoice-variable
v:swapchoice    SwapExists autocommands can set this to the selected choice
                for handling an existing swap file:
                        'o'     Open read-only
                        'e'     Edit anyway
                        'r'     Recover
                        'd'     Delete swapfile
                        'q'     Quit
                        'a'     Abort
                The value should be a single-character string.  An empty value
                results in the user being asked, as would happen when there is
                no SwapExists autocommand.  The default is empty.

                                        v:swapcommand swapcommand-variable
v:swapcommand   Normal mode command to be executed after a file has been
                opened.  Can be used for a SwapExists autocommand to have
                another Vim open the file and jump to the right place.  For
                example, when jumping to a tag the value is ":tag tagname\r".
                For ":edit +cmd file" the value is ":cmd\r".

                                v:t_TYPE v:t_bool t_bool-variable
v:t_bool        Value of Boolean type.  Read-only.  See: type()
                                        v:t_channel t_channel-variable
v:t_channel     Value of Channel type.  Read-only.  See: type()
                                        v:t_dict t_dict-variable
v:t_dict        Value of Dictionary type.  Read-only.  See: type()
                                        v:t_float t_float-variable
v:t_float       Value of Float type.  Read-only.  See: type()
                                        v:t_func t_func-variable
v:t_func        Value of Funcref type.  Read-only.  See: type()
                                        v:t_job t_job-variable
v:t_job         Value of Job type.  Read-only.  See: type()
                                        v:t_list t_list-variable
v:t_list        Value of List type.  Read-only.  See: type()
                                        v:t_none t_none-variable
v:t_none        Value of None type.  Read-only.  See: type()
                                        v:t_number t_number-variable
v:t_number      Value of Number type.  Read-only.  See: type()
                                        v:t_string t_string-variable
v:t_string      Value of String type.  Read-only.  See: type()

                                v:termresponse termresponse-variable
v:termresponse  The escape sequence returned by the terminal for the t_RV
                termcap entry.  It is set when Vim receives an escape sequence
                that starts with ESC [ or CSI and ends in a 'c', with only
                digits, ';' and '.' in between.
                When this option is set, the TermResponse autocommand event is
                fired, so that you can react to the response from the
                The response from a new xterm is: "<Esc>[ Pp ; Pv ; Pc c".  Pp
                is the terminal type: 0 for vt100 and 1 for vt220.  Pv is the
                patch level (since this was introduced in patch 95, it's
                always 95 or bigger).  Pc is always zero.
                {only when compiled with +termresponse feature}

                                        v:testing testing-variable
v:testing       Must be set before using test_garbagecollect_now().
                Also, when set certain error messages won't be shown for 2
                seconds. (e.g. "'dictionary' option is empty") 

                                v:this_session this_session-variable
v:this_session  Full filename of the last loaded or saved session file.  See
                :mksession.  It is allowed to set this variable.  When no
                session file has been saved, this variable is empty.
                "this_session" also works, for backwards compatibility.

                                        v:throwpoint throwpoint-variable
v:throwpoint    The point where the exception most recently caught and not
                finished was thrown.  Not set when commands are typed.  See
                also v:exception and throw-variables.
        :  throw "oops"
        :catch /.*/
        :  echo "Exception from" v:throwpoint
                Output: "Exception from test.vim, line 2"

                                                v:true true-variable
v:true          A Number with value one. Used to put "true" in JSON.  See
                When used as a string this evaluates to "v:true".
                        echo v:true
                That is so that eval() can parse the string back to the same
                value.  Read-only.
                                                v:val val-variable
v:val           Value of the current item of a List or Dictionary.  Only
                valid while evaluating the expression used with map() and
                filter().  Read-only.

                                        v:version version-variable
v:version       Version number of Vim: Major version number times 100 plus
                minor version number.  Version 5.0 is 500.  Version 5.1 (5.01)
                is 501.  Read-only.  "version" also works, for backwards
                Use has() to check if a certain patch was included, e.g.:
                        if has("patch-7.4.123")
                Note that patch numbers are specific to the version, thus both
                version 5.0 and 5.1 may have a patch 123, but these are
                completely different.

                                v:vim_did_enter vim_did_enter-variable
v:vim_did_enter Zero until most of startup is done.  It is set to one just
                before VimEnter autocommands are triggered.

                                        v:warningmsg warningmsg-variable
v:warningmsg    Last given warning message.  It's allowed to set this variable.

                                        v:windowid windowid-variable
v:windowid      When any X11 based GUI is running or when running in a
                terminal and Vim connects to the X server (-X) this will be
                set to the window ID.
                When an MS-Windows GUI is running this will be set to the
                window handle.
                Otherwise the value is zero.
                Note: for windows inside Vim use winnr() or win_getid(),
                see window-ID.

4. Builtin Functions                                    functions

See function-list for a list grouped by what the function is used for.

(Use CTRL-] on the function name to jump to the full explanation.)

USAGE                           RESULT  DESCRIPTION

abs({expr})                     Float or Number  absolute value of {expr}
acos({expr})                    Float   arc cosine of {expr}
add({list}{item})             List    append {item} to List {list}
and({expr}{expr})             Number  bitwise AND
append({lnum}{string})        Number  append {string} below line {lnum}
append({lnum}{list})          Number  append lines {list} below line {lnum}
argc()                          Number  number of files in the argument list
argidx()                        Number  current index in the argument list
arglistid([{winnr} [, {tabnr}]]) Number argument list id
argv({nr})                      String  {nr} entry of the argument list
argv()                          List    the argument list
assert_equal({exp}{act} [, {msg}])
                                none    assert {exp} is equal to {act}
assert_exception({error} [, {msg}])
                                none    assert {error} is in v:exception
assert_fails({cmd} [, {error}]) none    assert {cmd} fails
assert_false({actual} [, {msg}])
                                none    assert {actual} is false
assert_inrange({lower}{upper}{actual} [, {msg}])
                                none    assert {actual} is inside the range
assert_match({pat}{text} [, {msg}])
                                none    assert {pat} matches {text}
assert_notequal({exp}{act} [, {msg}])
                                none    assert {exp} is not equal {act}
assert_notmatch({pat}{text} [, {msg}])
                                none    assert {pat} not matches {text}
assert_report({msg})            none    report a test failure
assert_true({actual} [, {msg}]) none    assert {actual} is true
asin({expr})                    Float   arc sine of {expr}
atan({expr})                    Float   arc tangent of {expr}
atan2({expr1}{expr2})         Float   arc tangent of {expr1} / {expr2}
balloon_show({msg})             none    show {msg} inside the balloon
                                String  put up a file requester
browsedir({title}{initdir})   String  put up a directory requester
bufexists({expr})               Number  TRUE if buffer {expr} exists
buflisted({expr})               Number  TRUE if buffer {expr} is listed
bufloaded({expr})               Number  TRUE if buffer {expr} is loaded
bufname({expr})                 String  Name of the buffer {expr}
bufnr({expr} [, {create}])      Number  Number of the buffer {expr}
bufwinid({expr})                Number  window ID of buffer {expr}
bufwinnr({expr})                Number  window number of buffer {expr}
byte2line({byte})               Number  line number at byte count {byte}
byteidx({expr}{nr})           Number  byte index of {nr}'th char in {expr}
byteidxcomp({expr}{nr})       Number  byte index of {nr}'th char in {expr}
call({func}{arglist} [, {dict}])
                                any     call {func} with arguments {arglist}
ceil({expr})                    Float   round {expr} up
ch_canread({handle})            Number  check if there is something to read
ch_close({handle})              none    close {handle}
ch_close_in({handle})           none    close in part of {handle}
ch_evalexpr({handle}{expr} [, {options}])
                                any     evaluate {expr} on JSON {handle}
ch_evalraw({handle}{string} [, {options}])
                                any     evaluate {string} on raw {handle}
ch_getbufnr({handle}{what})   Number  get buffer number for {handle}/{what}
ch_getjob({channel})            Job     get the Job of {channel}
ch_info({handle})               String  info about channel {handle}
ch_log({msg} [, {handle}])      none    write {msg} in the channel log file
ch_logfile({fname} [, {mode}])  none    start logging channel activity
ch_open({address} [, {options}])
                                Channel open a channel to {address}
ch_read({handle} [, {options}]) String  read from {handle}
ch_readraw({handle} [, {options}])
                                String  read raw from {handle}
ch_sendexpr({handle}{expr} [, {options}])
                                any     send {expr} over JSON {handle}
ch_sendraw({handle}{string} [, {options}])
                                any     send {string} over raw {handle}
                                none    set options for {handle}
ch_status({handle} [, {options}])
                                String  status of channel {handle}
changenr()                      Number  current change number
char2nr({expr}[, {utf8}])       Number  ASCII/UTF8 value of first char in {expr}
cindent({lnum})                 Number  C indent for line {lnum}
clearmatches()                  none    clear all matches
col({expr})                     Number  column nr of cursor or mark
complete({startcol}{matches}) none    set Insert mode completion
complete_add({expr})            Number  add completion match
complete_check()                Number  check for key typed during completion
confirm({msg} [, {choices} [, {default} [, {type}]]])
                                Number  number of choice picked by user
copy({expr})                    any     make a shallow copy of {expr}
cos({expr})                     Float   cosine of {expr}
cosh({expr})                    Float   hyperbolic cosine of {expr}
count({list}{expr} [, {ic} [, {start}]])
                                Number  count how many {expr} are in {list}
cscope_connection([{num}{dbpath} [, {prepend}]])
                                Number  checks existence of cscope connection
cursor({lnum}{col} [, {off}])
                                Number  move cursor to {lnum}{col}{off}
cursor({list})                  Number  move cursor to position in {list}
deepcopy({expr} [, {noref}])    any     make a full copy of {expr}
delete({fname} [, {flags}])     Number  delete the file or directory {fname}
did_filetype()                  Number  TRUE if FileType autocmd event used
diff_filler({lnum})             Number  diff filler lines about {lnum}
diff_hlID({lnum}{col})        Number  diff highlighting at {lnum}/{col}
empty({expr})                   Number  TRUE if {expr} is empty
escape({string}{chars})       String  escape {chars} in {string} with '\'
eval({string})                  any     evaluate {string} into its value
eventhandler()                  Number  TRUE if inside an event handler
executable({expr})              Number  1 if executable {expr} exists
execute({command})              String  execute {command} and get the output
exepath({expr})                 String  full path of the command {expr}
exists({expr})                  Number  TRUE if {expr} exists
extend({expr1}{expr2} [, {expr3}])
                                List/Dict insert items of {expr2} into {expr1}
exp({expr})                     Float   exponential of {expr}
expand({expr} [, {nosuf} [, {list}]])
                                any     expand special keywords in {expr}
feedkeys({string} [, {mode}])   Number  add key sequence to typeahead buffer
filereadable({file})            Number  TRUE if {file} is a readable file
filewritable({file})            Number  TRUE if {file} is a writable file
filter({expr1}{expr2})        List/Dict  remove items from {expr1} where
                                        {expr2} is 0
finddir({name}[, {path}[, {count}]])
                                String  find directory {name} in {path}
findfile({name}[, {path}[, {count}]])
                                String  find file {name} in {path}
float2nr({expr})                Number  convert Float {expr} to a Number
floor({expr})                   Float   round {expr} down
fmod({expr1}{expr2})          Float   remainder of {expr1} / {expr2}
fnameescape({fname})            String  escape special characters in {fname}
fnamemodify({fname}{mods})    String  modify file name
foldclosed({lnum})              Number  first line of fold at {lnum} if closed
foldclosedend({lnum})           Number  last line of fold at {lnum} if closed
foldlevel({lnum})               Number  fold level at {lnum}
foldtext()                      String  line displayed for closed fold
foldtextresult({lnum})          String  text for closed fold at {lnum}
foreground()                    Number  bring the Vim window to the foreground
funcref({name} [, {arglist}] [, {dict}])
                                Funcref reference to function {name}
function({name} [, {arglist}] [, {dict}])
                                Funcref named reference to function {name}
garbagecollect([{atexit}])      none    free memory, breaking cyclic references
get({list}{idx} [, {def}])    any     get item {idx} from {list} or {def}
get({dict}{key} [, {def}])    any     get item {key} from {dict} or {def}
get({func}{what})             any     get property of funcref/partial {func}
getbufinfo([{expr}])            List    information about buffers
getbufline({expr}{lnum} [, {end}])
                                List    lines {lnum} to {end} of buffer {expr}
getbufvar({expr}{varname} [, {def}])
                                any     variable {varname} in buffer {expr}
getchar([expr])                 Number  get one character from the user
getcharmod()                    Number  modifiers for the last typed character
getcharsearch()                 Dict    last character search
getcmdline()                    String  return the current command-line
getcmdpos()                     Number  return cursor position in command-line
getcmdtype()                    String  return current command-line type
getcmdwintype()                 String  return current command-line window type
getcompletion({pat}{type} [, {filtered}])
                                List    list of cmdline completion matches
getcurpos()                     List    position of the cursor
getcwd([{winnr} [, {tabnr}]])   String  get the current working directory
getfontname([{name}])           String  name of font being used
getfperm({fname})               String  file permissions of file {fname}
getfsize({fname})               Number  size in bytes of file {fname}
getftime({fname})               Number  last modification time of file
getftype({fname})               String  description of type of file {fname}
getline({lnum})                 String  line {lnum} of current buffer
getline({lnum}{end})          List    lines {lnum} to {end} of current buffer
getloclist({nr}[, {what}])      List    list of location list items
getmatches()                    List    list of current matches
getpid()                        Number  process ID of Vim
getpos({expr})                  List    position of cursor, mark, etc.
getqflist([{what}])             List    list of quickfix items
getreg([{regname} [, 1 [, {list}]]])
                                String or List   contents of register
getregtype([{regname}])         String  type of register
gettabinfo([{expr}])            List    list of tab pages
gettabvar({nr}{varname} [, {def}])
                                any     variable {varname} in tab {nr} or {def}
gettabwinvar({tabnr}{winnr}{name} [, {def}])
                                any     {name} in {winnr} in tab page {tabnr}
getwininfo([{winid}])           List    list of windows
getwinposx()                    Number  X coord in pixels of GUI Vim window
getwinposy()                    Number  Y coord in pixels of GUI Vim window
getwinvar({nr}{varname} [, {def}])
                                any     variable {varname} in window {nr}
glob({expr} [, {nosuf} [, {list} [, {alllinks}]]])
                                any     expand file wildcards in {expr}
glob2regpat({expr})             String  convert a glob pat into a search pat
globpath({path}{expr} [, {nosuf} [, {list} [, {alllinks}]]])
                                String  do glob({expr}) for all dirs in {path}
has({feature})                  Number  TRUE if feature {feature} supported
has_key({dict}{key})          Number  TRUE if {dict} has entry {key}
haslocaldir([{winnr} [, {tabnr}]])
                                Number  TRUE if the window executed :lcd
hasmapto({what} [, {mode} [, {abbr}]])
                                Number  TRUE if mapping to {what} exists
histadd({history}{item})      String  add an item to a history
histdel({history} [, {item}])   String  remove an item from a history
histget({history} [, {index}])  String  get the item {index} from a history
histnr({history})               Number  highest index of a history
hlexists({name})                Number  TRUE if highlight group {name} exists
hlID({name})                    Number  syntax ID of highlight group {name}
hostname()                      String  name of the machine Vim is running on
iconv({expr}{from}{to})     String  convert encoding of {expr}
indent({lnum})                  Number  indent of line {lnum}
index({list}{expr} [, {start} [, {ic}]])
                                Number  index in {list} where {expr} appears
input({prompt} [, {text} [, {completion}]])
                                String  get input from the user
inputdialog({prompt} [, {text} [, {completion}]])
                                String  like input() but in a GUI dialog
inputlist({textlist})           Number  let the user pick from a choice list
inputrestore()                  Number  restore typeahead
inputsave()                     Number  save and clear typeahead
inputsecret({prompt} [, {text}]) String like input() but hiding the text
insert({list}{item} [, {idx}]) List   insert {item} in {list} [before {idx}]
invert({expr})                  Number  bitwise invert
isdirectory({directory})        Number  TRUE if {directory} is a directory
islocked({expr})                Number  TRUE if {expr} is locked
isnan({expr})                   Number  TRUE if {expr} is NaN
items({dict})                   List    key-value pairs in {dict}
job_getchannel({job})           Channel get the channel handle for {job}
job_info({job})                 Dict    get information about {job}
job_setoptions({job}{options}) none   set options for {job}
job_start({command} [, {options}])
                                Job     start a job
job_status({job})               String  get the status of {job}
job_stop({job} [, {how}])       Number  stop {job}
join({list} [, {sep}])          String  join {list} items into one String
js_decode({string})             any     decode JS style JSON
js_encode({expr})               String  encode JS style JSON
json_decode({string})           any     decode JSON
json_encode({expr})             String  encode JSON
keys({dict})                    List    keys in {dict}
len({expr})                     Number  the length of {expr}
libcall({lib}{func}{arg})   String  call {func} in library {lib} with {arg}
libcallnr({lib}{func}{arg}) Number  idem, but return a Number
line({expr})                    Number  line nr of cursor, last line or mark
line2byte({lnum})               Number  byte count of line {lnum}
lispindent({lnum})              Number  Lisp indent for line {lnum}
localtime()                     Number  current time
log({expr})                     Float   natural logarithm (base e) of {expr}
log10({expr})                   Float   logarithm of Float {expr} to base 10
luaeval({expr}[, {expr}])       any     evaluate Lua expression
map({expr1}{expr2})           List/Dict  change each item in {expr1} to {expr}
maparg({name}[, {mode} [, {abbr} [, {dict}]]])
                                String or Dict
                                        rhs of mapping {name} in mode {mode}
mapcheck({name}[, {mode} [, {abbr}]])
                                String  check for mappings matching {name}
match({expr}{pat}[, {start}[, {count}]])
                                Number  position where {pat} matches in {expr}
matchadd({group}{pattern}[, {priority}[, {id} [, {dict}]]])
                                Number  highlight {pattern} with {group}
matchaddpos({group}{pos}[, {priority}[, {id}[, {dict}]]])
                                Number  highlight positions with {group}
matcharg({nr})                  List    arguments of :match
matchdelete({id})               Number  delete match identified by {id}
matchend({expr}{pat}[, {start}[, {count}]])
                                Number  position where {pat} ends in {expr}
matchlist({expr}{pat}[, {start}[, {count}]])
                                List    match and submatches of {pat} in {expr}
matchstr({expr}{pat}[, {start}[, {count}]])
                                String  {count}'th match of {pat} in {expr}
matchstrpos({expr}{pat}[, {start}[, {count}]])
                                List    {count}'th match of {pat} in {expr}
max({expr})                     Number  maximum value of items in {expr}
min({expr})                     Number  minimum value of items in {expr}
mkdir({name} [, {path} [, {prot}]])
                                Number  create directory {name}
mode([expr])                    String  current editing mode
mzeval({expr})                  any     evaluate MzScheme expression
nextnonblank({lnum})            Number  line nr of non-blank line >= {lnum}
nr2char({expr}[, {utf8}])       String  single char with ASCII/UTF8 value {expr}
or({expr}{expr})              Number  bitwise OR
pathshorten({expr})             String  shorten directory names in a path
perleval({expr})                any     evaluate Perl expression
pow({x}{y})                   Float   {x} to the power of {y}
prevnonblank({lnum})            Number  line nr of non-blank line <= {lnum}
printf({fmt}{expr1}...)       String  format text
pumvisible()                    Number  whether popup menu is visible
pyeval({expr})                  any     evaluate Python expression
py3eval({expr})                 any     evaluate python3 expression
pyxeval({expr})                 any     evaluate python_x expression
range({expr} [, {max} [, {stride}]])
                                List    items from {expr} to {max}
readfile({fname} [, {binary} [, {max}]])
                                List    get list of lines from file {fname}
reltime([{start} [, {end}]])    List    get time value
reltimefloat({time})            Float   turn the time value into a Float
reltimestr({time})              String  turn time value into a String
remote_expr({server}{string} [, {idvar} [, {timeout}]])
                                String  send expression
remote_foreground({server})     Number  bring Vim server to the foreground
remote_peek({serverid} [, {retvar}])
                                Number  check for reply string
remote_read({serverid} [, {timeout}])
                                String  read reply string
remote_send({server}{string} [, {idvar}])
                                String  send key sequence
remote_startserver({name})      none    become server {name}
                                String  send key sequence
remove({list}{idx} [, {end}]) any     remove items {idx}-{end} from {list}
remove({dict}{key})           any     remove entry {key} from {dict}
rename({from}{to})            Number  rename (move) file from {from} to {to}
repeat({expr}{count})         String  repeat {expr} {count} times
resolve({filename})             String  get filename a shortcut points to
reverse({list})                 List    reverse {list} in-place
round({expr})                   Float   round off {expr}
screenattr({row}{col})        Number  attribute at screen position
screenchar({row}{col})        Number  character at screen position
screencol()                     Number  current cursor column
screenrow()                     Number  current cursor row
search({pattern} [, {flags} [, {stopline} [, {timeout}]]])
                                Number  search for {pattern}
searchdecl({name} [, {global} [, {thisblock}]])
                                Number  search for variable declaration
searchpair({start}{middle}{end} [, {flags} [, {skip} [...]]])
                                Number  search for other end of start/end pair
searchpairpos({start}{middle}{end} [, {flags} [, {skip} [...]]])
                                List    search for other end of start/end pair
searchpos({pattern} [, {flags} [, {stopline} [, {timeout}]]])
                                List    search for {pattern}
                                Number  send reply string
serverlist()                    String  get a list of available servers
                                none    set {varname} in buffer {expr} to {val}
setcharsearch({dict})           Dict    set character search from {dict}
setcmdpos({pos})                Number  set cursor position in command-line
setfperm({fname}{mode})       Number  set {fname} file permissions to {mode}
setline({lnum}{line})         Number  set line {lnum} to {line}
setloclist({nr}{list}[, {action}[, {what}]])
                                Number  modify location list using {list}
setmatches({list})              Number  restore a list of matches
setpos({expr}{list})          Number  set the {expr} position to {list}
setqflist({list}[, {action}[, {what}]])
                                Number  modify quickfix list using {list}
setreg({n}{v}[, {opt}])       Number  set register to value and type
settabvar({nr}{varname}{val}) none  set {varname} in tab page {nr} to {val}
                                none    set {varname} in window {winnr} in tab
                                        page {tabnr} to {val}
setwinvar({nr}{varname}{val}) none  set {varname} in window {nr} to {val}
sha256({string})                String  SHA256 checksum of {string}
shellescape({string} [, {special}])
                                String  escape {string} for use as shell
                                        command argument
shiftwidth()                    Number  effective value of 'shiftwidth'
simplify({filename})            String  simplify filename as much as possible
sin({expr})                     Float   sine of {expr}
sinh({expr})                    Float   hyperbolic sine of {expr}
sort({list} [, {func} [, {dict}]])
                                List    sort {list}, using {func} to compare
soundfold({word})               String  sound-fold {word}
spellbadword()                  String  badly spelled word at cursor
spellsuggest({word} [, {max} [, {capital}]])
                                List    spelling suggestions
split({expr} [, {pat} [, {keepempty}]])
                                List    make List from {pat} separated {expr}
sqrt({expr})                    Float   square root of {expr}
str2float({expr})               Float   convert String to Float
str2nr({expr} [, {base}])       Number  convert String to Number
strchars({expr} [, {skipcc}])   Number  character length of the String {expr}
strcharpart({str}{start}[, {len}])
                                String  {len} characters of {str} at {start}
strdisplaywidth({expr} [, {col}]) Number display length of the String {expr}
strftime({format}[, {time}])    String  time in specified format
strgetchar({str}{index})      Number  get char {index} from {str}
stridx({haystack}{needle}[, {start}])
                                Number  index of {needle} in {haystack}
string({expr})                  String  String representation of {expr} value
strlen({expr})                  Number  length of the String {expr}
strpart({str}{start}[, {len}])
                                String  {len} characters of {str} at {start}
strridx({haystack}{needle} [, {start}])
                                Number  last index of {needle} in {haystack}
strtrans({expr})                String  translate string to make it printable
strwidth({expr})                Number  display cell length of the String {expr}
submatch({nr}[, {list}])        String or List
                                        specific match in ":s" or substitute()
                                String  all {pat} in {expr} replaced with {sub}
synID({lnum}{col}{trans})   Number  syntax ID at {lnum} and {col}
synIDattr({synID}{what} [, {mode}])
                                String  attribute {what} of syntax ID {synID}
synIDtrans({synID})             Number  translated syntax ID of {synID}
synconcealed({lnum}{col})     List    info about concealing
synstack({lnum}{col})         List    stack of syntax IDs at {lnum} and {col}
system({expr} [, {input}])      String  output of shell command/filter {expr}
systemlist({expr} [, {input}])  List    output of shell command/filter {expr}
tabpagebuflist([{arg}])         List    list of buffer numbers in tab page
tabpagenr([{arg}])              Number  number of current or last tab page
tabpagewinnr({tabarg}[, {arg}]) Number  number of current window in tab page
taglist({expr}[, {filename}])   List    list of tags matching {expr}
tagfiles()                      List    tags files used
tan({expr})                     Float   tangent of {expr}
tanh({expr})                    Float   hyperbolic tangent of {expr}
tempname()                      String  name for a temporary file
term_getaltscreen({buf})        Number  get the alternate screen flag
term_getattr({attr}{what})    Number  get the value of attribute {what}
term_getcursor({buf})           List    get the cursor position of a terminal
term_getjob({buf})              Job     get the job associated with a terminal
term_getline({buf}{row})      String  get a line of text from a terminal
term_getscrolled({buf})         Number  get the scroll count of a terminal
term_getsize({buf})             List    get the size of a terminal
term_getstatus({buf})           String  get the status of a terminal
term_gettitle({buf})            String  get the title of a terminal
term_gettty({buf})              String  get the tty name of a terminal
term_list()                     List    get the list of terminal buffers
term_scrape({buf}{row})       List    get row of a terminal screen
term_sendkeys({buf}{keys})    none    send keystrokes to a terminal
term_start({cmd}{options})    Job     open a terminal window and run a job
term_wait({buf} [, {time}])     Number  wait for screen to be updated
                                none    make memory allocation fail
test_autochdir()                none    enable 'autochdir' during startup
test_garbagecollect_now()       none    free memory right now for testing
test_ignore_error({expr})       none    ignore a specific error
test_null_channel()             Channel null value for testing
test_null_dict()                Dict    null value for testing
test_null_job()                 Job     null value for testing
test_null_list()                List    null value for testing
test_null_partial()             Funcref null value for testing
test_null_string()              String  null value for testing
test_override({expr}{val})    none    test with Vim internal overrides
test_settime({expr})            none    set current time for testing
timer_info([{id}])              List    information about timers
timer_pause({id}{pause})      none    pause or unpause a timer
timer_start({time}{callback} [, {options}])
                                Number  create a timer
timer_stop({timer})             none    stop a timer
timer_stopall()                 none    stop all timers
tolower({expr})                 String  the String {expr} switched to lowercase
toupper({expr})                 String  the String {expr} switched to uppercase
tr({src}{fromstr}{tostr})   String  translate chars of {src} in {fromstr}
                                        to chars in {tostr}
trunc({expr})                   Float   truncate Float {expr}
type({name})                    Number  type of variable {name}
undofile({name})                String  undo file name for {name}
undotree()                      List    undo file tree
uniq({list} [, {func} [, {dict}]])
                                List    remove adjacent duplicates from a list
values({dict})                  List    values in {dict}
virtcol({expr})                 Number  screen column of cursor or mark
visualmode([expr])              String  last visual mode used
wildmenumode()                  Number  whether 'wildmenu' mode is active
win_findbuf({bufnr})            List    find windows containing {bufnr}
win_getid([{win} [, {tab}]])    Number  get window ID for {win} in {tab}
win_gotoid({expr})              Number  go to window with ID {expr}
win_id2tabwin({expr})           List    get tab and window nr from window ID
win_id2win({expr})              Number  get window nr from window ID
winbufnr({nr})                  Number  buffer number of window {nr}
wincol()                        Number  window column of the cursor
winheight({nr})                 Number  height of window {nr}
winline()                       Number  window line of the cursor
winnr([{expr}])                 Number  number of current window
winrestcmd()                    String  returns command to restore window sizes
winrestview({dict})             none    restore view of current window
winsaveview()                   Dict    save view of current window
winwidth({nr})                  Number  width of window {nr}
wordcount()                     Dict    get byte/char/word statistics
writefile({list}{fname} [, {flags}])
                                Number  write list of lines to file {fname}
xor({expr}{expr})             Number  bitwise XOR

abs({expr})                                                     abs()
                Return the absolute value of {expr}.  When {expr} evaluates to
                a Float abs() returns a Float.  When {expr} can be
                converted to a Number abs() returns a Number.  Otherwise
                abs() gives an error message and returns -1.
                        echo abs(1.456)
                        echo abs(-5.456)
                        echo abs(-4)
                {only available when compiled with the +float feature}

acos({expr})                                                    acos()
                Return the arc cosine of {expr} measured in radians, as a
                Float in the range of [0, pi].
                {expr} must evaluate to a Float or a Number in the range
                [-1, 1].
                        :echo acos(0)
                        :echo acos(-0.5)
                {only available when compiled with the +float feature}

add({list}{expr})                                     add()
                Append the item {expr} to List {list}.  Returns the
                resulting List.  Examples:
                        :let alist = add([1, 2, 3], item)
                        :call add(mylist, "woodstock")
                Note that when {expr} is a List it is appended as a single
                item.  Use extend() to concatenate Lists.
                Use insert() to add an item at another position.

and({expr}{expr})                                     and()
                Bitwise AND on the two arguments.  The arguments are converted
                to a number.  A List, Dict or Float argument causes an error.
                        :let flag = and(bits, 0x80)

append({lnum}{expr})                                  append()
                When {expr} is a List: Append each item of the List as a
                text line below line {lnum} in the current buffer.
                Otherwise append {expr} as one text line below line {lnum} in
                the current buffer.
                {lnum} can be zero to insert a line before the first one.
                Returns 1 for failure ({lnum} out of range or out of memory),
                0 for success.  Example:
                        :let failed = append(line('$'), "# THE END")
                        :let failed = append(0, ["Chapter 1", "the beginning"])

argc()          The result is the number of files in the argument list of the
                current window.  See arglist.

argidx()        The result is the current index in the argument list.  0 is
                the first file.  argc() - 1 is the last one.  See arglist.

arglistid([{winnr} [, {tabnr}]])
                Return the argument list ID.  This is a number which
                identifies the argument list being used.  Zero is used for the
                global argument list.  See arglist.
                Return -1 if the arguments are invalid.

                Without arguments use the current window.
                With {winnr} only use this window in the current tab page.
                With {winnr} and {tabnr} use the window in the specified tab
                {winnr} can be the window number or the window-ID.

argv([{nr}])    The result is the {nr}th file in the argument list of the
                current window.  See arglist.  "argv(0)" is the first one.
        :let i = 0
        :while i < argc()
        :  let f = escape(fnameescape(argv(i)), '.')
        :  exe 'amenu Arg.' . f . ' :e ' . f . '<CR>'
        :  let i = i + 1
                Without the {nr} argument a List with the whole arglist is

assert_equal({expected}{actual} [, {msg}])
                When {expected} and {actual} are not equal an error message is
                added to v:errors.
                There is no automatic conversion, the String "4" is different
                from the Number 4.  And the number 4 is different from the
                Float 4.0.  The value of 'ignorecase' is not used here, case
                always matters.
                When {msg} is omitted an error in the form "Expected
                {expected} but got {actual}" is produced.
        assert_equal('foo', 'bar')
                Will result in a string to be added to v:errors:
        test.vim line 12: Expected 'foo' but got 'bar'

assert_exception({error} [, {msg}])                     assert_exception()
                When v:exception does not contain the string {error} an error
                message is added to v:errors.
                This can be used to assert that a command throws an exception.
                Using the error number, followed by a colon, avoids problems
                with translations:
                          call assert_false(1, 'command should have failed')
                          call assert_exception('E492:')

assert_fails({cmd} [, {error}])                                 assert_fails()
                Run {cmd} and add an error message to v:errors if it does
                NOT produce an error.
                When {error} is given it must match in v:errmsg.

assert_false({actual} [, {msg}])                                assert_false()
                When {actual} is not false an error message is added to
                v:errors, like with assert_equal().
                A value is false when it is zero. When {actual} is not a
                number the assert fails.
                When {msg} is omitted an error in the form
                "Expected False but got {actual}" is produced.

assert_inrange({lower}{upper}{actual} [, {msg}])     assert_inrange()
                This asserts number values.  When {actual}  is lower than
                {lower} or higher than {upper} an error message is added to
                When {msg} is omitted an error in the form
                "Expected range {lower} - {upper}, but got {actual}" is

assert_match({pattern}{actual} [, {msg}])
                When {pattern} does not match {actual} an error message is
                added to v:errors.

                {pattern} is used as with =~: The matching is always done
                like 'magic' was set and 'cpoptions' is empty, no matter what
                the actual value of 'magic' or 'cpoptions' is.

                {actual} is used as a string, automatic conversion applies.
                Use "^" and "$" to match with the start and end of the text.
                Use both to match the whole text.

                When {msg} is omitted an error in the form
                "Pattern {pattern} does not match {actual}" is produced.
        assert_match('^f.*o$', 'foobar')
                Will result in a string to be added to v:errors:
        test.vim line 12: Pattern '^f.*o$' does not match 'foobar'

assert_notequal({expected}{actual} [, {msg}])
                The opposite of assert_equal(): add an error message to
                v:errors when {expected} and {actual} are equal.

assert_notmatch({pattern}{actual} [, {msg}])
                The opposite of assert_match(): add an error message to
                v:errors when {pattern} matches {actual}.

assert_report({msg})                                    assert_report()
                Report a test failure directly, using {msg}.

assert_true({actual} [, {msg}])                         assert_true()
                When {actual} is not true an error message is added to
                v:errors, like with assert_equal().
                A value is TRUE when it is a non-zero number.  When {actual}
                is not a number the assert fails.
                When {msg} is omitted an error in the form "Expected True but
                got {actual}" is produced.

asin({expr})                                            asin()
                Return the arc sine of {expr} measured in radians, as a Float
                in the range of [-pi/2, pi/2].
                {expr} must evaluate to a Float or a Number in the range
                [-1, 1].
                        :echo asin(0.8)
                        :echo asin(-0.5)
                {only available when compiled with the +float feature}

atan({expr})                                            atan()
                Return the principal value of the arc tangent of {expr}, in
                the range [-pi/2, +pi/2] radians, as a Float.
                {expr} must evaluate to a Float or a Number.
                        :echo atan(100)
                        :echo atan(-4.01)
                {only available when compiled with the +float feature}

atan2({expr1}{expr2})                                 atan2()
                Return the arc tangent of {expr1} / {expr2}, measured in
                radians, as a Float in the range [-pi, pi].
                {expr1} and {expr2} must evaluate to a Float or a Number.
                        :echo atan2(-1, 1)
                        :echo atan2(1, -1)
                {only available when compiled with the +float feature}

balloon_show({msg})                                     balloon_show()
                Show {msg} inside the balloon.
                        func GetBalloonContent()
                           " initiate getting the content
                           return ''
                        set balloonexpr=GetBalloonContent()

                        func BalloonCallback(result)
                          call balloon_show(a:result)

                The intended use is that fetching the content of the balloon
                is initiated from 'balloonexpr'.  It will invoke an
                asynchronous method, in which a callback invokes
                balloon_show().  The 'balloonexpr' itself can return an
                empty string or a placeholder.

                When showing a balloon is not possible nothing happens, no
                error message.
                {only available when compiled with the +balloon_eval feature}

                Put up a file requester.  This only works when "has("browse")"
                returns TRUE (only in some GUI versions).
                The input fields are:
                    {save}      when TRUE, select file to write
                    {title}     title for the requester
                    {initdir}   directory to start browsing in
                    {default}   default file name
                When the "Cancel" button is hit, something went wrong, or
                browsing is not possible, an empty string is returned.

                Put up a directory requester.  This only works when
                "has("browse")" returns TRUE (only in some GUI versions).
                On systems where a directory browser is not supported a file
                browser is used.  In that case: select a file in the directory
                to be used.
                The input fields are:
                    {title}     title for the requester
                    {initdir}   directory to start browsing in
                When the "Cancel" button is hit, something went wrong, or
                browsing is not possible, an empty string is returned.

bufexists({expr})                                       bufexists()
                The result is a Number, which is TRUE if a buffer called
                {expr} exists.
                If the {expr} argument is a number, buffer numbers are used.
                If the {expr} argument is a string it must match a buffer name
                exactly.  The name can be:
                - Relative to the current directory.
                - A full path.
                - The name of a buffer with 'buftype' set to "nofile".
                - A URL name.
                Unlisted buffers will be found.
                Note that help files are listed by their short name in the
                output of :buffers, but bufexists() requires using their
                long name to be able to find them.
                bufexists() may report a buffer exists, but to use the name
                with a :buffer command you may need to use expand().  Esp
                for MS-Windows 8.3 names in the form "c:\DOCUME~1"
                Use "bufexists(0)" to test for the existence of an alternate
                file name.
                Obsolete name: buffer_exists().

buflisted({expr})                                       buflisted()
                The result is a Number, which is TRUE if a buffer called
                {expr} exists and is listed (has the 'buflisted' option set).
                The {expr} argument is used like with bufexists().

bufloaded({expr})                                       bufloaded()
                The result is a Number, which is TRUE if a buffer called
                {expr} exists and is loaded (shown in a window or hidden).
                The {expr} argument is used like with bufexists().

bufname({expr})                                         bufname()
                The result is the name of a buffer, as it is displayed by the
                ":ls" command.
                If {expr} is a Number, that buffer number's name is given.
                Number zero is the alternate buffer for the current window.
                If {expr} is a String, it is used as a file-pattern to match
                with the buffer names.  This is always done like 'magic' is
                set and 'cpoptions' is empty.  When there is more than one
                match an empty string is returned.
                "" or "%" can be used for the current buffer, "#" for the
                alternate buffer.
                A full match is preferred, otherwise a match at the start, end
                or middle of the buffer name is accepted.  If you only want a
                full match then put "^" at the start and "$" at the end of the
                Listed buffers are found first.  If there is a single match
                with a listed buffer, that one is returned.  Next unlisted
                buffers are searched for.
                If the {expr} is a String, but you want to use it as a buffer
                number, force it to be a Number by adding zero to it:
                        :echo bufname("3" + 0)
                If the buffer doesn't exist, or doesn't have a name, an empty
                string is returned.
        bufname("#")            alternate buffer name
        bufname(3)              name of buffer 3
        bufname("%")            name of current buffer
        bufname("file2")        name of buffer where "file2" matches.
                Obsolete name: buffer_name().

bufnr({expr} [, {create}])
                The result is the number of a buffer, as it is displayed by
                the ":ls" command.  For the use of {expr}, see bufname()
                If the buffer doesn't exist, -1 is returned.  Or, if the
                {create} argument is present and not zero, a new, unlisted,
                buffer is created and its number is returned.
                bufnr("$") is the last buffer:
        :let last_buffer = bufnr("$")
                The result is a Number, which is the highest buffer number
                of existing buffers.  Note that not all buffers with a smaller
                number necessarily exist, because ":bwipeout" may have removed
                them.  Use bufexists() to test for the existence of a buffer.
                Obsolete name: buffer_number().
                Obsolete name for bufnr("$"): last_buffer_nr().

bufwinid({expr})                                        bufwinid()
                The result is a Number, which is the window-ID of the first
                window associated with buffer {expr}.  For the use of {expr},
                see bufname() above.  If buffer {expr} doesn't exist or
                there is no such window, -1 is returned.  Example:

        echo "A window containing buffer 1 is " . (bufwinid(1))

                Only deals with the current tab page.

bufwinnr({expr})                                        bufwinnr()
                The result is a Number, which is the number of the first
                window associated with buffer {expr}.  For the use of {expr},
                see bufname() above.  If buffer {expr} doesn't exist or
                there is no such window, -1 is returned.  Example:

        echo "A window containing buffer 1 is " . (bufwinnr(1))

                The number can be used with CTRL-W_w and ":wincmd w"
                Only deals with the current tab page.

byte2line({byte})                                       byte2line()
                Return the line number that contains the character at byte
                count {byte} in the current buffer.  This includes the
                end-of-line character, depending on the 'fileformat' option
                for the current buffer.  The first character has byte count
                Also see line2byte()go and :goto.
                {not available when compiled without the +byte_offset

byteidx({expr}{nr})                                   byteidx()
                Return byte index of the {nr}'th character in the string
                {expr}.  Use zero for the first character, it returns zero.
                This function is only useful when there are multibyte
                characters, otherwise the returned value is equal to {nr}.
                Composing characters are not counted separately, their byte
                length is added to the preceding base character.  See
                byteidxcomp() below for counting composing characters
                Example :
                        echo matchstr(str, ".", byteidx(str, 3))
                will display the fourth character.  Another way to do the
                        let s = strpart(str, byteidx(str, 3))
                        echo strpart(s, 0, byteidx(s, 1))
                Also see strgetchar() and strcharpart().

                If there are less than {nr} characters -1 is returned.
                If there are exactly {nr} characters the length of the string
                in bytes is returned.

byteidxcomp({expr}{nr})                                       byteidxcomp()
                Like byteidx(), except that a composing character is counted
                as a separate character.  Example:
                        let s = 'e' . nr2char(0x301)
                        echo byteidx(s, 1)
                        echo byteidxcomp(s, 1)
                        echo byteidxcomp(s, 2)
                The first and third echo result in 3 ('e' plus composing
                character is 3 bytes), the second echo results in 1 ('e' is
                one byte).
                Only works different from byteidx() when 'encoding' is set to
                a Unicode encoding.

call({func}{arglist} [, {dict}])                      call() E699
                Call function {func} with the items in List {arglist} as
                {func} can either be a Funcref or the name of a function.
                a:firstline and a:lastline are set to the cursor line.
                Returns the return value of the called function.
                {dict} is for functions with the "dict" attribute.  It will be
                used to set the local variable "self". Dictionary-function

ceil({expr})                                                    ceil()
                Return the smallest integral value greater than or equal to
                {expr} as a Float (round up).
                {expr} must evaluate to a Float or a Number.
                        echo ceil(1.456)
                        echo ceil(-5.456)
                        echo ceil(4.0)
                {only available when compiled with the +float feature}

ch_canread({handle})                                            ch_canread()
                Return non-zero when there is something to read from {handle}.
                {handle} can be a Channel or a Job that has a Channel.

                This is useful to read from a channel at a convenient time,
                e.g. from a timer.

                Note that messages are dropped when the channel does not have
                a callback.  Add a close callback to avoid that.

                {only available when compiled with the +channel feature}

ch_close({handle})                                              ch_close()
                Close {handle}.  See channel-close.
                {handle} can be a Channel or a Job that has a Channel.
                A close callback is not invoked.

                {only available when compiled with the +channel feature}

ch_close_in({handle})                                           ch_close_in()
                Close the "in" part of {handle}.  See channel-close-in.
                {handle} can be a Channel or a Job that has a Channel.
                A close callback is not invoked.

                {only available when compiled with the +channel feature}

ch_evalexpr({handle}{expr} [, {options}])                     ch_evalexpr()
                Send {expr} over {handle}.  The {expr} is encoded
                according to the type of channel.  The function cannot be used
                with a raw channel.  See channel-use.
                {handle} can be a Channel or a Job that has a Channel.
                {options} must be a Dictionary.  It must not have a "callback"
                entry.  It can have a "timeout" entry to specify the timeout
                for this specific request.

                ch_evalexpr() waits for a response and returns the decoded
                expression.  When there is an error or timeout it returns an
                empty string.

                {only available when compiled with the +channel feature}

ch_evalraw({handle}{string} [, {options}])            ch_evalraw()
                Send {string} over {handle}.
                {handle} can be a Channel or a Job that has a Channel.

                Works like ch_evalexpr(), but does not encode the request or
                decode the response.  The caller is responsible for the
                correct contents.  Also does not add a newline for a channel
                in NL mode, the caller must do that.  The NL in the response
                is removed.
                See channel-use.

                {only available when compiled with the +channel feature}

ch_getbufnr({handle}{what})                            ch_getbufnr()
                Get the buffer number that {handle} is using for {what}.
                {handle} can be a Channel or a Job that has a Channel.
                {what} can be "err" for stderr, "out" for stdout or empty for
                socket output.
                Returns -1 when there is no buffer.
                {only available when compiled with the +channel feature}

ch_getjob({channel})                                            ch_getjob()
                Get the Job associated with {channel}.
                If there is no job calling job_status() on the returned Job
                will result in "fail".

                {only available when compiled with the +channel and
                +job features}

ch_info({handle})                                               ch_info()
                Returns a Dictionary with information about {handle}.  The
                items are:
                   "id"           number of the channel
                   "status"       "open", "buffered" or "closed", like
                When opened with ch_open():
                   "hostname"     the hostname of the address
                   "port"         the port of the address
                   "sock_status"  "open" or "closed"
                   "sock_mode"    "NL", "RAW", "JSON" or "JS"
                   "sock_io"      "socket"
                   "sock_timeout" timeout in msec
                When opened with job_start():
                   "out_status"   "open", "buffered" or "closed"
                   "out_mode"     "NL", "RAW", "JSON" or "JS"
                   "out_io"       "null", "pipe", "file" or "buffer"
                   "out_timeout"  timeout in msec
                   "err_status"   "open", "buffered" or "closed"
                   "err_mode"     "NL", "RAW", "JSON" or "JS"
                   "err_io"       "out", "null", "pipe", "file" or "buffer"
                   "err_timeout"  timeout in msec
                   "in_status"    "open" or "closed"
                   "in_mode"      "NL", "RAW", "JSON" or "JS"
                   "in_io"        "null", "pipe", "file" or "buffer"
                   "in_timeout"   timeout in msec

ch_log({msg} [, {handle}])                                      ch_log()
                Write {msg} in the channel log file, if it was opened with
                When {handle} is passed the channel number is used for the
                {handle} can be a Channel or a Job that has a Channel.  The
                Channel must be open for the channel number to be used.

ch_logfile({fname} [, {mode}])                                  ch_logfile()
                Start logging channel activity to {fname}.
                When {fname} is an empty string: stop logging.

                When {mode} is omitted or "a" append to the file.
                When {mode} is "w" start with an empty file.

                The file is flushed after every message, on Unix you can use
                "tail -f" to see what is going on in real time.

                This function is not available in the sandbox.
                NOTE: the channel communication is stored in the file, be
                aware that this may contain confidential and privacy sensitive
                information, e.g. a password you type in a terminal window.

ch_open({address} [, {options}])                                ch_open()
                Open a channel to {address}.  See channel.
                Returns a Channel.  Use ch_status() to check for failure.

                {address} has the form "hostname:port", e.g.,

                If {options} is given it must be a Dictionary.
                See channel-open-options.

                {only available when compiled with the +channel feature}

ch_read({handle} [, {options}])                                 ch_read()
                Read from {handle} and return the received message.
                {handle} can be a Channel or a Job that has a Channel.
                See channel-more.
                {only available when compiled with the +channel feature}

ch_readraw({handle} [, {options}])                      ch_readraw()
                Like ch_read() but for a JS and JSON channel does not decode
                the message.  See channel-more.
                {only available when compiled with the +channel feature}

ch_sendexpr({handle}{expr} [, {options}])                     ch_sendexpr()
                Send {expr} over {handle}.  The {expr} is encoded
                according to the type of channel.  The function cannot be used
                with a raw channel.
                See channel-use.                              E912
                {handle} can be a Channel or a Job that has a Channel.

                {only available when compiled with the +channel feature}

ch_sendraw({handle}{string} [, {options}])            ch_sendraw()
                Send {string} over {handle}.
                Works like ch_sendexpr(), but does not encode the request or
                decode the response.  The caller is responsible for the
                correct contents.  Also does not add a newline for a channel
                in NL mode, the caller must do that.  The NL in the response
                is removed.
                See channel-use.

                {only available when compiled with the +channel feature}

ch_setoptions({handle}{options})                      ch_setoptions()
                Set options on {handle}:
                        "callback"      the channel callback
                        "timeout"       default read timeout in msec
                        "mode"          mode for the whole channel
                See ch_open() for more explanation.
                {handle} can be a Channel or a Job that has a Channel.

                Note that changing the mode may cause queued messages to be

                These options cannot be changed:
                        "waittime"      only applies to ch_open()

ch_status({handle} [, {options}])                               ch_status()
                Return the status of {handle}:
                        "fail"          failed to open the channel
                        "open"          channel can be used
                        "buffered"      channel can be read, not written to
                        "closed"        channel can not be used
                {handle} can be a Channel or a Job that has a Channel.
                "buffered" is used when the channel was closed but there is
                still data that can be obtained with ch_read().

                If {options} is given it can contain a "part" entry to specify
                the part of the channel to return the status for: "out" or
                "err".  For example, to get the error status:
                        ch_status(job, {"part": "err"})

changenr()                                              changenr()
                Return the number of the most recent change.  This is the same
                number as what is displayed with :undolist and can be used
                with the :undo command.
                When a change was made it is the number of that change.  After
                redo it is the number of the redone change.  After undo it is
                one less than the number of the undone change.

char2nr({expr}[, {utf8}])                                       char2nr()
                Return number value of the first char in {expr}.  Examples:
                        char2nr(" ")            returns 32
                        char2nr("ABC")          returns 65
                When {utf8} is omitted or zero, the current 'encoding' is used.
                Example for "utf-8":
                        char2nr("?")            returns 225
                        char2nr("?"[0])         returns 195
                With {utf8} set to 1, always treat as utf-8 characters.
                A combining character is a separate character.
                nr2char() does the opposite.

cindent({lnum})                                         cindent()
                Get the amount of indent for line {lnum} according the C
                indenting rules, as with 'cindent'.
                The indent is counted in spaces, the value of 'tabstop' is
                relevant.  {lnum} is used just like in getline().
                When {lnum} is invalid or Vim was not compiled the +cindent
                feature, -1 is returned.
                See C-indenting.

clearmatches()                                          clearmatches()
                Clears all matches previously defined by matchadd() and the
                :match commands.

col({expr})     The result is a Number, which is the byte index of the column
                position given with {expr}.  The accepted positions are:
                    .       the cursor position
                    $       the end of the cursor line (the result is the
                            number of bytes in the cursor line plus one)
                    'x      position of mark x (if the mark is not set, 0 is
                    v       In Visual mode: the start of the Visual area (the
                            cursor is the end).  When not in Visual mode
                            returns the cursor position.  Differs from '< in
                            that it's updated right away.
                Additionally {expr} can be [lnum, col]: a List with the line
                and column number. Most useful when the column is "$", to get
                the last column of a specific line.  When "lnum" or "col" is
                out of range then col() returns zero.
                To get the line number use line().  To get both use
                For the screen column position use virtcol().
                Note that only marks in the current file can be used.
                        col(".")                column of cursor
                        col("$")                length of cursor line plus one
                        col("'t")               column of mark t
                        col("'" . markname)     column of mark markname
                The first column is 1.  0 is returned for an error.
                For an uppercase mark the column may actually be in another
                For the cursor position, when 'virtualedit' is active, the
                column is one higher if the cursor is after the end of the
                line.  This can be used to obtain the column in Insert mode:
                        :imap <F2> <C-O>:let save_ve = &ve<CR>
                                \<C-O>:set ve=all<CR>
                                \<C-O>:echo col(".") . "\n" <Bar>
                                \let &ve = save_ve<CR>

complete({startcol}{matches})                 complete() E785
                Set the matches for Insert mode completion.
                Can only be used in Insert mode.  You need to use a mapping
                with CTRL-R = (see i_CTRL-R).  It does not work after CTRL-O
                or with an expression mapping.
                {startcol} is the byte offset in the line where the completed
                text start.  The text up to the cursor is the original text
                that will be replaced by the matches.  Use col('.') for an
                empty string.  "col('.') - 1" will replace one character by a
                {matches} must be a List.  Each List item is one match.
                See complete-items for the kind of items that are possible.
                Note that the after calling this function you need to avoid
                inserting anything that would cause completion to stop.
                The match can be selected with CTRL-N and CTRL-P as usual with
                Insert mode completion.  The popup menu will appear if
                specified, see ins-completion-menu.
        inoremap <F5> <C-R>=ListMonths()<CR>

        func! ListMonths()
          call complete(col('.'), ['January', 'February', 'March',
                \ 'April', 'May', 'June', 'July', 'August', 'September',
                \ 'October', 'November', 'December'])
          return ''
                This isn't very useful, but it shows how it works.  Note that
                an empty string is returned to avoid a zero being inserted.

complete_add({expr})                            complete_add()
                Add {expr} to the list of matches.  Only to be used by the
                function specified with the 'completefunc' option.
                Returns 0 for failure (empty string or out of memory),
                1 when the match was added, 2 when the match was already in
                the list.
                See complete-functions for an explanation of {expr}.  It is
                the same as one item in the list that 'omnifunc' would return.

complete_check()                                complete_check()
                Check for a key typed while looking for completion matches.
                This is to be used when looking for matches takes some time.
                Returns TRUE when searching for matches is to be aborted,
                zero otherwise.
                Only to be used by the function specified with the
                'completefunc' option.

confirm({msg} [, {choices} [, {default} [, {type}]]])
                Confirm() offers the user a dialog, from which a choice can be
                made.  It returns the number of the choice.  For the first
                choice this is 1.
                Note: confirm() is only supported when compiled with dialog
                support, see +dialog_con and +dialog_gui.

                {msg} is displayed in a dialog with {choices} as the
                alternatives.  When {choices} is missing or empty, "&OK" is
                used (and translated).
                {msg} is a String, use '\n' to include a newline.  Only on
                some systems the string is wrapped when it doesn't fit.

                {choices} is a String, with the individual choices separated
                by '\n', e.g.
                        confirm("Save changes?", "&Yes\n&No\n&Cancel")
                The letter after the '&' is the shortcut key for that choice.
                Thus you can type 'c' to select "Cancel".  The shortcut does
                not need to be the first letter:
                        confirm("file has been modified", "&Save\nSave &All")
                For the console, the first letter of each choice is used as
                the default shortcut key.

                The optional {default} argument is the number of the choice
                that is made if the user hits <CR>.  Use 1 to make the first
                choice the default one.  Use 0 to not set a default.  If
                {default} is omitted, 1 is used.

                The optional {type} argument gives the type of dialog.  This
                is only used for the icon of the GTK, Mac, Motif and Win32
                GUI.  It can be one of these values: "Error", "Question",
                "Info", "Warning" or "Generic".  Only the first character is
                relevant.  When {type} is omitted, "Generic" is used.

                If the user aborts the dialog by pressing <Esc>CTRL-C,
                or another valid interrupt key, confirm() returns 0.

                An example:
   :let choice = confirm("What do you want?", "&Apples\n&Oranges\n&Bananas", 2)
   :if choice == 0
   :    echo "make up your mind!"
   :elseif choice == 3
   :    echo "tasteful"
   :    echo "I prefer bananas myself."
                In a GUI dialog, buttons are used.  The layout of the buttons
                depends on the 'v' flag in 'guioptions'.  If it is included,
                the buttons are always put vertically.  Otherwise,  confirm()
                tries to put the buttons in one horizontal line.  If they
                don't fit, a vertical layout is used anyway.  For some systems
                the horizontal layout is always used.

copy({expr})    Make a copy of {expr}.  For Numbers and Strings this isn't
                different from using {expr} directly.
                When {expr} is a List a shallow copy is created.  This means
                that the original List can be changed without changing the
                copy, and vice versa.  But the items are identical, thus
                changing an item changes the contents of both Lists.
                A Dictionary is copied in a similar way as a List.
                Also see deepcopy().

cos({expr})                                             cos()
                Return the cosine of {expr}, measured in radians, as a Float.
                {expr} must evaluate to a Float or a Number.
                        :echo cos(100)
                        :echo cos(-4.01)
                {only available when compiled with the +float feature}

cosh({expr})                                            cosh()
                Return the hyperbolic cosine of {expr} as a Float in the range
                [1, inf].
                {expr} must evaluate to a Float or a Number.
                        :echo cosh(0.5)
                        :echo cosh(-0.5)
                {only available when compiled with the +float feature}

count({comp}{expr} [, {ic} [, {start}]])                      count()
                Return the number of times an item with value {expr} appears
                in StringList or Dictionary {comp}.

                If {start} is given then start with the item with this index.
                {start} can only be used with a List.

                When {ic} is given and it's TRUE then case is ignored.

                When {comp} is a string then the number of not overlapping
                occurences of {expr} is returned.

cscope_connection([{num} , {dbpath} [, {prepend}]])
                Checks for the existence of a cscope connection.  If no
                parameters are specified, then the function returns:
                        0, if cscope was not available (not compiled in), or
                           if there are no cscope connections;
                        1, if there is at least one cscope connection.

                If parameters are specified, then the value of {num}
                determines how existence of a cscope connection is checked:

                {num}   Description of existence check
                -----   ------------------------------
                0       Same as no parameters (e.g., "cscope_connection()").
                1       Ignore {prepend}, and use partial string matches for
                2       Ignore {prepend}, and use exact string matches for
                3       Use {prepend}, use partial string matches for both
                        {dbpath} and {prepend}.
                4       Use {prepend}, use exact string matches for both
                        {dbpath} and {prepend}.

                Note: All string comparisons are case sensitive!

                Examples.  Suppose we had the following (from ":cs show"):

  # pid    database name                        prepend path
  0 27664  cscope.out                           /usr/local

                Invocation                                      Return Val
                ----------                                      ----------
                cscope_connection()                                     1
                cscope_connection(1, "out")                             1
                cscope_connection(2, "out")                             0
                cscope_connection(3, "out")                             0
                cscope_connection(3, "out", "local")                    1
                cscope_connection(4, "out")                             0
                cscope_connection(4, "out", "local")                    0
                cscope_connection(4, "cscope.out", "/usr/local")        1

cursor({lnum}{col} [, {off}])                         cursor()
                Positions the cursor at the column (byte count) {col} in the
                line {lnum}.  The first column is one.

                When there is one argument {list} this is used as a List
                with two, three or four item:
                This is like the return value of getpos() or getcurpos(),
                but without the first item.

                Does not change the jumplist.
                If {lnum} is greater than the number of lines in the buffer,
                the cursor will be positioned at the last line in the buffer.
                If {lnum} is zero, the cursor will stay in the current line.
                If {col} is greater than the number of bytes in the line,
                the cursor will be positioned at the last character in the
                If {col} is zero, the cursor will stay in the current column.
                If {curswant} is given it is used to set the preferred column
                for vertical movement.  Otherwise {col} is used.

                When 'virtualedit' is used {off} specifies the offset in
                screen columns from the start of the character.  E.g., a
                position within a <Tab> or after the last character.
                Returns 0 when the position could be set, -1 otherwise.

deepcopy({expr}[, {noref}])                             deepcopy() E698
                Make a copy of {expr}.  For Numbers and Strings this isn't
                different from using {expr} directly.
                When {expr} is a List a full copy is created.  This means
                that the original List can be changed without changing the
                copy, and vice versa.  When an item is a List or
                Dictionary, a copy for it is made, recursively.  Thus
                changing an item in the copy does not change the contents of
                the original List.
                A Dictionary is copied in a similar way as a List.
                When {noref} is omitted or zero a contained List or
                Dictionary is only copied once.  All references point to
                this single copy.  With {noref} set to 1 every occurrence of a
                List or Dictionary results in a new copy.  This also means
                that a cyclic reference causes deepcopy() to fail.
                Nesting is possible up to 100 levels.  When there is an item
                that refers back to a higher level making a deep copy with
                {noref} set to 1 will fail.
                Also see copy().

delete({fname} [, {flags}])                                     delete()
                Without {flags} or with {flags} empty: Deletes the file by the
                name {fname}.  This also works when {fname} is a symbolic link.

                When {flags} is "d": Deletes the directory by the name
                {fname}.  This fails when directory {fname} is not empty.
                When {flags} is "rf": Deletes the directory by the name
                {fname} and everything in it, recursively.  BE CAREFUL!
                Note: on MS-Windows it is not possible to delete a directory
                that is being used.

                A symbolic link itself is deleted, not what it points to.
                The result is a Number, which is 0 if the delete operation was
                successful and -1 when the deletion failed or partly failed.

                Use remove() to delete an item from a List.
                To delete a line from the buffer use :delete.  Use :exe
                when the line number is in a variable.

did_filetype()  Returns TRUE when autocommands are being executed and the
                FileType event has been triggered at least once.  Can be used
                to avoid triggering the FileType event again in the scripts
                that detect the file type. FileType
                Returns FALSE when :setf FALLBACK was used.
                When editing another file, the counter is reset, thus this
                really checks if the FileType event has been triggered for the
                current buffer.  This allows an autocommand that starts
                editing another buffer to set 'filetype' and load a syntax

diff_filler({lnum})                                     diff_filler()
                Returns the number of filler lines above line {lnum}.
                These are the lines that were inserted at this point in
                another diff'ed window.  These filler lines are shown in the
                display but don't exist in the buffer.
                {lnum} is used like with getline().  Thus "." is the current
                line, "'m" mark m, etc.
                Returns 0 if the current window is not in diff mode.

diff_hlID({lnum}{col})                                diff_hlID()
                Returns the highlight ID for diff mode at line {lnum} column
                {col} (byte index).  When the current line does not have a
                diff change zero is returned.
                {lnum} is used like with getline().  Thus "." is the current
                line, "'m" mark m, etc.
                {col} is 1 for the leftmost column, {lnum} is 1 for the first
                The highlight ID can be used with synIDattr() to obtain
                syntax information about the highlighting.

empty({expr})                                           empty()
                Return the Number 1 if {expr} is empty, zero otherwise.
                - A List or Dictionary is empty when it does not have any
                - A Number and Float is empty when its value is zero.
                - v:falsev:none and v:null are empty, v:true is not.
                - A Job is empty when it failed to start.
                - A Channel is empty when it is closed.

                For a long List this is much faster than comparing the
                length with zero.

escape({string}{chars})                               escape()
                Escape the characters in {chars} that occur in {string} with a
                backslash.  Example:
                        :echo escape('c:\program files\vim', ' \')
                results in:
                        c:\\program\ files\\vim
                Also see shellescape().

eval({string})  Evaluate {string} and return the result.  Especially useful to
                turn the result of string() back into the original value.
                This works for Numbers, Floats, Strings and composites of
                them.  Also works for Funcrefs that refer to existing

eventhandler()                                          eventhandler()
                Returns 1 when inside an event handler.  That is that Vim got
                interrupted while waiting for the user to type a character,
                e.g., when dropping a file on Vim.  This means interactive
                commands cannot be used.  Otherwise zero is returned.

executable({expr})                                      executable()
                This function checks if an executable with the name {expr}
                exists.  {expr} must be the name of the program without any
                executable() uses the value of $PATH and/or the normal
                searchpath for programs.                PATHEXT
                On MS-DOS and MS-Windows the ".exe", ".bat", etc. can
                optionally be included.  Then the extensions in $PATHEXT are
                tried.  Thus if "foo.exe" does not exist, "foo.exe.bat" can be
                found.  If $PATHEXT is not set then ".exe;.com;.bat;.cmd" is
                used.  A dot by itself can be used in $PATHEXT to try using
                the name without an extension.  When 'shell' looks like a
                Unix shell, then the name is also tried without adding an
                On MS-DOS and MS-Windows it only checks if the file exists and
                is not a directory, not if it's really executable.
                On MS-Windows an executable in the same directory as Vim is
                always found.  Since this directory is added to $PATH it
                should also work to execute it win32-PATH.
                The result is a Number:
                        1       exists
                        0       does not exist
                        -1      not implemented on this system

execute({command} [, {silent}])                                 execute()
                Execute an Ex command or commands and return the output as a
                {command} can be a string or a List.  In case of a List the
                lines are executed one by one.
                This is equivalent to:
                        redir => var
                        redir END

                The optional {silent} argument can have these values:
                        ""              no :silent used
                        "silent"        :silent used
                        "silent!"       :silent! used
                The default is "silent".  Note that with "silent!", unlike
                :redir, error messages are dropped.  When using an external
                command the screen may be messed up, use system() instead.
                It is not possible to use :redir anywhere in {command}.

                To get a list of lines use split() on the result:
                        split(execute('args'), "\n")

                When used recursively the output of the recursive call is not
                included in the output of the higher level call.

exepath({expr})                                         exepath()
                If {expr} is an executable and is either an absolute path, a
                relative path or found in $PATH, return the full path.
                Note that the current directory is used when {expr} starts
                with "./", which may be a problem for Vim:
                        echo exepath(v:progpath)
                If {expr} cannot be found in $PATH or is not executable then
                an empty string is returned.

exists({expr})  The result is a Number, which is TRUE if {expr} is defined,
                zero otherwise.

                For checking for a supported feature use has().
                For checking if a file exists use filereadable().

                The {expr} argument is a string, which contains one of these:
                        &option-name    Vim option (only checks if it exists,
                                        not if it really works)
                        +option-name    Vim option that works.
                        $ENVNAME        environment variable (could also be
                                        done by comparing with an empty
                        *funcname       built-in function (see functions)
                                        or user defined function (see
                                        user-functions). Also works for a
                                        variable that is a Funcref.
                        varname         internal variable (see
                                        internal-variables).  Also works
                                        for curly-braces-namesDictionary
                                        entries, List items, etc.  Beware
                                        that evaluating an index may cause an
                                        error message for an invalid
                                        expression.  E.g.:
                                           :let l = [1, 2, 3]
                                           :echo exists("l[5]")
                                           :echo exists("l[xx]")
                                           E121: Undefined variable: xx
                        :cmdname        Ex command: built-in command, user
                                        command or command modifier :command.
                                        1  for match with start of a command
                                        2  full match with a command
                                        3  matches several user commands
                                        To check for a supported command
                                        always check the return value to be 2.
                        :2match         The :2match command.
                        :3match         The :3match command.
                        #event          autocommand defined for this event
                        #event#pattern  autocommand defined for this event and
                                        pattern (the pattern is taken
                                        literally and compared to the
                                        autocommand patterns character by
                        #group          autocommand group exists
                        #group#event    autocommand defined for this group and
                                        autocommand defined for this group,
                                        event and pattern.
                        ##event         autocommand for this event is

                There must be no space between the symbol (&/$/*/#) and the
                There must be no extra characters after the name, although in
                a few cases this is ignored.  That may become more strict in
                the future, thus don't count on it!
                Working example:
                NOT working example:
                        exists(":make install")

                Note that the argument must be a string, not the name of the
                variable itself.  For example:
                This doesn't check for existence of the "bufcount" variable,
                but gets the value of "bufcount", and checks if that exists.

exp({expr})                                             exp()
                Return the exponential of {expr} as a Float in the range
                [0, inf].
                {expr} must evaluate to a Float or a Number.
                        :echo exp(2)
                        :echo exp(-1)
                {only available when compiled with the +float feature}

expand({expr} [, {nosuf} [, {list}]])                           expand()
                Expand wildcards and the following special keywords in {expr}.
                'wildignorecase' applies.

                If {list} is given and it is TRUE, a List will be returned.
                Otherwise the result is a String and when there are several
                matches, they are separated by <NL> characters.  [Note: in
                version 5.0 a space was used, which caused problems when a
                file name contains a space]

                If the expansion fails, the result is an empty string.  A name
                for a non-existing file is not included, unless {expr} does
                not start with '%', '#' or '<', see below.

                When {expr} starts with '%', '#' or '<', the expansion is done
                like for the cmdline-special variables with their associated
                modifiers.  Here is a short overview:

                        %               current file name
                        #               alternate file name
                        #n              alternate file name n
                        <cfile>         file name under the cursor
                        <afile>         autocmd file name
                        <abuf>          autocmd buffer number (as a String!)
                        <amatch>        autocmd matched name
                        <sfile>         sourced script file or function name
                        <slnum>         sourced script file line number
                        <cword>         word under the cursor
                        <cWORD>         WORD under the cursor
                        <client>        the {clientid} of the last received
                                        message server2client()
                        :p              expand to full path
                        :h              head (last path component removed)
                        :t              tail (last path component only)
                        :r              root (one extension removed)
                        :e              extension only

                        :let &tags = expand("%:p:h") . "/tags"
                Note that when expanding a string that starts with '%', '#' or
                '<', any following text is ignored.  This does NOT work:
                        :let doesntwork = expand("%:h.bak")
                Use this:
                        :let doeswork = expand("%:h") . ".bak"
                Also note that expanding "<cfile>" and others only returns the
                referenced file name without further expansion.  If "<cfile>"
                is "~/.cshrc", you need to do another expand() to have the
                "~/" expanded into the path of the home directory:
                        :echo expand(expand("<cfile>"))

                There cannot be white space between the variables and the
                following modifier.  The fnamemodify() function can be used
                to modify normal file names.

                When using '%' or '#', and the current or alternate file name
                is not defined, an empty string is used.  Using "%:p" in a
                buffer with no name, results in the current directory, with a
                '/' added.

                When {expr} does not start with '%', '#' or '<', it is
                expanded like a file name is expanded on the command line.
                'suffixes' and 'wildignore' are used, unless the optional
                {nosuf} argument is given and it is TRUE.
                Names for non-existing files are included.  The "**" item can
                be used to search in a directory tree.  For example, to find
                all "README" files in the current directory and below:
                        :echo expand("**/README")

                Expand() can also be used to expand variables and environment
                variables that are only known in a shell.  But this can be
                slow, because a shell may be used to do the expansion.  See
                The expanded variable is still handled like a list of file
                names.  When an environment variable cannot be expanded, it is
                left unchanged.  Thus ":echo expand('$FOOBAR')" results in

                See glob() for finding existing files.  See system() for
                getting the raw output of an external command.

extend({expr1}{expr2} [, {expr3}])                    extend()
                {expr1} and {expr2} must be both Lists or both

                If they are Lists: Append {expr2} to {expr1}.
                If {expr3} is given insert the items of {expr2} before item
                {expr3} in {expr1}.  When {expr3} is zero insert before the
                first item.  When {expr3} is equal to len({expr1}) then
                {expr2} is appended.
                        :echo sort(extend(mylist, [7, 5]))
                        :call extend(mylist, [2, 3], 1)
                When {expr1} is the same List as {expr2} then the number of
                items copied is equal to the original length of the List.
                E.g., when {expr3} is 1 you get N new copies of the first item
                (where N is the original length of the List).
                Use add() to concatenate one item to a list.  To concatenate
                two lists into a new list use the + operator:
                        :let newlist = [1, 2, 3] + [4, 5]

                If they are Dictionaries:
                Add all entries from {expr2} to {expr1}.
                If a key exists in both {expr1} and {expr2} then {expr3} is
                used to decide what to do:
                {expr3} = "keep": keep the value of {expr1}
                {expr3} = "force": use the value of {expr2}
                {expr3} = "error": give an error message                E737
                When {expr3} is omitted then "force" is assumed.

                {expr1} is changed when {expr2} is not empty.  If necessary
                make a copy of {expr1} first.
                {expr2} remains unchanged.
                When {expr1} is locked and {expr2} is not empty the operation
                Returns {expr1}.

feedkeys({string} [, {mode}])                           feedkeys()
                Characters in {string} are queued for processing as if they
                come from a mapping or were typed by the user.
                By default the string is added to the end of the typeahead
                buffer, thus if a mapping is still being executed the
                characters come after them.  Use the 'i' flag to insert before
                other characters, they will be executed next, before any
                characters from a mapping.
                The function does not wait for processing of keys contained in
                To include special keys into {string}, use double-quotes
                and "\..." notation expr-quote. For example,
                feedkeys("\<CR>") simulates pressing of the <Enter> key. But
                feedkeys('\<CR>') pushes 5 characters.
                If {mode} is absent, keys are remapped.
                {mode} is a String, which can contain these character flags:
                'm'     Remap keys. This is default.
                'n'     Do not remap keys.
                't'     Handle keys as if typed; otherwise they are handled as
                        if coming from a mapping.  This matters for undo,
                        opening folds, etc.
                'i'     Insert the string instead of appending (see above).
                'x'     Execute commands until typeahead is empty.  This is
                        similar to using ":normal!".  You can call feedkeys()
                        several times without 'x' and then one time with 'x'
                        (possibly with an empty {string}) to execute all the
                        typeahead.  Note that when Vim ends in Insert mode it
                        will behave as if <Esc> is typed, to avoid getting
                        stuck, waiting for a character to be typed before the
                        script continues.
                '!'     When used with 'x' will not end Insert mode. Can be
                        used in a test when a timer is set to exit Insert mode
                        a little later.  Useful for testing CursorHoldI.

                Return value is always 0.

filereadable({file})                                    filereadable()
                The result is a Number, which is TRUE when a file with the
                name {file} exists, and can be read.  If {file} doesn't exist,
                or is a directory, the result is FALSE.  {file} is any
                expression, which is used as a String.
                If you don't care about the file being readable you can use
                Obsolete name: file_readable().

filewritable({file})                                    filewritable()
                The result is a Number, which is 1 when a file with the
                name {file} exists, and can be written.  If {file} doesn't
                exist, or is not writable, the result is 0.  If {file} is a
                directory, and we can write to it, the result is 2.

filter({expr1}{expr2})                                filter()
                {expr1} must be a List or a Dictionary.
                For each item in {expr1} evaluate {expr2} and when the result
                is zero remove the item from the List or Dictionary.
                {expr2} must be a string or Funcref.
                If {expr2} is a string, inside {expr2} v:val has the value
                of the current item.  For a Dictionary v:key has the key
                of the current item and for a List v:key has the index of
                the current item.
                        call filter(mylist, 'v:val !~ "OLD"')
                Removes the items where "OLD" appears.
                        call filter(mydict, 'v:key >= 8')
                Removes the items with a key below 8.
                        call filter(var, 0)
                Removes all the items, thus clears the List or Dictionary.

                Note that {expr2} is the result of expression and is then
                used as an expression again.  Often it is good to use a
                literal-string to avoid having to double backslashes.

                If {expr2} is a Funcref it must take two arguments:
                        1. the key or the index of the current item.
                        2. the value of the current item.
                The function must return TRUE if the item should be kept.
                Example that keeps the odd items of a list:
                        func Odd(idx, val)
                          return a:idx % 2 == 1
                        call filter(mylist, function('Odd'))
                It is shorter when using a lambda:
                        call filter(myList, {idx, val -> idx * val <= 42})
                If you do not use "val" you can leave it out:
                        call filter(myList, {idx -> idx % 2 == 1})

                The operation is done in-place.  If you want a List or
                Dictionary to remain unmodified make a copy first:
                        :let l = filter(copy(mylist), 'v:val =~ "KEEP"')

                Returns {expr1}, the List or Dictionary that was filtered.
                When an error is encountered while evaluating {expr2} no
                further items in {expr1} are processed.  When {expr2} is a
                Funcref errors inside a function are ignored, unless it was
                defined with the "abort" flag.

finddir({name}[, {path}[, {count}]])                            finddir()
                Find directory {name} in {path}.  Supports both downwards and
                upwards recursive directory searches.  See file-searching
                for the syntax of {path}.
                Returns the path of the first found match.  When the found
                directory is below the current directory a relative path is
                returned.  Otherwise a full path is returned.
                If {path} is omitted or empty then 'path' is used.
                If the optional {count} is given, find {count}'s occurrence of
                {name} in {path} instead of the first one.
                When {count} is negative return all the matches in a List.
                This is quite similar to the ex-command :find.
                {only available when compiled with the +file_in_path

findfile({name}[, {path}[, {count}]])                           findfile()
                Just like finddir(), but find a file instead of a directory.
                Uses 'suffixesadd'.
                        :echo findfile("tags.vim", ".;")
                Searches from the directory of the current file upwards until
                it finds the file "tags.vim".

float2nr({expr})                                        float2nr()
                Convert {expr} to a Number by omitting the part after the
                decimal point.
                {expr} must evaluate to a Float or a Number.
                When the value of {expr} is out of range for a Number the
                result is truncated to 0x7fffffff or -0x7fffffff (or when
                64-bit Number support is enabled, 0x7fffffffffffffff or
                -0x7fffffffffffffff.  NaN results in -0x80000000 (or when
                64-bit Number support is enabled, -0x8000000000000000).
                        echo float2nr(3.95)
                        echo float2nr(-23.45)
                        echo float2nr(1.0e100)
                        2147483647  (or 9223372036854775807)
                        echo float2nr(-1.0e150)
                        -2147483647 (or -9223372036854775807)
                        echo float2nr(1.0e-100)
                {only available when compiled with the +float feature}

floor({expr})                                                   floor()
                Return the largest integral value less than or equal to
                {expr} as a Float (round down).
                {expr} must evaluate to a Float or a Number.
                        echo floor(1.856)
                        echo floor(-5.456)
                        echo floor(4.0)
                {only available when compiled with the +float feature}

fmod({expr1}{expr2})                                  fmod()
                Return the remainder of {expr1} / {expr2}, even if the
                division is not representable.  Returns {expr1} - i * {expr2}
                for some integer i such that if {expr2} is non-zero, the
                result has the same sign as {expr1} and magnitude less than
                the magnitude of {expr2}.  If {expr2} is zero, the value
                returned is zero.  The value returned is a Float.
                {expr1} and {expr2} must evaluate to a Float or a Number.
                        :echo fmod(12.33, 1.22)
                        :echo fmod(-12.33, 1.22)
                {only available when compiled with +float feature}

fnameescape({string})                                   fnameescape()
                Escape {string} for use as file name command argument.  All
                characters that have a special meaning, such as '%' and '|'
                are escaped with a backslash.
                For most systems the characters escaped are
                " \t\n*?[{`$\\%#'\"|!<".  For systems where a backslash
                appears in a filename, it depends on the value of 'isfname'.
                A leading '+' and '>' is also escaped (special after :edit
                and :write).  And a "-" by itself (special after :cd).
                        :let fname = '+some str%nge|name'
                        :exe "edit " . fnameescape(fname)
                results in executing:
                        edit \+some\ str\%nge\|name

fnamemodify({fname}{mods})                            fnamemodify()
                Modify file name {fname} according to {mods}.  {mods} is a
                string of characters like it is used for file names on the
                command line.  See filename-modifiers.
                        :echo fnamemodify("main.c", ":p:h")
                results in:
                Note: Environment variables don't work in {fname}, use
                expand() first then.

foldclosed({lnum})                                      foldclosed()
                The result is a Number.  If the line {lnum} is in a closed
                fold, the result is the number of the first line in that fold.
                If the line {lnum} is not in a closed fold, -1 is returned.

foldclosedend({lnum})                                   foldclosedend()
                The result is a Number.  If the line {lnum} is in a closed
                fold, the result is the number of the last line in that fold.
                If the line {lnum} is not in a closed fold, -1 is returned.

foldlevel({lnum})                                       foldlevel()
                The result is a Number, which is the foldlevel of line {lnum}
                in the current buffer.  For nested folds the deepest level is
                returned.  If there is no fold at line {lnum}, zero is
                returned.  It doesn't matter if the folds are open or closed.
                When used while updating folds (from 'foldexpr') -1 is
                returned for lines where folds are still to be updated and the
                foldlevel is unknown.  As a special case the level of the
                previous line is usually available.

foldtext()      Returns a String, to be displayed for a closed fold.  This is
                the default function used for the 'foldtext' option and should
                only be called from evaluating 'foldtext'.  It uses the
                v:foldstartv:foldend and v:folddashes variables.
                The returned string looks like this:
                        +-- 45 lines: abcdef
                The number of leading dashes depends on the foldlevel.  The
                "45" is the number of lines in the fold.  "abcdef" is the text
                in the first non-blank line of the fold.  Leading white space,
                "//" or "/*" and the text from the 'foldmarker' and
                'commentstring' options is removed.
                When used to draw the actual foldtext, the rest of the line
                will be filled with the fold char from the 'fillchars'
                {not available when compiled without the +folding feature}

foldtextresult({lnum})                                  foldtextresult()
                Returns the text that is displayed for the closed fold at line
                {lnum}.  Evaluates 'foldtext' in the appropriate context.
                When there is no closed fold at {lnum} an empty string is
                {lnum} is used like with getline().  Thus "." is the current
                line, "'m" mark m, etc.
                Useful when exporting folded text, e.g., to HTML.
                {not available when compiled without the +folding feature}

foreground()    Move the Vim window to the foreground.  Useful when sent from
                a client to a Vim server. remote_send()
                On Win32 systems this might not work, the OS does not always
                allow a window to bring itself to the foreground.  Use
                remote_foreground() instead.
                {only in the Win32, Athena, Motif and GTK GUI versions and the
                Win32 console version}

funcref({name} [, {arglist}] [, {dict}])
                Just like function(), but the returned Funcref will lookup
                the function by reference, not by name.  This matters when the
                function {name} is redefined later.

                Unlike function(){name} must be an existing user function.
                Also for autoloaded functions. {name} cannot be a builtin

                                        function() E700 E922 E923
function({name} [, {arglist}] [, {dict}])
                Return a Funcref variable that refers to function {name}.
                {name} can be the name of a user defined function or an
                internal function.

                {name} can also be a Funcref or a partial.  When it is a
                partial the dict stored in it will be used and the {dict}
                argument is not allowed. E.g.:
                        let FuncWithArg = function(dict.Func, [arg])
                        let Broken = function(dict.Func, [arg], dict)

                When using the Funcref the function will be found by {name},
                also when it was redefined later.  Use funcref() to keep the
                same function.

                When {arglist} or {dict} is present this creates a partial.
                That means the argument list and/or the dictionary is stored in
                the Funcref and will be used when the Funcref is called.
                The arguments are passed to the function in front of other
                arguments.  Example:
                        func Callback(arg1, arg2, name)
                        let Func = function('Callback', ['one', 'two'])
                        call Func('name')
                Invokes the function as with:
                        call Callback('one', 'two', 'name')

                The function() call can be nested to add more arguments to the
                Funcref.  The extra arguments are appended to the list of
                arguments.  Example:
                        func Callback(arg1, arg2, name)
                        let Func = function('Callback', ['one'])
                        let Func2 = function(Func, ['two'])
                        call Func2('name')
                Invokes the function as with:
                        call Callback('one', 'two', 'name')

                The Dictionary is only useful when calling a "dict" function.
                In that case the {dict} is passed in as "self". Example:
                        function Callback() dict
                           echo "called for " .
                        let context = {"name": "example"}
                        let Func = function('Callback', context)
                        call Func()     " will echo: called for example
                The use of function() is not needed when there are no extra
                arguments, these two are equivalent:
                        let Func = function('Callback', context)
                        let Func = context.Callback

                The argument list and the Dictionary can be combined:
                        function Callback(arg1, count) dict
                        let context = {"name": "example"}
                        let Func = function('Callback', ['one'], context)
                        call Func(500)
                Invokes the function as with:
                        call context.Callback('one', 500)

garbagecollect([{atexit}])                              garbagecollect()
                Cleanup unused ListsDictionariesChannels and Jobs
                that have circular references.
                There is hardly ever a need to invoke this function, as it is
                automatically done when Vim runs out of memory or is waiting
                for the user to press a key after 'updatetime'.  Items without
                circular references are always freed when they become unused.
                This is useful if you have deleted a very big List and/or
                Dictionary with circular references in a script that runs
                for a long time.

                When the optional {atexit} argument is one, garbage
                collection will also be done when exiting Vim, if it wasn't
                done before.  This is useful when checking for memory leaks.

                The garbage collection is not done immediately but only when
                it's safe to perform.  This is when waiting for the user to
                type a character.  To force garbage collection immediately use

get({list}{idx} [, {default}])                        get()
                Get item {idx} from List {list}.  When this item is not
                available return {default}.  Return zero when {default} is
get({dict}{key} [, {default}])
                Get item with key {key} from Dictionary {dict}.  When this
                item is not available return {default}.  Return zero when
                {default} is omitted.
                Get an item with from Funcref {func}.  Possible values for
                {what} are:
                        "name"  The function name
                        "func"  The function
                        "dict"  The dictionary
                        "args"  The list with arguments

                Get information about buffers as a List of Dictionaries.

                Without an argument information about all the buffers is

                When the argument is a Dictionary only the buffers matching
                the specified criteria are returned.  The following keys can
                be specified in {dict}:
                        buflisted       include only listed buffers.
                        bufloaded       include only loaded buffers.

                Otherwise, {expr} specifies a particular buffer to return
                information for.  For the use of {expr}, see bufname()
                above.  If the buffer is found the returned List has one item.
                Otherwise the result is an empty list.

                Each returned List item is a dictionary with the following
                        bufnr           buffer number.
                        changed         TRUE if the buffer is modified.
                        changedtick     number of changes made to the buffer.
                        hidden          TRUE if the buffer is hidden.
                        listed          TRUE if the buffer is listed.
                        lnum            current line number in buffer.
                        loaded          TRUE if the buffer is loaded.
                        name            full path to the file in the buffer.
                        signs           list of signs placed in the buffer.
                                        Each list item is a dictionary with
                                        the following fields:
                                            id    sign identifier
                                            lnum  line number
                                            name  sign name
                        variables       a reference to the dictionary with
                                        buffer-local variables.
                        windows         list of window-IDs that display this

                        for buf in getbufinfo()
                        for buf in getbufinfo({'buflisted':1})
                            if buf.changed

                To get buffer-local options use:
                        getbufvar({bufnr}, '&')

getbufline({expr}{lnum} [, {end}])
                Return a List with the lines starting from {lnum} to {end}
                (inclusive) in the buffer {expr}.  If {end} is omitted, a
                List with only the line {lnum} is returned.

                For the use of {expr}, see bufname() above.

                For {lnum} and {end} "$" can be used for the last line of the
                buffer.  Otherwise a number must be used.

                When {lnum} is smaller than 1 or bigger than the number of
                lines in the buffer, an empty List is returned.

                When {end} is greater than the number of lines in the buffer,
                it is treated as {end} is set to the number of lines in the
                buffer.  When {end} is before {lnum} an empty List is

                This function works only for loaded buffers.  For unloaded and
                non-existing buffers, an empty List is returned.

                        :let lines = getbufline(bufnr("myfile"), 1, "$")

getbufvar({expr}{varname} [, {def}])                          getbufvar()
                The result is the value of option or local buffer variable
                {varname} in buffer {expr}.  Note that the name without "b:"
                must be used.
                When {varname} is empty returns a dictionary with all the
                buffer-local variables.
                When {varname} is equal to "&" returns a dictionary with all
                the buffer-local options.
                Otherwise, when {varname} starts with "&" returns the value of
                a buffer-local option.
                This also works for a global or buffer-local option, but it
                doesn't work for a global variable, window-local variable or
                window-local option.
                For the use of {expr}, see bufname() above.
                When the buffer or variable doesn't exist {def} or an empty
                string is returned, there is no error message.
                        :let bufmodified = getbufvar(1, "&mod")
                        :echo "todo myvar = " . getbufvar("todo", "myvar")

getchar([expr])                                         getchar()
                Get a single character from the user or input stream.
                If [expr] is omitted, wait until a character is available.
                If [expr] is 0, only get a character when one is available.
                        Return zero otherwise.
                If [expr] is 1, only check if a character is available, it is
                        not consumed.  Return zero if no character available.

                Without [expr] and when [expr] is 0 a whole character or
                special key is returned.  If it is a single character, the
                result is a number.  Use nr2char() to convert it to a String.
                Otherwise a String is returned with the encoded character.
                For a special key it's a String with a sequence of bytes
                starting with 0x80 (decimal: 128).  This is the same value as
                the String "\<Key>", e.g., "\<Left>".  The returned value is
                also a String when a modifier (shift, control, alt) was used
                that is not included in the character.

                When [expr] is 0 and Esc is typed, there will be a short delay
                while Vim waits to see if this is the start of an escape

                When [expr] is 1 only the first byte is returned.  For a
                one-byte character it is the character itself as a number.
                Use nr2char() to convert it to a String.

                Use getcharmod() to obtain any additional modifiers.

                When the user clicks a mouse button, the mouse event will be
                returned.  The position can then be found in v:mouse_col,
                v:mouse_lnumv:mouse_winid and v:mouse_win.  This
                example positions the mouse as it would normally happen:
                        let c = getchar()
                        if c == "\<LeftMouse>" && v:mouse_win > 0
                          exe v:mouse_win . "wincmd w"
                          exe v:mouse_lnum
                          exe "normal " . v:mouse_col . "|"

                When using bracketed paste only the first character is
                returned, the rest of the pasted text is dropped.

                There is no prompt, you will somehow have to make clear to the
                user that a character has to be typed.
                There is no mapping for the character.
                Key codes are replaced, thus when the user presses the <Del>
                key you get the code for the <Del> key, not the raw character
                sequence.  Examples:
                        getchar() == "\<Del>"
                        getchar() == "\<S-Left>"
                This example redefines "f" to ignore case:
                        :nmap f :call FindChar()<CR>
                        :function FindChar()
                        :  let c = nr2char(getchar())
                        :  while col('.') < col('$') - 1
                        :    normal l
                        :    if getline('.')[col('.') - 1] ==? c
                        :      break
                        :    endif
                        :  endwhile

                You may also receive synthetic characters, such as
                <CursorHold>. Often you will want to ignore this and get
                another character:
                        :function GetKey()
                        :  let c = getchar()
                        :  while c == "\<CursorHold>"
                        :    let c = getchar()
                        :  endwhile
                        :  return c

getcharmod()                                            getcharmod()
                The result is a Number which is the state of the modifiers for
                the last obtained character with getchar() or in another way.
                These values are added together:
                        2       shift
                        4       control
                        8       alt (meta)
                        16      meta (when it's different from ALT)
                        32      mouse double click
                        64      mouse triple click
                        96      mouse quadruple click (== 32 + 64)
                        128     command (Macintosh only)
                Only the modifiers that have not been included in the
                character itself are obtained.  Thus Shift-a results in "A"
                without a modifier.

getcharsearch()                                         getcharsearch()
                Return the current character search information as a {dict}
                with the following entries:

                    char        character previously used for a character
                                search (tfT, or F); empty string
                                if no character search has been performed
                    forward     direction of character search; 1 for forward,
                                0 for backward
                    until       type of character search; 1 for a t or T
                                character search, 0 for an f or F
                                character search

                This can be useful to always have ; and , search
                forward/backward regardless of the direction of the previous
                character search:
                        :nnoremap <expr> ; getcharsearch().forward ? ';' : ','
                        :nnoremap <expr> , getcharsearch().forward ? ',' : ';'
                Also see setcharsearch().

getcmdline()                                            getcmdline()
                Return the current command-line.  Only works when the command
                line is being edited, thus requires use of c_CTRL-\_e or
                        :cmap <F7> <C-\>eescape(getcmdline(), ' \')<CR>
                Also see getcmdtype()getcmdpos() and setcmdpos().

getcmdpos()                                             getcmdpos()
                Return the position of the cursor in the command line as a
                byte count.  The first column is 1.
                Only works when editing the command line, thus requires use of
                c_CTRL-\_e or c_CTRL-R_= or an expression mapping.
                Returns 0 otherwise.
                Also see getcmdtype()setcmdpos() and getcmdline().

getcmdtype()                                            getcmdtype()
                Return the current command-line type. Possible return values
                    :   normal Ex command
                    >   debug mode command debug-mode
                    /   forward search command
                    ?   backward search command
                    @   input() command
                    -   :insert or :append command
                    =   i_CTRL-R_=
                Only works when editing the command line, thus requires use of
                c_CTRL-\_e or c_CTRL-R_= or an expression mapping.
                Returns an empty string otherwise.
                Also see getcmdpos()setcmdpos() and getcmdline().

getcmdwintype()                                         getcmdwintype()
                Return the current command-line-window type. Possible return
                values are the same as getcmdtype(). Returns an empty string
                when not in the command-line window.

getcompletion({pat}{type} [, {filtered}])             getcompletion()
                Return a list of command-line completion matches. {type}
                specifies what for.  The following completion types are

                augroup         autocmd groups
                buffer          buffer names
                behave          :behave suboptions
                color           color schemes
                command         Ex command (and arguments)
                compiler        compilers
                cscope          :cscope suboptions
                dir             directory names
                environment     environment variable names
                event           autocommand events
                expression      Vim expression
                file            file and directory names
                file_in_path    file and directory names in 'path'
                filetype        filetype names 'filetype'
                function        function name
                help            help subjects
                highlight       highlight groups
                history         :history suboptions
                locale          locale names (as output of locale -a)
                mapclear        buffer argument
                mapping         mapping name
                menu            menus
                messages        :messages suboptions
                option          options
                packadd         optional package pack-add names
                shellcmd        Shell command
                sign            :sign suboptions
                syntax          syntax file names 'syntax'
                syntime         :syntime suboptions
                tag             tags
                tag_listfiles   tags, file names
                user            user names
                var             user variables

                If {pat} is an empty string, then all the matches are returned.
                Otherwise only items matching {pat} are returned. See
                wildcards for the use of special characters in {pat}.

                If the optional {filtered} flag is set to 1, then 'wildignore'
                is applied to filter the results.  Otherwise all the matches
                are returned. The 'wildignorecase' option always applies.

                If there are no matches, an empty list is returned.  An
                invalid value for {type} produces an error.

getcurpos()     Get the position of the cursor.  This is like getpos('.'), but
                includes an extra item in the list:
                    [bufnum, lnum, col, off, curswant]
                The "curswant" number is the preferred column when moving the
                cursor vertically.  Also see getpos().

                This can be used to save and restore the cursor position:
                        let save_cursor = getcurpos()
                        call setpos('.', save_cursor)
                Note that this only works within the window.  See
                winrestview() for restoring more state.
getcwd([{winnr} [, {tabnr}]])
                The result is a String, which is the name of the current
                working directory.
                Without arguments, for the current window.

                With {winnr} return the local current directory of this window
                in the current tab page.
                With {winnr} and {tabnr} return the local current directory of
                the window in the specified tab page.
                {winnr} can be the window number or the window-ID.
                Return an empty string if the arguments are invalid.

getfsize({fname})                                       getfsize()
                The result is a Number, which is the size in bytes of the
                given file {fname}.
                If {fname} is a directory, 0 is returned.
                If the file {fname} can't be found, -1 is returned.
                If the size of {fname} is too big to fit in a Number then -2
                is returned.

getfontname([{name}])                                   getfontname()
                Without an argument returns the name of the normal font being
                used.  Like what is used for the Normal highlight group
                With an argument a check is done whether {name} is a valid
                font name.  If not then an empty string is returned.
                Otherwise the actual font name is returned, or {name} if the
                GUI does not support obtaining the real name.
                Only works when the GUI is running, thus not in your vimrc or
                gvimrc file.  Use the GUIEnter autocommand to use this
                function just after the GUI has started.
                Note that the GTK GUI accepts any font name, thus checking for
                a valid name does not work.

getfperm({fname})                                       getfperm()
                The result is a String, which is the read, write, and execute
                permissions of the given file {fname}.
                If {fname} does not exist or its directory cannot be read, an
                empty string is returned.
                The result is of the form "rwxrwxrwx", where each group of
                "rwx" flags represent, in turn, the permissions of the owner
                of the file, the group the file belongs to, and other users.
                If a user does not have a given permission the flag for this
                is replaced with the string "-".  Examples:
                        :echo getfperm("/etc/passwd")
                        :echo getfperm(expand("~/.vimrc"))
                This will hopefully (from a security point of view) display
                the string "rw-r--r--" or even "rw-------".

                For setting permissions use setfperm().

getftime({fname})                                       getftime()
                The result is a Number, which is the last modification time of
                the given file {fname}.  The value is measured as seconds
                since 1st Jan 1970, and may be passed to strftime().  See also
                localtime() and strftime().
                If the file {fname} can't be found -1 is returned.

getftype({fname})                                       getftype()
                The result is a String, which is a description of the kind of
                file of the given file {fname}.
                If {fname} does not exist an empty string is returned.
                Here is a table over different kinds of files and their
                        Normal file             "file"
                        Directory               "dir"
                        Symbolic link           "link"
                        Block device            "bdev"
                        Character device        "cdev"
                        Socket                  "socket"
                        FIFO                    "fifo"
                        All other               "other"
                Note that a type such as "link" will only be returned on
                systems that support it.  On some systems only "dir" and
                "file" are returned.  On MS-Windows a symbolic link to a
                directory returns "dir" instead of "link".

getline({lnum} [, {end}])
                Without {end} the result is a String, which is line {lnum}
                from the current buffer.  Example:
                When {lnum} is a String that doesn't start with a
                digit, line() is called to translate the String into a Number.
                To get the line under the cursor:
                When {lnum} is smaller than 1 or bigger than the number of
                lines in the buffer, an empty string is returned.

                When {end} is given the result is a List where each item is
                a line from the current buffer in the range {lnum} to {end},
                including line {end}.
                {end} is used in the same way as {lnum}.
                Non-existing lines are silently omitted.
                When {end} is before {lnum} an empty List is returned.
                        :let start = line('.')
                        :let end = search("^$") - 1
                        :let lines = getline(start, end)

                To get lines from another buffer see getbufline()

getloclist({nr}[, {what}])                              getloclist()
                Returns a list with all the entries in the location list for
                window {nr}.  {nr} can be the window number or the window-ID.
                When {nr} is zero the current window is used.

                For a location list window, the displayed location list is
                returned.  For an invalid window number {nr}, an empty list is
                returned. Otherwise, same as getqflist().

                If the optional {what} dictionary argument is supplied, then
                returns the items listed in {what} as a dictionary. Refer to
                getqflist() for the supported items in {what}.

getmatches()                                            getmatches()
                Returns a List with all matches previously defined by
                matchadd() and the :match commands.  getmatches() is
                useful in combination with setmatches(), as setmatches()
                can restore a list of matches saved by getmatches().
                        :echo getmatches()
                        [{'group': 'MyGroup1', 'pattern': 'TODO',
                        'priority': 10, 'id': 1}, {'group': 'MyGroup2',
                        'pattern': 'FIXME', 'priority': 10, 'id': 2}]
                        :let m = getmatches()
                        :call clearmatches()
                        :echo getmatches()
                        :call setmatches(m)
                        :echo getmatches()
                        [{'group': 'MyGroup1', 'pattern': 'TODO',
                        'priority': 10, 'id': 1}, {'group': 'MyGroup2',
                        'pattern': 'FIXME', 'priority': 10, 'id': 2}]
                        :unlet m

getpid()        Return a Number which is the process ID of the Vim process.
                On Unix and MS-Windows this is a unique number, until Vim
                exits.  On MS-DOS it's always zero.

getpos({expr})  Get the position for {expr}.  For possible values of {expr}
                see line().  For getting the cursor position see
                The result is a List with four numbers:
                    [bufnum, lnum, col, off]
                "bufnum" is zero, unless a mark like '0 or 'A is used, then it
                is the buffer number of the mark.
                "lnum" and "col" are the position in the buffer.  The first
                column is 1.
                The "off" number is zero, unless 'virtualedit' is used.  Then
                it is the offset in screen columns from the start of the
                character.  E.g., a position within a <Tab> or after the last
                Note that for '< and '> Visual mode matters: when it is "V"
                (visual line mode) the column of '< is zero and the column of
                '> is a large number.
                This can be used to save and restore the position of a mark:
                        let save_a_mark = getpos("'a")
                        call setpos("'a", save_a_mark)
                Also see getcurpos() and setpos().

getqflist([{what}])                                     getqflist()
                Returns a list with all the current quickfix errors.  Each
                list item is a dictionary with these entries:
                        bufnr   number of buffer that has the file name, use
                                bufname() to get the name
                        lnum    line number in the buffer (first line is 1)
                        col     column number (first column is 1)
                        vcol    TRUE: "col" is visual column
                                FALSE: "col" is byte index
                        nr      error number
                        pattern search pattern used to locate the error
                        text    description of the error
                        type    type of the error, 'E', '1', etc.
                        valid   TRUE: recognized error message

                When there is no error list or it's empty, an empty list is
                returned. Quickfix list entries with non-existing buffer
                number are returned with "bufnr" set to zero.

                Useful application: Find pattern matches in multiple files and
                do something with them:
                        :vimgrep /theword/jg *.c
                        :for d in getqflist()
                        :   echo bufname(d.bufnr) ':' d.lnum '=' d.text

                If the optional {what} dictionary argument is supplied, then
                returns only the items listed in {what} as a dictionary. The
                following string items are supported in {what}:
                        context get the context stored with setqflist()
                        items   quickfix list entries
                        nr      get information for this quickfix list; zero
                                means the current quickfix list and '$' means
                                the last quickfix list
                        title   get the list title
                        winid   get the window-ID (if opened)
                        all     all of the above quickfix properties
                Non-string items in {what} are ignored.
                If "nr" is not present then the current quickfix list is used.
                To get the number of lists in the quickfix stack, set 'nr' to
                '$' in {what}. The 'nr' value in the returned dictionary
                contains the quickfix stack size.
                In case of error processing {what}, an empty dictionary is

                The returned dictionary contains the following entries:
                        context context information stored with setqflist()
                        items   quickfix list entries
                        nr      quickfix list number
                        title   quickfix list title text
                        winid   quickfix window-ID (if opened)

                        :echo getqflist({'all': 1})
                        :echo getqflist({'nr': 2, 'title': 1})

getreg([{regname} [, 1 [, {list}]]])                    getreg()
                The result is a String, which is the contents of register
                {regname}.  Example:
                        :let cliptext = getreg('*')
                When {regname} was not set the result is an empty string.

                getreg('=') returns the last evaluated value of the expression
                register.  (For use in maps.)
                getreg('=', 1) returns the expression itself, so that it can
                be restored with setreg().  For other registers the extra
                argument is ignored, thus you can always give it.

                If {list} is present and TRUE, the result type is changed
                to List. Each list item is one text line. Use it if you care
                about zero bytes possibly present inside register: without
                third argument both NLs and zero bytes are represented as NLs
                (see NL-used-for-Nul).
                When the register was not set an empty list is returned.

                If {regname} is not specified, v:register is used.

getregtype([{regname}])                                 getregtype()
                The result is a String, which is type of register {regname}.
                The value will be one of:
                    "v"                 for characterwise text
                    "V"                 for linewise text
                    "<CTRL-V>{width}"   for blockwise-visual text
                    ""                  for an empty or unknown register
                <CTRL-V> is one character with value 0x16.
                If {regname} is not specified, v:register is used.

gettabinfo([{arg}])                                     gettabinfo()
                If {arg} is not specified, then information about all the tab
                pages is returned as a List. Each List item is a Dictionary.
                Otherwise, {arg} specifies the tab page number and information
                about that one is returned.  If the tab page does not exist an
                empty List is returned.

                Each List item is a Dictionary with the following entries:
                        tabnr           tab page number.
                        variables       a reference to the dictionary with
                                        tabpage-local variables
                        windows         List of window-IDs in the tag page.

gettabvar({tabnr}{varname} [, {def}])                         gettabvar()
                Get the value of a tab-local variable {varname} in tab page
                Tabs are numbered starting with one.
                When {varname} is empty a dictionary with all tab-local
                variables is returned.
                Note that the name without "t:" must be used.
                When the tab or variable doesn't exist {def} or an empty
                string is returned, there is no error message.

gettabwinvar({tabnr}{winnr}{varname} [, {def}])             gettabwinvar()
                Get the value of window-local variable {varname} in window
                {winnr} in tab page {tabnr}.
                When {varname} is empty a dictionary with all window-local
                variables is returned.
                When {varname} is equal to "&" get the values of all
                window-local options in a Dictionary.
                Otherwise, when {varname} starts with "&" get the value of a
                window-local option.
                Note that {varname} must be the name without "w:".
                Tabs are numbered starting with one.  For the current tabpage
                use getwinvar().
                {winnr} can be the window number or the window-ID.
                When {winnr} is zero the current window is used.
                This also works for a global option, buffer-local option and
                window-local option, but it doesn't work for a global variable
                or buffer-local variable.
                When the tab, window or variable doesn't exist {def} or an
                empty string is returned, there is no error message.
                        :let list_is_on = gettabwinvar(1, 2, '&list')
                        :echo "myvar = " . gettabwinvar(3, 1, 'myvar')

getwinposx()    The result is a Number, which is the X coordinate in pixels of
                the left hand side of the GUI Vim window. Also works for an
                The result will be -1 if the information is not available.
                The value can be used with :winpos.

getwinposy()    The result is a Number, which is the Y coordinate in pixels of
                the top of the GUI Vim window.  Also works for an xterm.
                The result will be -1 if the information is not available.
                The value can be used with :winpos.

getwininfo([{winid}])                                   getwininfo()
                Returns information about windows as a List with Dictionaries.

                If {winid} is given Information about the window with that ID
                is returned.  If the window does not exist the result is an
                empty list.

                Without {winid} information about all the windows in all the
                tab pages is returned.

                Each List item is a Dictionary with the following entries:
                        bufnr           number of buffer in the window
                        height          window height
                        loclist         1 if showing a location list
                                        {only with the +quickfix feature}
                        quickfix        1 if quickfix or location list window
                                        {only with the +quickfix feature}
                        terminal        1 if a terminal window
                                        {only with the +terminal feature}
                        tabnr           tab page number
                        variables       a reference to the dictionary with
                                        window-local variables
                        width           window width
                        winid           window-ID
                        winnr           window number

                To obtain all window-local variables use:
                        gettabwinvar({tabnr}, {winnr}, '&')

getwinvar({winnr}{varname} [, {def}])                         getwinvar()
                Like gettabwinvar() for the current tabpage.
                        :let list_is_on = getwinvar(2, '&list')
                        :echo "myvar = " . getwinvar(1, 'myvar')

glob({expr} [, {nosuf} [, {list} [, {alllinks}]]])              glob()
                Expand the file wildcards in {expr}.  See wildcards for the
                use of special characters.

                Unless the optional {nosuf} argument is given and is TRUE,
                the 'suffixes' and 'wildignore' options apply: Names matching
                one of the patterns in 'wildignore' will be skipped and
                'suffixes' affect the ordering of matches.
                'wildignorecase' always applies.

                When {list} is present and it is TRUE the result is a List
                with all matching files. The advantage of using a List is,
                you also get filenames containing newlines correctly.
                Otherwise the result is a String and when there are several
                matches, they are separated by <NL> characters.

                If the expansion fails, the result is an empty String or List.

                A name for a non-existing file is not included.  A symbolic
                link is only included if it points to an existing file.
                However, when the {alllinks} argument is present and it is
                TRUE then all symbolic links are included.

                For most systems backticks can be used to get files names from
                any external command.  Example:
                        :let tagfiles = glob("`find . -name tags -print`")
                        :let &tags = substitute(tagfiles, "\n", ",", "g")
                The result of the program inside the backticks should be one
                item per line.  Spaces inside an item are allowed.

                See expand() for expanding special Vim variables.  See
                system() for getting the raw output of an external command.

glob2regpat({expr})                                      glob2regpat()
                Convert a file pattern, as used by glob(), into a search
                pattern.  The result can be used to match with a string that
                is a file name.  E.g.
                        if filename =~ glob2regpat('Make*.mak')
                This is equivalent to:
                        if filename =~ '^Make.*\.mak$'
                When {expr} is an empty string the result is "^$", match an
                empty string.
                Note that the result depends on the system.  On MS-Windows
                a backslash usually means a path separator.

globpath({path}{expr} [, {nosuf} [, {list} [, {alllinks}]]])
                Perform glob() on all directories in {path} and concatenate
                the results.  Example:
                        :echo globpath(&rtp, "syntax/c.vim")

                {path} is a comma-separated list of directory names.  Each
                directory name is prepended to {expr} and expanded like with
                glob().  A path separator is inserted when needed.
                To add a comma inside a directory name escape it with a
                backslash.  Note that on MS-Windows a directory may have a
                trailing backslash, remove it if you put a comma after it.
                If the expansion fails for one of the directories, there is no
                error message.

                Unless the optional {nosuf} argument is given and is TRUE,
                the 'suffixes' and 'wildignore' options apply: Names matching
                one of the patterns in 'wildignore' will be skipped and
                'suffixes' affect the ordering of matches.

                When {list} is present and it is TRUE the result is a List
                with all matching files. The advantage of using a List is, you
                also get filenames containing newlines correctly. Otherwise
                the result is a String and when there are several matches,
                they are separated by <NL> characters.  Example:
                        :echo globpath(&rtp, "syntax/c.vim", 0, 1)

                {alllinks} is used as with glob().

                The "**" item can be used to search in a directory tree.
                For example, to find all "README.txt" files in the directories
                in 'runtimepath' and below:
                        :echo globpath(&rtp, "**/README.txt")
                Upwards search and limiting the depth of "**" is not
                supported, thus using 'path' will not always work properly.

has({feature})  The result is a Number, which is 1 if the feature {feature} is
                supported, zero otherwise.  The {feature} argument is a
                string.  See feature-list below.
                Also see exists().

has_key({dict}{key})                                  has_key()
                The result is a Number, which is 1 if Dictionary {dict} has
                an entry with key {key}.  Zero otherwise.

haslocaldir([{winnr} [, {tabnr}]])                      haslocaldir()
                The result is a Number, which is 1 when the window has set a
                local path via :lcd, and 0 otherwise.

                Without arguments use the current window.
                With {winnr} use this window in the current tab page.
                With {winnr} and {tabnr} use the window in the specified tab
                {winnr} can be the window number or the window-ID.
                Return 0 if the arguments are invalid.

hasmapto({what} [, {mode} [, {abbr}]])                  hasmapto()
                The result is a Number, which is 1 if there is a mapping that
                contains {what} in somewhere in the rhs (what it is mapped to)
                and this mapping exists in one of the modes indicated by
                When {abbr} is there and it is TRUE use abbreviations
                instead of mappings.  Don't forget to specify Insert and/or
                Command-line mode.
                Both the global mappings and the mappings local to the current
                buffer are checked for a match.
                If no matching mapping is found 0 is returned.
                The following characters are recognized in {mode}:
                        n       Normal mode
                        v       Visual mode
                        o       Operator-pending mode
                        i       Insert mode
                        l       Language-Argument ("r", "f", "t", etc.)
                        c       Command-line mode
                When {mode} is omitted, "nvo" is used.

                This function is useful to check if a mapping already exists
                to a function in a Vim script.  Example:
                        :if !hasmapto('\ABCdoit')
                        :   map <Leader>d \ABCdoit
                This installs the mapping to "\ABCdoit" only if there isn't
                already a mapping to "\ABCdoit".

histadd({history}{item})                              histadd()
                Add the String {item} to the history {history} which can be
                one of:                                 hist-names
                        "cmd"    or ":"   command line history
                        "search" or "/"   search pattern history
                        "expr"   or "="   typed expression history
                        "input"  or "@"   input line history
                        "debug"  or ">"   debug command history
                        empty             the current or last used history
                The {history} string does not need to be the whole name, one
                character is sufficient.
                If {item} does already exist in the history, it will be
                shifted to become the newest entry.
                The result is a Number: 1 if the operation was successful,
                otherwise 0 is returned.

                        :call histadd("input", strftime("%Y %b %d"))
                        :let date=input("Enter date: ")
                This function is not available in the sandbox.

histdel({history} [, {item}])                           histdel()
                Clear {history}, i.e. delete all its entries.  See hist-names
                for the possible values of {history}.

                If the parameter {item} evaluates to a String, it is used as a
                regular expression.  All entries matching that expression will
                be removed from the history (if there are any).
                Upper/lowercase must match, unless "\c" is used /\c.
                If {item} evaluates to a Number, it will be interpreted as
                an index, see :history-indexing.  The respective entry will
                be removed if it exists.

                The result is a Number: 1 for a successful operation,
                otherwise 0 is returned.

                Clear expression register history:
                        :call histdel("expr")

                Remove all entries starting with "*" from the search history:
                        :call histdel("/", '^\*')

                The following three are equivalent:
                        :call histdel("search", histnr("search"))
                        :call histdel("search", -1)
                        :call histdel("search", '^'.histget("search", -1).'$')

                To delete the last search pattern and use the last-but-one for
                the "n" command and 'hlsearch':
                        :call histdel("search", -1)
                        :let @/ = histget("search", -1)

histget({history} [, {index}])                          histget()
                The result is a String, the entry with Number {index} from
                {history}.  See hist-names for the possible values of
                {history}, and :history-indexing for {index}.  If there is
                no such entry, an empty String is returned.  When {index} is
                omitted, the most recent item from the history is used.

                Redo the second last search from history.
                        :execute '/' . histget("search", -2)

                Define an Ex command ":H {num}" that supports re-execution of
                the {num}th entry from the output of :history.
                        :command -nargs=1 H execute histget("cmd", 0+<args>)

histnr({history})                                       histnr()
                The result is the Number of the current entry in {history}.
                See hist-names for the possible values of {history}.
                If an error occurred, -1 is returned.

                        :let inp_index = histnr("expr")

hlexists({name})                                        hlexists()
                The result is a Number, which is non-zero if a highlight group
                called {name} exists.  This is when the group has been
                defined in some way.  Not necessarily when highlighting has
                been defined for it, it may also have been used for a syntax
                Obsolete name: highlight_exists().

hlID({name})    The result is a Number, which is the ID of the highlight group
                with name {name}.  When the highlight group doesn't exist,
                zero is returned.
                This can be used to retrieve information about the highlight
                group.  For example, to get the background color of the
                "Comment" group:
        :echo synIDattr(synIDtrans(hlID("Comment")), "bg")
                Obsolete name: highlightID().

hostname()                                              hostname()
                The result is a String, which is the name of the machine on
                which Vim is currently running.  Machine names greater than
                256 characters long are truncated.

iconv({expr}{from}{to})                             iconv()
                The result is a String, which is the text {expr} converted
                from encoding {from} to encoding {to}.
                When the conversion completely fails an empty string is
                returned.  When some characters could not be converted they
                are replaced with "?".
                The encoding names are whatever the iconv() library function
                can accept, see ":!man 3 iconv".
                Most conversions require Vim to be compiled with the +iconv
                feature.  Otherwise only UTF-8 to latin1 conversion and back
                can be done.
                This can be used to display messages with special characters,
                no matter what 'encoding' is set to.  Write the message in
                UTF-8 and use:
                        echo iconv(utf8_str, "utf-8", &enc)
                Note that Vim uses UTF-8 for all Unicode encodings, conversion
                from/to UCS-2 is automatically changed to use UTF-8.  You
                cannot use UCS-2 in a string anyway, because of the NUL bytes.
                {only available when compiled with the +multi_byte feature}

indent({lnum})  The result is a Number, which is indent of line {lnum} in the
                current buffer.  The indent is counted in spaces, the value
                of 'tabstop' is relevant.  {lnum} is used just like in
                When {lnum} is invalid -1 is returned.

index({list}{expr} [, {start} [, {ic}]])                      index()
                Return the lowest index in List {list} where the item has a
                value equal to {expr}.  There is no automatic conversion, so
                the String "4" is different from the Number 4.  And the number
                4 is different from the Float 4.0.  The value of 'ignorecase'
                is not used here, case always matters.
                If {start} is given then start looking at the item with index
                {start} (may be negative for an item relative to the end).
                When {ic} is given and it is TRUE, ignore case.  Otherwise
                case must match.
                -1 is returned when {expr} is not found in {list}.
                        :let idx = index(words, "the")
                        :if index(numbers, 123) >= 0

input({prompt} [, {text} [, {completion}]])             input()
                The result is a String, which is whatever the user typed on
                the command-line.  The {prompt} argument is either a prompt
                string, or a blank string (for no prompt).  A '\n' can be used
                in the prompt to start a new line.
                The highlighting set with :echohl is used for the prompt.
                The input is entered just like a command-line, with the same
                editing commands and mappings.  There is a separate history
                for lines typed for input().
                        :if input("Coffee or beer? ") == "beer"
                        :  echo "Cheers!"

                If the optional {text} argument is present and not empty, this
                is used for the default reply, as if the user typed this.
                        :let color = input("Color? ", "white")

                The optional {completion} argument specifies the type of
                completion supported for the input.  Without it completion is
                not performed.  The supported completion types are the same as
                that can be supplied to a user-defined command using the
                "-complete=" argument.  Refer to :command-completion for
                more information.  Example:
                        let fname = input("File: ", "", "file")

                NOTE: This function must not be used in a startup file, for
                the versions that only run in GUI mode (e.g., the Win32 GUI).
                Note: When input() is called from within a mapping it will
                consume remaining characters from that mapping, because a
                mapping is handled like the characters were typed.
                Use inputsave() before input() and inputrestore()
                after input() to avoid that.  Another solution is to avoid
                that further characters follow in the mapping, e.g., by using
                :execute or :normal.

                Example with a mapping:
                        :nmap \x :call GetFoo()<CR>:exe "/" . Foo<CR>
                        :function GetFoo()
                        :  call inputsave()
                        :  let g:Foo = input("enter search pattern: ")
                        :  call inputrestore()

inputdialog({prompt} [, {text} [, {cancelreturn}]])             inputdialog()
                Like input(), but when the GUI is running and text dialogs
                are supported, a dialog window pops up to input the text.
                   :let n = inputdialog("value for shiftwidth", shiftwidth())
                   :if n != ""
                   :  let &sw = n
                When the dialog is cancelled {cancelreturn} is returned.  When
                omitted an empty string is returned.
                Hitting <Enter> works like pressing the OK button.  Hitting
                <Esc> works like pressing the Cancel button.
                NOTE: Command-line completion is not supported.

inputlist({textlist})                                   inputlist()
                {textlist} must be a List of strings.  This List is
                displayed, one string per line.  The user will be prompted to
                enter a number, which is returned.
                The user can also select an item by clicking on it with the
                mouse.  For the first string 0 is returned.  When clicking
                above the first item a negative number is returned.  When
                clicking on the prompt one more than the length of {textlist}
                is returned.
                Make sure {textlist} has less than 'lines' entries, otherwise
                it won't work.  It's a good idea to put the entry number at
                the start of the string.  And put a prompt in the first item.
                        let color = inputlist(['Select color:', '1. red',
                                \ '2. green', '3. blue'])

inputrestore()                                          inputrestore()
                Restore typeahead that was saved with a previous inputsave().
                Should be called the same number of times inputsave() is
                called.  Calling it more often is harmless though.
                Returns 1 when there is nothing to restore, 0 otherwise.

inputsave()                                             inputsave()
                Preserve typeahead (also from mappings) and clear it, so that
                a following prompt gets input from the user.  Should be
                followed by a matching inputrestore() after the prompt.  Can
                be used several times, in which case there must be just as
                many inputrestore() calls.
                Returns 1 when out of memory, 0 otherwise.

inputsecret({prompt} [, {text}])                        inputsecret()
                This function acts much like the input() function with but
                two exceptions:
                a) the user's response will be displayed as a sequence of
                asterisks ("*") thereby keeping the entry secret, and
                b) the user's response will not be recorded on the input
                history stack.
                The result is a String, which is whatever the user actually
                typed on the command-line in response to the issued prompt.
                NOTE: Command-line completion is not supported.

insert({list}{item} [, {idx}])                        insert()
                Insert {item} at the start of List {list}.
                If {idx} is specified insert {item} before the item with index
                {idx}.  If {idx} is zero it goes before the first item, just
                like omitting {idx}.  A negative {idx} is also possible, see
                list-index.  -1 inserts just before the last item.
                Returns the resulting List.  Examples:
                        :let mylist = insert([2, 3, 5], 1)
                        :call insert(mylist, 4, -1)
                        :call insert(mylist, 6, len(mylist))
                The last example can be done simpler with add().
                Note that when {item} is a List it is inserted as a single
                item.  Use extend() to concatenate Lists.

invert({expr})                                          invert()
                Bitwise invert.  The argument is converted to a number.  A
                List, Dict or Float argument causes an error.  Example:
                        :let bits = invert(bits)

isdirectory({directory})                                isdirectory()
                The result is a Number, which is TRUE when a directory
                with the name {directory} exists.  If {directory} doesn't
                exist, or isn't a directory, the result is FALSE.  {directory}
                is any expression, which is used as a String.

islocked({expr})                                        islocked() E786
                The result is a Number, which is TRUE when {expr} is the
                name of a locked variable.
                {expr} must be the name of a variable, List item or
                Dictionary entry, not the variable itself!  Example:
                        :let alist = [0, ['a', 'b'], 2, 3]
                        :lockvar 1 alist
                        :echo islocked('alist')         " 1
                        :echo islocked('alist[1]')      " 0

                When {expr} is a variable that does not exist you get an error
                message.  Use exists() to check for existence.

isnan({expr})                                           isnan()
                Return TRUE if {expr} is a float with value NaN.
                        echo isnan(0.0 / 0.0)

                {only available when compiled with the +float feature}

items({dict})                                           items()
                Return a List with all the key-value pairs of {dict}.  Each
                List item is a list with two items: the key of a {dict}
                entry and the value of this entry.  The List is in arbitrary

job_getchannel({job})                                    job_getchannel()
                Get the channel handle that {job} is using.
                To check if the job has no channel:
                        if string(job_getchannel()) == 'channel fail'

                {only available when compiled with the +job feature}

job_info({job})                                         job_info()
                Returns a Dictionary with information about {job}:
                   "status"     what job_status() returns
                   "channel"    what job_getchannel() returns
                   "process"    process ID
                   "tty"        controlling terminal name, empty when none
                   "exitval"    only valid when "status" is "dead"
                   "exit_cb"    function to be called on exit
                   "stoponexit" job-stoponexit

job_setoptions({job}{options})                        job_setoptions()
                Change options for {job}.  Supported are:
                   "stoponexit" job-stoponexit
                   "exit_cb"    job-exit_cb

job_start({command} [, {options}])                      job_start()
                Start a job and return a Job object.  Unlike system() and
                :!cmd this does not wait for the job to finish.

                {command} can be a String.  This works best on MS-Windows.  On
                Unix it is split up in white-separated parts to be passed to
                execvp().  Arguments in double quotes can contain white space.

                {command} can be a List, where the first item is the executable
                and further items are the arguments.  All items are converted
                to String.  This works best on Unix.

                On MS-Windows, job_start() makes a GUI application hidden. If
                want to show it, Use :!start instead.

                The command is executed directly, not through a shell, the
                'shell' option is not used.  To use the shell:
        let job = job_start(["/bin/sh", "-c", "echo hello"])
        let job = job_start('/bin/sh -c "echo hello"')
                Note that this will start two processes, the shell and the
                command it executes.  If you don't want this use the "exec"
                shell command.

                On Unix $PATH is used to search for the executable only when
                the command does not contain a slash.

                The job will use the same terminal as Vim.  If it reads from
                stdin the job and Vim will be fighting over input, that
                doesn't work.  Redirect stdin and stdout to avoid problems:
        let job = job_start(['sh', '-c', "myserver </dev/null >/dev/null"])

                The returned Job object can be used to get the status with
                job_status() and stop the job with job_stop().

                {options} must be a Dictionary.  It can contain many optional
                items, see job-options.

                {only available when compiled with the +job feature}

job_status({job})                                       job_status() E916
                Returns a String with the status of {job}:
                        "run"   job is running
                        "fail"  job failed to start
                        "dead"  job died or was stopped after running
                On Unix a non-existing command results in "dead" instead of
                "fail", because a fork happens before the failure can be

                If an exit callback was set with the "exit_cb" option and the
                job is now detected to be "dead" the callback will be invoked.

                For more information see job_info().

                {only available when compiled with the +job feature}

job_stop({job} [, {how}])                                       job_stop()
                Stop the {job}.  This can also be used to signal the job.

                When {how} is omitted or is "term" the job will be terminated.
                For Unix SIGTERM is sent.  On MS-Windows the job will be
                terminated forcedly (there is no "gentle" way).
                This goes to the process group, thus children may also be

                Effect for Unix:
                        "term"   SIGTERM (default)
                        "hup"    SIGHUP
                        "quit"   SIGQUIT
                        "int"    SIGINT
                        "kill"   SIGKILL (strongest way to stop)
                        number   signal with that number

                Effect for MS-Windows:
                        "term"   terminate process forcedly (default)
                        "hup"    CTRL_BREAK
                        "quit"   CTRL_BREAK
                        "int"    CTRL_C
                        "kill"   terminate process forcedly
                        Others   CTRL_BREAK

                On Unix the signal is sent to the process group.  This means
                that when the job is "sh -c command" it affects both the shell
                and the command.

                The result is a Number: 1 if the operation could be executed,
                0 if "how" is not supported on the system.
                Note that even when the operation was executed, whether the
                job was actually stopped needs to be checked with

                If the status of the job is "dead", the signal will not be
                sent.  This is to avoid to stop the wrong job (esp. on Unix,
                where process numbers are recycled).

                When using "kill" Vim will assume the job will die and close
                the channel.

                {only available when compiled with the +job feature}

join({list} [, {sep}])                                  join()
                Join the items in {list} together into one String.
                When {sep} is specified it is put in between the items.  If
                {sep} is omitted a single space is used.
                Note that {sep} is not added at the end.  You might want to
                add it there too:
                        let lines = join(mylist, "\n") . "\n"
                String items are used as-is.  Lists and Dictionaries are
                converted into a string like with string().
                The opposite function is split().

js_decode({string})                                     js_decode()
                This is similar to json_decode() with these differences:
                - Object key names do not have to be in quotes.
                - Strings can be in single quotes.
                - Empty items in an array (between two commas) are allowed and
                  result in v:none items.

js_encode({expr})                                       js_encode()
                This is similar to json_encode() with these differences:
                - Object key names are not in quotes.
                - v:none items in an array result in an empty item between
                For example, the Vim object:
                Will be encoded as:
                While json_encode() would produce:
                This encoding is valid for JavaScript. It is more efficient
                than JSON, especially when using an array with optional items.

json_decode({string})                                   json_decode()
                This parses a JSON formatted string and returns the equivalent
                in Vim values.  See json_encode() for the relation between
                JSON and Vim values.
                The decoding is permissive:
                - A trailing comma in an array and object is ignored, e.g.
                  "[1, 2, ]" is the same as "[1, 2]".
                - More floating point numbers are recognized, e.g. "1." for
                  "1.0", or "001.2" for "1.2". Special floating point values
                  "Infinity" and "NaN" (capitalization ignored) are accepted.
                - Leading zeroes in integer numbers are ignored, e.g. "012"
                  for "12" or "-012" for "-12".
                - Capitalization is ignored in literal names null, true or
                  false, e.g. "NULL" for "null", "True" for "true".
                - Control characters U+0000 through U+001F which are not
                  escaped in strings are accepted, e.g. "       " (tab
                  character in string) for "\t".
                - Backslash in an invalid 2-character sequence escape is
                  ignored, e.g. "\a" is decoded as "a".
                - A correct surrogate pair in JSON strings should normally be
                  a 12 character sequence such as "\uD834\uDD1E", but
                  json_decode() silently accepts truncated surrogate pairs
                  such as "\uD834" or "\uD834\u"
                A duplicate key in an object, valid in rfc7159, is not
                accepted by json_decode() as the result must be a valid Vim
                type, e.g. this fails: {"a":"b", "a":"c"}

json_encode({expr})                                     json_encode()
                Encode {expr} as JSON and return this as a string.
                The encoding is specified in:
                Vim values are converted as follows:
                   Number               decimal number
                   Float                floating point number
                   Float nan            "NaN"
                   Float inf            "Infinity"
                   String               in double quotes (possibly null)
                   Funcref              not possible, error
                   List                 as an array (possibly null); when
                                        used recursively: []
                   Dict                 as an object (possibly null); when
                                        used recursively: {}
                   v:false              "false"
                   v:true               "true"
                   v:none               "null"
                   v:null               "null"
                Note that NaN and Infinity are passed on as values.  This is
                missing in the JSON standard, but several implementations do
                allow it.  If not then you will get an error.

keys({dict})                                            keys()
                Return a List with all the keys of {dict}.  The List is in
                arbitrary order.

                                                        len() E701
len({expr})     The result is a Number, which is the length of the argument.
                When {expr} is a String or a Number the length in bytes is
                used, as with strlen().
                When {expr} is a List the number of items in the List is
                When {expr} is a Dictionary the number of entries in the
                Dictionary is returned.
                Otherwise an error is given.

                                                libcall() E364 E368
                Call function {funcname} in the run-time library {libname}
                with single argument {argument}.
                This is useful to call functions in a library that you
                especially made to be used with Vim.  Since only one argument
                is possible, calling standard library functions is rather
                The result is the String returned by the function.  If the
                function returns NULL, this will appear as an empty string ""
                to Vim.
                If the function returns a number, use libcallnr()!
                If {argument} is a number, it is passed to the function as an
                int; if {argument} is a string, it is passed as a
                null-terminated string.
                This function will fail in restricted-mode.

                libcall() allows you to write your own 'plug-in' extensions to
                Vim without having to recompile the program.  It is NOT a
                means to call system functions!  If you try to do so Vim will
                very probably crash.

                For Win32, the functions you write must be placed in a DLL
                and use the normal C calling convention (NOT Pascal which is
                used in Windows System DLLs).  The function must take exactly
                one parameter, either a character pointer or a long integer,
                and must return a character pointer or NULL.  The character
                pointer returned must point to memory that will remain valid
                after the function has returned (e.g. in static data in the
                DLL).  If it points to allocated memory, that memory will
                leak away.  Using a static buffer in the function should work,
                it's then freed when the DLL is unloaded.

                WARNING: If the function returns a non-valid pointer, Vim may
                crash!  This also happens if the function returns a number,
                because Vim thinks it's a pointer.
                For Win32 systems, {libname} should be the filename of the DLL
                without the ".DLL" suffix.  A full path is only required if
                the DLL is not in the usual places.
                For Unix: When compiling your own plugins, remember that the
                object code must be compiled as position-independent ('PIC').
                {only in Win32 and some Unix versions, when the +libcall
                feature is present}
                        :echo libcall("", "getenv", "HOME")

                Just like libcall(), but used for a function that returns an
                int instead of a string.
                {only in Win32 on some Unix versions, when the +libcall
                feature is present}
                        :echo libcallnr("/usr/lib/", "getpid", "")
                        :call libcallnr("", "printf", "Hello World!\n")
                        :call libcallnr("", "sleep", 10)

line({expr})    The result is a Number, which is the line number of the file
                position given with {expr}.  The accepted positions are:
                    .       the cursor position
                    $       the last line in the current buffer
                    'x      position of mark x (if the mark is not set, 0 is
                    w0      first line visible in current window (one if the
                            display isn't updated, e.g. in silent Ex mode)
                    w$      last line visible in current window (this is one
                            less than "w0" if no lines are visible)
                    v       In Visual mode: the start of the Visual area (the
                            cursor is the end).  When not in Visual mode
                            returns the cursor position.  Differs from '< in
                            that it's updated right away.
                Note that a mark in another file can be used.  The line number
                then applies to another buffer.
                To get the column number use col().  To get both use
                        line(".")               line number of the cursor
                        line("'t")              line number of mark t
                        line("'" . marker)      line number of mark marker
                This autocommand jumps to the last known position in a file
                just after opening it, if the '" mark is set:
     :au BufReadPost *
         \ if line("'\"") > 1 && line("'\"") <= line("$") && &ft !~# 'commit' 
         \ |   exe "normal! g`\""
         \ | endif

line2byte({lnum})                                       line2byte()
                Return the byte count from the start of the buffer for line
                {lnum}.  This includes the end-of-line character, depending on
                the 'fileformat' option for the current buffer.  The first
                line returns 1. 'encoding' matters, 'fileencoding' is ignored.
                This can also be used to get the byte count for the line just
                below the last line:
                        line2byte(line("$") + 1)
                This is the buffer size plus one.  If 'fileencoding' is empty
                it is the file size plus one.
                When {lnum} is invalid, or the +byte_offset feature has been
                disabled at compile time, -1 is returned.
                Also see byte2line()go and :goto.

lispindent({lnum})                                      lispindent()
                Get the amount of indent for line {lnum} according the lisp
                indenting rules, as with 'lisp'.
                The indent is counted in spaces, the value of 'tabstop' is
                relevant.  {lnum} is used just like in getline().
                When {lnum} is invalid or Vim was not compiled the
                +lispindent feature, -1 is returned.

localtime()                                             localtime()
                Return the current time, measured as seconds since 1st Jan
                1970.  See also strftime() and getftime().

log({expr})                                             log()
                Return the natural logarithm (base e) of {expr} as a Float.
                {expr} must evaluate to a Float or a Number in the range
                (0, inf].
                        :echo log(10)
                        :echo log(exp(5))
                {only available when compiled with the +float feature}

log10({expr})                                           log10()
                Return the logarithm of Float {expr} to base 10 as a Float.
                {expr} must evaluate to a Float or a Number.
                        :echo log10(1000)
                        :echo log10(0.01)
                {only available when compiled with the +float feature}
luaeval({expr}[, {expr}])                                       luaeval()
                Evaluate Lua expression {expr} and return its result converted 
                to Vim data structures. Second {expr} may hold additional 
                argument accessible as _A inside first {expr}.
                Strings are returned as they are.
                Boolean objects are converted to numbers.
                Numbers are converted to Float values if vim was compiled 
                with +float and to numbers otherwise.
                Dictionaries and lists obtained by vim.eval() are returned 
                Other objects are returned as zero without any errors.
                See lua-luaeval for more details.
                {only available when compiled with the +lua feature}

map({expr1}{expr2})                                   map()
                {expr1} must be a List or a Dictionary.
                Replace each item in {expr1} with the result of evaluating
                {expr2}.  {expr2} must be a string or Funcref.
                If {expr2} is a string, inside {expr2} v:val has the value
                of the current item.  For a Dictionary v:key has the key
                of the current item and for a List v:key has the index of
                the current item.
                        :call map(mylist, '"> " . v:val . " <"')
                This puts "> " before and " <" after each item in "mylist".

                Note that {expr2} is the result of an expression and is then
                used as an expression again.  Often it is good to use a
                literal-string to avoid having to double backslashes.  You
                still have to double ' quotes

                If {expr2} is a Funcref it is called with two arguments:
                        1. The key or the index of the current item.
                        2. the value of the current item.
                The function must return the new value of the item. Example
                that changes each value by "key-value":
                        func KeyValue(key, val)
                          return a:key . '-' . a:val
                        call map(myDict, function('KeyValue'))
                It is shorter when using a lambda:
                        call map(myDict, {key, val -> key . '-' . val})
                If you do not use "val" you can leave it out:
                        call map(myDict, {key -> 'item: ' . key})

                The operation is done in-place.  If you want a List or
                Dictionary to remain unmodified make a copy first:
                        :let tlist = map(copy(mylist), ' v:val . "\t"')

                Returns {expr1}, the List or Dictionary that was filtered.
                When an error is encountered while evaluating {expr2} no
                further items in {expr1} are processed.  When {expr2} is a
                Funcref errors inside a function are ignored, unless it was
                defined with the "abort" flag.

maparg({name}[, {mode} [, {abbr} [, {dict}]]])                  maparg()
                When {dict} is omitted or zero: Return the rhs of mapping
                {name} in mode {mode}.  The returned String has special
                characters translated like in the output of the ":map" command
                When there is no mapping for {name}, an empty String is

                The {name} can have special key names, like in the ":map"

                {mode} can be one of these strings:
                        "n"     Normal
                        "v"     Visual (including Select)
                        "o"     Operator-pending
                        "i"     Insert
                        "c"     Cmd-line
                        "s"     Select
                        "x"     Visual
                        "l"     langmap language-mapping
                        ""      Normal, Visual and Operator-pending
                When {mode} is omitted, the modes for "" are used.

                When {abbr} is there and it is TRUE use abbreviations
                instead of mappings.

                When {dict} is there and it is TRUE return a dictionary
                containing all the information of the mapping with the
                following items:
                  "lhs"      The {lhs} of the mapping.
                  "rhs"      The {rhs} of the mapping as typed.
                  "silent"   1 for a :map-silent mapping, else 0.
                  "noremap"  1 if the {rhs} of the mapping is not remappable.
                  "expr"     1 for an expression mapping (:map-<expr>).
                  "buffer"   1 for a buffer local mapping (:map-local).
                  "mode"     Modes for which the mapping is defined. In
                             addition to the modes mentioned above, these
                             characters will be used:
                             " "     Normal, Visual and Operator-pending
                             "!"     Insert and Commandline mode
                  "sid"      The script local ID, used for <sid> mappings
                  "nowait"   Do not wait for other, longer mappings.

                The mappings local to the current buffer are checked first,
                then the global mappings.
                This function can be used to map a key even when it's already
                mapped, and have it do the original mapping too.  Sketch:
                        exe 'nnoremap <Tab> ==' . maparg('<Tab>', 'n')

mapcheck({name}[, {mode} [, {abbr}]])                   mapcheck()
                Check if there is a mapping that matches with {name} in mode
                {mode}.  See maparg() for {mode} and special names in
                When {abbr} is there and it is TRUE use abbreviations
                instead of mappings.
                A match happens with a mapping that starts with {name} and
                with a mapping which is equal to the start of {name}.

                        matches mapping "a"     "ab"    "abc"
                   mapcheck("a")        yes     yes      yes
                   mapcheck("abc")      yes     yes      yes
                   mapcheck("ax")       yes     no       no
                   mapcheck("b")        no      no       no

                The difference with maparg() is that mapcheck() finds a
                mapping that matches with {name}, while maparg() only finds a
                mapping for {name} exactly.
                When there is no mapping that starts with {name}, an empty
                String is returned.  If there is one, the rhs of that mapping
                is returned.  If there are several mappings that start with
                {name}, the rhs of one of them is returned.
                The mappings local to the current buffer are checked first,
                then the global mappings.
                This function can be used to check if a mapping can be added
                without being ambiguous.  Example:
        :if mapcheck("_vv") == ""
        :   map _vv :set guifont=7x13<CR>
                This avoids adding the "_vv" mapping when there already is a
                mapping for "_v" or for "_vvv".

match({expr}{pat}[, {start}[, {count}]])                      match()
                When {expr} is a List then this returns the index of the
                first item where {pat} matches.  Each item is used as a
                String, Lists and Dictionaries are used as echoed.
                Otherwise, {expr} is used as a String.  The result is a
                Number, which gives the index (byte offset) in {expr} where
                {pat} matches.
                A match at the first character or List item returns zero.
                If there is no match -1 is returned.
                For getting submatches see matchlist().
                        :echo match("testing", "ing")   " results in 4
                        :echo match([1, 'x'], '\a')     " results in 1
                See string-match for how {pat} is used.
                Vim doesn't have a strpbrk() function.  But you can do:
                        :let sepidx = match(line, '[.,;: \t]')
                Vim doesn't have a strcasestr() function.  But you can add
                "\c" to the pattern to ignore case:
                        :let idx = match(haystack, '\cneedle')

                If {start} is given, the search starts from byte index
                {start} in a String or item {start} in a List.
                The result, however, is still the index counted from the
                first character/item.  Example:
                        :echo match("testing", "ing", 2)
                result is again "4".
                        :echo match("testing", "ing", 4)
                result is again "4".
                        :echo match("testing", "t", 2)
                result is "3".
                For a String, if {start} > 0 then it is like the string starts
                {start} bytes later, thus "^" will match at {start}.  Except
                when {count} is given, then it's like matches before the
                {start} byte are ignored (this is a bit complicated to keep it
                backwards compatible).
                For a String, if {start} < 0, it will be set to 0.  For a list
                the index is counted from the end.
                If {start} is out of range ({start} > strlen({expr}) for a
                String or {start} > len({expr}) for a List) -1 is returned.

                When {count} is given use the {count}'th match.  When a match
                is found in a String the search for the next one starts one
                character further.  Thus this example results in 1:
                        echo match("testing", "..", 0, 2)
                In a List the search continues in the next item.
                Note that when {count} is added the way {start} works changes,
                see above.

                See pattern for the patterns that are accepted.
                The 'ignorecase' option is used to set the ignore-caseness of
                the pattern.  'smartcase' is NOT used.  The matching is always
                done like 'magic' is set and 'cpoptions' is empty.

                                        matchadd() E798 E799 E801
matchadd({group}{pattern}[, {priority}[, {id}[, {dict}]]])
                Defines a pattern to be highlighted in the current window (a
                "match").  It will be highlighted with {group}.  Returns an
                identification number (ID), which can be used to delete the
                match using matchdelete().
                Matching is case sensitive and magic, unless case sensitivity
                or magicness are explicitly overridden in {pattern}.  The
                'magic''smartcase' and 'ignorecase' options are not used.
                The "Conceal" value is special, it causes the match to be

                The optional {priority} argument assigns a priority to the
                match.  A match with a high priority will have its
                highlighting overrule that of a match with a lower priority.
                A priority is specified as an integer (negative numbers are no
                exception).  If the {priority} argument is not specified, the
                default priority is 10.  The priority of 'hlsearch' is zero,
                hence all matches with a priority greater than zero will
                overrule it.  Syntax highlighting (see 'syntax') is a separate
                mechanism, and regardless of the chosen priority a match will
                always overrule syntax highlighting.

                The optional {id} argument allows the request for a specific
                match ID.  If a specified ID is already taken, an error
                message will appear and the match will not be added.  An ID
                is specified as a positive integer (zero excluded).  IDs 1, 2
                and 3 are reserved for :match:2match and :3match,
                respectively.  If the {id} argument is not specified or -1,
                matchadd() automatically chooses a free ID.

                The optional {dict} argument allows for further custom
                values. Currently this is used to specify a match specific
                conceal character that will be shown for hl-Conceal
                highlighted matches. The dict can have the following members:

                        conceal     Special character to show instead of the
                                    match (only for hl-Conceal highlighted
                                    matches, see :syn-cchar)

                The number of matches is not limited, as it is the case with
                the :match commands.

                        :highlight MyGroup ctermbg=green guibg=green
                        :let m = matchadd("MyGroup", "TODO")
                Deletion of the pattern:
                        :call matchdelete(m)

                A list of matches defined by matchadd() and :match are
                available from getmatches().  All matches can be deleted in
                one operation by clearmatches().

matchaddpos({group}{pos}[, {priority}[, {id}[, {dict}]]])
                Same as matchadd(), but requires a list of positions {pos}
                instead of a pattern. This command is faster than matchadd()
                because it does not require to handle regular expressions and
                sets buffer line boundaries to redraw screen. It is supposed
                to be used when fast match additions and deletions are
                required, for example to highlight matching parentheses.

                The list {pos} can contain one of these items:
                - A number.  This whole line will be highlighted.  The first
                  line has number 1.
                - A list with one number, e.g., [23]. The whole line with this
                  number will be highlighted.
                - A list with two numbers, e.g., [23, 11]. The first number is
                  the line number, the second one is the column number (first
                  column is 1, the value must correspond to the byte index as
                  col() would return).  The character at this position will
                  be highlighted.
                - A list with three numbers, e.g., [23, 11, 3]. As above, but
                  the third number gives the length of the highlight in bytes.
                The maximum number of positions is 8.

                        :highlight MyGroup ctermbg=green guibg=green
                        :let m = matchaddpos("MyGroup", [[23, 24], 34])
                Deletion of the pattern:
                        :call matchdelete(m)

                Matches added by matchaddpos() are returned by
                getmatches() with an entry "pos1", "pos2", etc., with the
                value a list like the {pos} item.
                These matches cannot be set via setmatches(), however they
                can still be deleted by clearmatches().

matcharg({nr})                                                  matcharg()
                Selects the {nr} match item, as set with a :match,
                :2match or :3match command.
                Return a List with two elements:
                        The name of the highlight group used
                        The pattern used.
                When {nr} is not 1, 2 or 3 returns an empty List.
                When there is no match item set returns ['', ''].
                This is useful to save and restore a :match.
                Highlighting matches using the :match commands are limited
                to three matches. matchadd() does not have this limitation.

matchdelete({id})                              matchdelete() E802 E803
                Deletes a match with ID {id} previously defined by matchadd()
                or one of the :match commands.  Returns 0 if successful,
                otherwise -1.  See example for matchadd().  All matches can
                be deleted in one operation by clearmatches().

matchend({expr}{pat}[, {start}[, {count}]])                   matchend()
                Same as match(), but return the index of first character
                after the match.  Example:
                        :echo matchend("testing", "ing")
                results in "7".
                                                        strspn() strcspn()
                Vim doesn't have a strspn() or strcspn() function, but you can
                do it with matchend():
                        :let span = matchend(line, '[a-zA-Z]')
                        :let span = matchend(line, '[^a-zA-Z]')
                Except that -1 is returned when there are no matches.

                The {start}, if given, has the same meaning as for match().
                        :echo matchend("testing", "ing", 2)
                results in "7".
                        :echo matchend("testing", "ing", 5)
                result is "-1".
                When {expr} is a List the result is equal to match().

matchlist({expr}{pat}[, {start}[, {count}]])                  matchlist()
                Same as match(), but return a List.  The first item in the
                list is the matched string, same as what matchstr() would
                return.  Following items are submatches, like "\1", "\2", etc.
                in :substitute.  When an optional submatch didn't match an
                empty string is used.  Example:
                        echo matchlist('acd', '\(a\)\?\(b\)\?\(c\)\?\(.*\)')
                Results in: ['acd', 'a', '', 'c', 'd', '', '', '', '', '']
                When there is no match an empty list is returned.

matchstr({expr}{pat}[, {start}[, {count}]])                   matchstr()
                Same as match(), but return the matched string.  Example:
                        :echo matchstr("testing", "ing")
                results in "ing".
                When there is no match "" is returned.
                The {start}, if given, has the same meaning as for match().
                        :echo matchstr("testing", "ing", 2)
                results in "ing".
                        :echo matchstr("testing", "ing", 5)
                result is "".
                When {expr} is a List then the matching item is returned.
                The type isn't changed, it's not necessarily a String.

matchstrpos({expr}{pat}[, {start}[, {count}]])                matchstrpos()
                Same as matchstr(), but return the matched string, the start
                position and the end position of the match.  Example:
                        :echo matchstrpos("testing", "ing")
                results in ["ing", 4, 7].
                When there is no match ["", -1, -1] is returned.
                The {start}, if given, has the same meaning as for match().
                        :echo matchstrpos("testing", "ing", 2)
                results in ["ing", 4, 7].
                        :echo matchstrpos("testing", "ing", 5)
                result is ["", -1, -1].
                When {expr} is a List then the matching item, the index
                of first item where {pat} matches, the start position and the
                end position of the match are returned.
                        :echo matchstrpos([1, '__x'], '\a')
                result is ["x", 1, 2, 3].
                The type isn't changed, it's not necessarily a String.

max({expr})     Return the maximum value of all items in {expr}.
                {expr} can be a list or a dictionary.  For a dictionary,
                it returns the maximum of all values in the dictionary.
                If {expr} is neither a list nor a dictionary, or one of the
                items in {expr} cannot be used as a Number this results in
                an error.  An empty List or Dictionary results in zero.

min({expr})     Return the minimum value of all items in {expr}.
                {expr} can be a list or a dictionary.  For a dictionary,
                it returns the minimum of all values in the dictionary.
                If {expr} is neither a list nor a dictionary, or one of the
                items in {expr} cannot be used as a Number this results in
                an error.  An empty List or Dictionary results in zero.

                                                        mkdir() E739
mkdir({name} [, {path} [, {prot}]])
                Create directory {name}.
                If {path} is "p" then intermediate directories are created as
                necessary.  Otherwise it must be "".
                If {prot} is given it is used to set the protection bits of
                the new directory.  The default is 0755 (rwxr-xr-x: r/w for
                the user readable for others).  Use 0700 to make it unreadable
                for others.  This is only used for the last part of {name}.
                Thus if you create /tmp/foo/bar then /tmp/foo will be created
                with 0755.
                        :call mkdir($HOME . "/tmp/foo/bar", "p", 0700)
                This function is not available in the sandbox.
                Not available on all systems.  To check use:
                        :if exists("*mkdir")

mode([expr])    Return a string that indicates the current mode.
                If [expr] is supplied and it evaluates to a non-zero Number or
                a non-empty String (non-zero-arg), then the full mode is
                returned, otherwise only the first letter is returned.

                        n       Normal
                        no      Operator-pending
                        v       Visual by character
                        V       Visual by line
                        CTRL-V  Visual blockwise
                        s       Select by character
                        S       Select by line
                        CTRL-S  Select blockwise
                        i       Insert
                        ic      Insert mode completion compl-generic
                        ix      Insert mode i_CTRL-X completion
                        R       Replace R
                        Rc      Replace mode completion compl-generic
                        Rv      Virtual Replace gR
                        Rx      Replace mode i_CTRL-X completion
                        c       Command-line editing
                        cv      Vim Ex mode gQ
                        ce      Normal Ex mode Q
                        r       Hit-enter prompt
                        rm      The -- more -- prompt
                        r?      A :confirm query of some sort
                        !       Shell or external command is executing
                This is useful in the 'statusline' option or when used
                with remote_expr() In most other places it always returns
                "c" or "n".
                Also see visualmode().

mzeval({expr})                                                  mzeval()
                Evaluate MzScheme expression {expr} and return its result
                converted to Vim data structures.
                Numbers and strings are returned as they are.
                Pairs (including lists and improper lists) and vectors are
                returned as Vim Lists.
                Hash tables are represented as Vim Dictionary type with keys
                converted to strings.
                All other types are converted to string with display function.
                    :mz (define l (list 1 2 3))
                    :mz (define h (make-hash)) (hash-set! h "list" l)
                    :echo mzeval("l")
                    :echo mzeval("h")

                {only available when compiled with the +mzscheme feature}

nextnonblank({lnum})                                    nextnonblank()
                Return the line number of the first line at or below {lnum}
                that is not blank.  Example:
                        if getline(nextnonblank(1)) =~ "Java"
                When {lnum} is invalid or there is no non-blank line at or
                below it, zero is returned.
                See also prevnonblank().

nr2char({expr}[, {utf8}])                               nr2char()
                Return a string with a single character, which has the number
                value {expr}.  Examples:
                        nr2char(64)             returns "@"
                        nr2char(32)             returns " "
                When {utf8} is omitted or zero, the current 'encoding' is used.
                Example for "utf-8":
                        nr2char(300)            returns I with bow character
                With {utf8} set to 1, always return utf-8 characters.
                Note that a NUL character in the file is specified with
                nr2char(10), because NULs are represented with newline
                characters.  nr2char(0) is a real NUL and terminates the
                string, thus results in an empty string.

or({expr}{expr})                                      or()
                Bitwise OR on the two arguments.  The arguments are converted
                to a number.  A List, Dict or Float argument causes an error.
                        :let bits = or(bits, 0x80)

pathshorten({expr})                                     pathshorten()
                Shorten directory names in the path {expr} and return the
                result.  The tail, the file name, is kept as-is.  The other
                components in the path are reduced to single letters.  Leading
                '~' and '.' characters are kept.  Example:
                        :echo pathshorten('~/.vim/autoload/myfile.vim')
                It doesn't matter if the path exists or not.

perleval({expr})                                        perleval()
                Evaluate Perl expression {expr} in scalar context and return
                its result converted to Vim data structures. If value can't be
                converted, it is returned as a string Perl representation.
                Note: If you want an array or hash, {expr} must return a
                reference to it.
                        :echo perleval('[1 .. 4]')
                        [1, 2, 3, 4]
                {only available when compiled with the +perl feature}

pow({x}{y})                                           pow()
                Return the power of {x} to the exponent {y} as a Float.
                {x} and {y} must evaluate to a Float or a Number.
                        :echo pow(3, 3)
                        :echo pow(2, 16)
                        :echo pow(32, 0.20)
                {only available when compiled with the +float feature}
prevnonblank({lnum})                                    prevnonblank()
                Return the line number of the first line at or above {lnum}
                that is not blank.  Example:
                        let ind = indent(prevnonblank(v:lnum - 1))
                When {lnum} is invalid or there is no non-blank line at or
                above it, zero is returned.
                Also see nextnonblank().

printf({fmt}{expr1} ...)                              printf()
                Return a String with {fmt}, where "%" items are replaced by
                the formatted form of their respective arguments.  Example:
                        printf("%4d: E%d %.30s", lnum, errno, msg)
                May result in:
                        "  99: E42 asdfasdfasdfasdfasdfasdfasdfas"

                Often used items are:
                  %s    string
                  %6S   string right-aligned in 6 display cells
                  %6s   string right-aligned in 6 bytes
                  %.9s  string truncated to 9 bytes
                  %c    single byte
                  %d    decimal number
                  %5d   decimal number padded with spaces to 5 characters
                  %x    hex number
                  %04x  hex number padded with zeros to at least 4 characters
                  %X    hex number using upper case letters
                  %o    octal number
                  %08b  binary number padded with zeros to at least 8 chars
                  %f    floating point number as 12.23, inf, -inf or nan
                  %F    floating point number as 12.23, INF, -INF or NAN
                  %e    floating point number as 1.23e3, inf, -inf or nan
                  %E    floating point number as 1.23E3, INF, -INF or NAN
                  %g    floating point number, as %f or %e depending on value
                  %G    floating point number, as %F or %E depending on value
                  %%    the % character itself

                Conversion specifications start with '%' and end with the
                conversion type.  All other characters are copied unchanged to
                the result.

                The "%" starts a conversion specification.  The following
                arguments appear in sequence:

                        %  [flags]  [field-width]  [.precision]  type

                        Zero or more of the following flags:

                    #         The value should be converted to an "alternate
                              form".  For c, d, and s conversions, this option
                              has no effect.  For o conversions, the precision
                              of the number is increased to force the first
                              character of the output string to a zero (except
                              if a zero value is printed with an explicit
                              precision of zero).
                              For b and B conversions, a non-zero result has
                              the string "0b" (or "0B" for B conversions)
                              prepended to it.
                              For x and X conversions, a non-zero result has
                              the string "0x" (or "0X" for X conversions)
                              prepended to it.

                    0 (zero)  Zero padding.  For all conversions the converted
                              value is padded on the left with zeros rather
                              than blanks.  If a precision is given with a
                              numeric conversion (d, b, B, o, x, and X), the 0
                              flag is ignored.

                    -         A negative field width flag; the converted value
                              is to be left adjusted on the field boundary.
                              The converted value is padded on the right with
                              blanks, rather than on the left with blanks or
                              zeros.  A - overrides a 0 if both are given.

                    ' ' (space)  A blank should be left before a positive
                              number produced by a signed conversion (d).

                    +         A sign must always be placed before a number
                              produced by a signed conversion.  A + overrides
                              a space if both are used.

                        An optional decimal digit string specifying a minimum
                        field width.  If the converted value has fewer bytes
                        than the field width, it will be padded with spaces on
                        the left (or right, if the left-adjustment flag has
                        been given) to fill out the field width.

                        An optional precision, in the form of a period '.'
                        followed by an optional digit string.  If the digit
                        string is omitted, the precision is taken as zero.
                        This gives the minimum number of digits to appear for
                        d, o, x, and X conversions, or the maximum number of
                        bytes to be printed from a string for s conversions.
                        For floating point it is the number of digits after
                        the decimal point.

                        A character that specifies the type of conversion to
                        be applied, see below.

                A field width or precision, or both, may be indicated by an
                asterisk '*' instead of a digit string.  In this case, a
                Number argument supplies the field width or precision.  A
                negative field width is treated as a left adjustment flag
                followed by a positive field width; a negative precision is
                treated as though it were missing.  Example:
                        :echo printf("%d: %.*s", nr, width, line)
                This limits the length of the text used from "line" to
                "width" bytes.

                The conversion specifiers and their meanings are:

                                printf-d printf-b printf-B printf-o
                                printf-x printf-X
                dbBoxX  The Number argument is converted to signed decimal
                        (d), unsigned binary (b and B), unsigned octal (o), or
                        unsigned hexadecimal (x and X) notation.  The letters
                        "abcdef" are used for x conversions; the letters
                        "ABCDEF" are used for X conversions.
                        The precision, if any, gives the minimum number of
                        digits that must appear; if the converted value
                        requires fewer digits, it is padded on the left with
                        In no case does a non-existent or small field width
                        cause truncation of a numeric field; if the result of
                        a conversion is wider than the field width, the field
                        is expanded to contain the conversion result.
                        The 'h' modifier indicates the argument is 16 bits.
                        The 'l' modifier indicates the argument is 32 bits.
                        The 'L' modifier indicates the argument is 64 bits.
                        Generally, these modifiers are not useful. They are
                        ignored when type is known from the argument.

                i       alias for d
                D       alias for ld
                U       alias for lu
                O       alias for lo

                c       The Number argument is converted to a byte, and the
                        resulting character is written.

                s       The text of the String argument is used.  If a
                        precision is specified, no more bytes than the number
                        specified are used.
                        If the argument is not a String type, it is
                        automatically converted to text with the same format
                        as ":echo".
                S       The text of the String argument is used.  If a
                        precision is specified, no more display cells than the
                        number specified are used.  Without the +multi_byte
                        feature works just like 's'.

                                                        printf-f E807
                f F     The Float argument is converted into a string of the 
                        form 123.456.  The precision specifies the number of
                        digits after the decimal point.  When the precision is
                        zero the decimal point is omitted.  When the precision
                        is not specified 6 is used.  A really big number
                        (out of range or dividing by zero) results in "inf"
                        or "-inf" with %f (INF or -INF with %F).
                        "0.0 / 0.0" results in "nan" with %f (NAN with %F).
                                echo printf("%.2f", 12.115)
                        Note that roundoff depends on the system libraries.
                        Use round() when in doubt.

                                                        printf-e printf-E
                e E     The Float argument is converted into a string of the
                        form 1.234e+03 or 1.234E+03 when using 'E'.  The
                        precision specifies the number of digits after the
                        decimal point, like with 'f'.

                                                        printf-g printf-G
                g G     The Float argument is converted like with 'f' if the
                        value is between 0.001 (inclusive) and 10000000.0
                        (exclusive).  Otherwise 'e' is used for 'g' and 'E'
                        for 'G'.  When no precision is specified superfluous
                        zeroes and '+' signs are removed, except for the zero
                        immediately after the decimal point.  Thus 10000000.0
                        results in 1.0e7.

                %       A '%' is written.  No argument is converted.  The
                        complete conversion specification is "%%".

                When a Number argument is expected a String argument is also
                accepted and automatically converted.
                When a Float or String argument is expected a Number argument
                is also accepted and automatically converted.
                Any other argument type results in an error message.

                                                        E766 E767
                The number of {exprN} arguments must exactly match the number
                of "%" items.  If there are not sufficient or too many
                arguments an error is given.  Up to 18 arguments can be used.

pumvisible()                                            pumvisible()
                Returns non-zero when the popup menu is visible, zero
                otherwise.  See ins-completion-menu.
                This can be used to avoid some things that would remove the
                popup menu.

py3eval({expr})                                         py3eval()
                Evaluate Python expression {expr} and return its result
                converted to Vim data structures.
                Numbers and strings are returned as they are (strings are 
                copied though, Unicode strings are additionally converted to 
                Lists are represented as Vim List type.
                Dictionaries are represented as Vim Dictionary type with 
                keys converted to strings.
                {only available when compiled with the +python3 feature}

                                                        E858 E859
pyeval({expr})                                          pyeval()
                Evaluate Python expression {expr} and return its result
                converted to Vim data structures.
                Numbers and strings are returned as they are (strings are 
                copied though).
                Lists are represented as Vim List type.
                Dictionaries are represented as Vim Dictionary type, 
                non-string keys result in error.
                {only available when compiled with the +python feature}

pyxeval({expr})                                         pyxeval()
                Evaluate Python expression {expr} and return its result
                converted to Vim data structures.
                Uses Python 2 or 3, see python_x and